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Embedded SQL Commands and Directives


This appendix contains descriptions of both SQL92 embedded SQL commands and directives and the Oracle embedded SQL extensions. These commands and directives are prefaced in your source code with the keywords, EXEC SQL. Rather than trying to memorize all of the SQL syntax, simply refer to this appendix, which includes the following:

For detailed usage notes, see the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference.

Summary of Precompiler Directives and Embedded SQL Commands

Embedded SQL commands place DDL, DML, and Transaction Control statements within a procedural language program. Embedded SQL is supported by the Oracle Precompilers. Table F - 1 provides a functional summary of the embedded SQL commands and directives.

The type column in Table F - 1 is displayed in the format, source/type, where:

source

is either SQL92 standard SQL (S) or an Oracle extension (O)

type

is either an executable (E) statement or a directive (D)

EXEC SQL Statement Type Purpose
ALLOCATE O/E To allocate memory for a cursor variable.
CLOSE S/E To disable a cursor, releasing the resources it holds.
COMMIT S/E To end the current transaction, making all database change permanent (optionally frees resources and disconnects from the database)
CONNECT O/E To log on to an Oracle7 instance.
DECLARE CURSOR S/D To declare a cursor, associating it with a query.
DECLARE DATABASE O/D To declare an identifier for a non-default database to be accessed in subsequent embedded SQL statements.
DECLARE STATEMENT S/D To assign a SQL variable name to a SQL statement.
DECLARE TABLE O/D To declare the table structure for semantic checking of embedded SQL statements by the Oracle Precompiler.
DELETE S/E To remove rows from a table or from a view's base table.
DESCRIBE S/E To initialize a descriptor, a structure holding host variable descriptions.
EXECUTE...END-EXEC O/E To execute an anonymous PL/SQL block.
EXECUTE S/E To execute a prepared dynamic SQL statement.
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE S/E To prepare and execute a SQL statement with no host variables.
FETCH S/E To retrieve rows selected by a query.
INSERT S/E To add rows to a table or to a view's base table.
OPEN S/E To execute the query associated with a cursor.
PREPARE S/E To parse a dynamic SQL statement.
ROLLBACK S/E To end the current transaction, discard all changes in the current transaction, and release all locks (optionally release resources and disconnect from the database).
SAVEPOINT S/E To identify a point in a transaction to which you can later roll back.
SELECT S/E To retrieve data from one or more tables, views, or snapshots, assigning the selected values to host variables.
UPDATE S/E To change existing values in a table or in a view's base table.
VAR O/D To override the default datatype and assign a specific Oracle7 external datatype to a host variable.
WHENEVER S/D To specify handling for error and warning conditions.
Table F - 1. Precompiler Directives and Embedded SQL Commands and Clauses (continued)



About The Command Descriptions

The directives, commands, and clauses appear alphabetically. The description of each contains the following sections:

Purpose describes the basic uses of the command.
Prerequisites lists privileges you must have and steps that you must take before using the command. Unless otherwise noted, most commands also require that the database be open by your instance.
Syntax shows the keywords and parameters of the command.
Keywords and Parameters describes the purpose of each keyword and parameter.
Usage Notes discusses how and when to use the command.
Examples shows example statements of the command.
Related Topics lists related commands, clauses, and sections of this manual.

How to Read Syntax Diagrams

Easy-to-understand syntax diagrams are used to illustrate embedded SQL syntax. They are line-and-arrow drawings that depict valid syntax. If you have never used them, do not worry. This section tells you all you need to know.

Once you understand the logical flow of a syntax diagram, it becomes a helpful guide. You can verify or construct any embedded SQL statement by tracing through its syntax diagram.

Syntax diagrams use lines and arrows to show how commands, parameters, and other language elements are sequenced to form statements. Trace each diagram from left to right, in the direction shown by the arrows. The following symbols will guide you:

Commands and other keywords appear in UPPER CASE. Parameters appear in lower case. Operators, delimiters, and terminators appear as usual. Following the conventions defined in the Preface, a semicolon terminates statements.

If the syntax diagram has more than one path, you can choose any path to travel.

If you have the choice of more than one keyword, operator, or parameter, your options appear in a vertical list. In the following example, you can travel down the vertical line as far as you like, then continue along any horizontal line:

According to the diagram, all of the following statements are valid:

EXEC SQL WHENEVER NOT FOUND ... 
EXEC SQL WHENEVER SQLERROR ... 
EXEC SQL WHENEVER SQLWARNING ... 

Required Keywords and Parameters

Required keywords and parameters can appear singly or in a vertical list of alternatives. Single required keywords and parameters appear on the main path, that is, on the horizontal line you are currently traveling. In the following example, cursor is a required parameter:

If there is a cursor named emp_cursor, then, according to the diagram, the following statement is valid:

EXEC SQL CLOSE emp_cursor; 

If any of the keywords or parameters in a vertical list appears on the main path, one of them is required. That is, you must choose one of the keywords or parameters, but not necessarily the one that appears on the main path. In the following example, you must choose one of the four actions:

Optional Keywords and Parameters

If keywords and parameters appear in a vertical list below the main path, they are optional. That is, you need not choose one of them. In the following example, instead of traveling down a vertical line, you can continue along the main path:

If there is a database named oracle2, then, according to the diagram, all of the following statements are valid:

EXEC SQL ROLLBACK; 
EXEC SQL ROLLBACK WORK; 
EXEC SQL AT oracle2 ROLLBACK; 

Syntax Loops

Loops let you repeat the syntax within them as many times as you like. In the following example, column_name is inside a loop. So, after choosing one column name, you can go back repeatedly to choose another.

If DEBIT, CREDIT, and BALANCE are column names, then, according to the diagram, all of the following statements are valid:

EXEC SQL SELECT DEBIT INTO ... 
EXEC SQL SELECT CREDIT, BALANCE INTO ... 
EXEC SQL SELECT DEBIT, CREDIT, BALANCE INTO ... 

Multi-part Diagrams

Read a multi-part diagram as if all the main paths were joined end-to-end. The following example is a two-part diagram:

According to the diagram, the following statement is valid:

EXEC SQL PREPARE sql_statement FROM :sql_string; 

Database Objects

The names of Oracle objects, such as tables and columns, must not exceed 30 characters in length. The first character must be a letter, but the rest can be any combination of letters, numerals, dollar signs ($), pound signs (#), and underscores (_).

However, if an Oracle identifier is enclosed by quotation marks ("), it can contain any combination of legal characters, including spaces but excluding quotation marks.

Oracle identifiers are not case-sensitive except when enclosed by quotation marks.

ALLOCATE (Executable Embedded SQL Extension)

Purpose

To allocate a cursor variable to be referenced in a PL/SQL block.

Prerequisites

A cursor variable (see Chapter 3) of type SQL_CURSOR must be declared before allocating memory for the cursor variable.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

:cursor_variable

is the cursor variable to be allocated.

Usage Notes

Whereas a cursor is static, a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query.

For more information on this command, see PL/SQL User's Guide and Reference and Oracle7 Server SQL Reference.

Example

This partial example illustrates the use of the ALLOCATE command in a Pro*C/C++ embedded SQL program:

EXEC SQL BEGIN DECLARE SECTION;
   SQL_CURSOR emp_cv;
   struct{ ... } emp_rec;
EXEC SQL END DECLARE SECTION;
EXEC SQL ALLOCATE emp_cv;
EXEC SQL EXECUTE
   BEGIN
      OPEN :emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp;
    END;
END-EXEC;
for (;;)
{  EXEC SQL FETCH :emp_cv INTO :emp_rec; 
}

Related Topics

CLOSE command on F - 8 EXECUTE command on F - 28 FETCH command on F - 32

CLOSE (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To disable a cursor, freeing the resources acquired by opening the cursor, and releasing parse locks.

Prerequisites

The cursor or cursor variable must be open and MODE=ANSI.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

cursor

is a cursor to be closed.

cursor_variable

is a cursor variable to be closed.

Usage Notes

Rows cannot be fetched from a closed cursor. A cursor need not be closed to be reopened. The HOLD_CURSOR and RELEASE_CURSOR precompiler options alter the effect of the CLOSE command. For information on these options, see Chapter 6.

Example

This example illustrates the use of the CLOSE command:

EXEC SQL CLOSE emp_cursor;

Related Topics

PREPARE command on F - 41 DECLARE CURSOR command on F - 14 OPEN command on F - 39

COMMIT (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To end your current transaction, making permanent all its changes to the database and optionally freeing all resources and disconnecting from the Oracle7 Server.

Prerequisites

To commit your current transaction, no privileges are necessary.

To manually commit a distributed in-doubt transaction that you originally committed, you must have FORCE TRANSACTION system privilege. To manually commit a distributed in-doubt transaction that was originally committed by another user, you must have FORCE ANY TRANSACTION system privilege.

If you are using Trusted Oracle7 in DBMS MAC mode, you can only commit an in-doubt transaction if your DBMS label matches the label the transaction's label and the creation label of the user who originally committed the transaction or if you satisfy one of the following criteria:

Syntax

Keyword and Parameters

AT

identifies the database to which the COMMIT statement is issued. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

If you omit this clause, Oracle7 issues the statement to your default database.

WORK

is supported only for compliance with standard SQL. The statements COMMIT and COMMIT WORK are equivalent.

COMMENT

specifies a comment to be associated with the current transaction. The 'text' is a quoted literal of up to 50 characters that Oracle7 stores in the data dictionary view DBA_2PC_PENDING along with the transaction ID if the transaction becomes in-doubt.

RELEASE

frees all resources and disconnects the application from the Oracle7 Server.

FORCE

manually commits an in-doubt distributed transaction. The transaction is identified by the 'text' containing its local or global transaction ID. To find the IDs of such transactions, query the data dictionary view DBA_2PC_PENDING. You can also use the optional integer to explicitly assign the transaction a system change number (SCN). If you omit the integer, the transaction is committed using the current SCN.

Usage Notes

Always explicitly commit or rollback the last transaction in your program by using the COMMIT or ROLLBACK command and the RELEASE option. Oracle7 automatically rolls back changes if the program terminates abnormally.

The COMMIT command has no effect on host variables or on the flow of control in the program. For more information on this command, see Chapter 7.

Example

This example illustrates the use of the embedded SQL COMMIT command:

EXEC SQL AT sales_db COMMIT RELEASE;

Related Topics

ROLLBACK command on F - 42 SAVEPOINT command on F - 45

CONNECT (Executable Embedded SQL Extension)

Purpose

To log on to an Oracle7 database.

Prerequisites

You must have CREATE SESSION system privilege in the specified database.

If you are using Trusted Oracle7 in DBMS MAC mode, your operating system label must dominate both your creation label and the label at which you were granted CREATE SESSION system privilege. Your operating system label must also fall between the operating system equivalents of DBHIGH and DBLOW, inclusive.

If you are using Trusted Oracle7 in OS MAC mode, your operating system label must match the label of the database to which you are connecting.

Syntax

Keyword and Parameters

:user :password

specifies your username and password separately.

:user_password

is a single host variable containing the Oracle7 username and password separated by a slash (/).

To allow Oracle7 to verify your connection through your operating system, specify "/" as the :user_password value.

AT

identifies the database to which the connection is made. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

USING

specifies the SQL*Net database specification string used to connect to a non-default database. If you omit this clause, you are connected to your default database.

Usage Notes

A program can have multiple connections, but can only connect once to your default database. For more information on this command, see Chapter 3.

Example

The following example illustrate the use of CONNECT:

EXEC SQL CONNECT :username 
    IDENTIFIED BY :password 

You can also use this statement in which the value of :userid is the value of :username and :password separated by a "/" such as 'SCOTT/TIGER':

EXEC SQL CONNECT :userid 

Related Topics

COMMIT command on F - 9 DECLARE DATABASE command on F - 16 ROLLBACK command on F - 42

DECLARE CURSOR (Embedded SQL Directive)

Purpose

To declare a cursor, giving it a name and associating it with a SQL statement or a PL/SQL block.

Prerequisites

If you associate the cursor with an identifier for a SQL statement or PL/SQL block, you must have declared this identifier in a previous DECLARE STATEMENT statement.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

AT

identifies the database on which the cursor is declared. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

If you omit this clause, Oracle7 declares the cursor on your default database.

cursor

is the name of the cursor to be declared.

SELECT command

is a SELECT statement to be associated with the cursor. The following statement cannot contain an INTO clause.

statement_name block_name

identifies a SQL statement or PL/SQL block to be associated with the cursor. The statement_name or block_name must be previously declared in a DECLARE STATEMENT statement.

Usage Notes

You must declare a cursor before referencing it in other embedded SQL statements. The scope of a cursor declaration is global within its precompilation unit and the name of each cursor must be unique in its scope. You cannot declare two cursors with the same name in a single precompilation unit.

You can reference the cursor in the WHERE clause of an UPDATE or DELETE statement using the CURRENT OF syntax, provided that the cursor has been opened with an OPEN statement and positioned on a row with a FETCH statement. For more information on this command, see Chapter 3.

Example

This example illustrates the use of a DECLARE CURSOR statement:

EXEC SQL DECLARE emp_cursor CURSOR 
    FOR SELECT ename, empno, job, sal 
            FROM emp 
            WHERE deptno = :deptno 
            FOR UPDATE OF sal 

Related Topics

CLOSE command on F - 8 DECLARE DATABASE command on F - 16 DECLARE STATEMENT command on F - 17 DELETE command on F - 20 FETCH command on F - 32 OPEN command on F - 39 PREPARE command on F - 41 SELECT command on F - 46 UPDATE command on F - 50

DECLARE DATABASE (Oracle Embedded SQL Directive)

Purpose

To declare an identifier for a non-default database to be accessed in subsequent embedded SQL statements.

Prerequisites

You must have access to a username on the non-default database.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

db_name

is the identifier established for the non-default database.

Usage Notes

You declare a db_name for a non-default database so that other embedded SQL statements can refer to that database using the AT clause. Before issuing a CONNECT statement with an AT clause, you must declare a db_name for the non-default database with a DECLARE DATABASE statement.

For more information on this command, see Chapter 3.

Example

This example illustrates the use of a DECLARE DATABASE directive:

EXEC SQL DECLARE oracle3 DATABASE 

Related Topics

COMMIT command on F - 9 CONNECT command on 3 - 34 DECLARE CURSOR command on F - 14 DECLARE STATEMENT command on F - 17 DELETE command on F - 20 EXECUTE command on F - 28 EXECUTE IMMEDIATE command on F - 30 INSERT command on F - 35 SELECT command on F - 46 UPDATE command on F - 50

DECLARE STATEMENT (Embedded SQL Directive)

Purpose

To declare an identifier for a SQL statement or PL/SQL block to be used in other embedded SQL statements.

Prerequisites

None.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

AT

identifies the database on which the SQL statement or PL/SQL block is declared. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

If you omit this clause, Oracle7 declares the SQL statement or PL/SQL block on your default database.

statement_name block_name

is the declared identifier for the statement.

Usage Notes

You must declare an identifier for a SQL statement or PL/SQL block with a DECLARE STATEMENT statement only if a DECLARE CURSOR statement referencing the identifier appears physically (not logically) in the embedded SQL program before the PREPARE statement that parses the statement or block and associates it with its identifier.

The scope of a statement declaration is global within its precompilation unit, like a cursor declaration. For more information on this command, see Chapters 3 and 10.

Example I

This example illustrates the use of the DECLARE STATEMENT statement:

EXEC SQL AT remote_db 
    DECLARE my_statement STATEMENT 
EXEC SQL PREPARE my_statement FROM :my_string 
EXEC SQL EXECUTE my_statement 

Example II

In this example from a Pro*C/C++ embedded SQL program, the DECLARE STATEMENT statement is required because the DECLARE CURSOR statement precedes the PREPARE statement:

EXEC SQL DECLARE my_statement STATEMENT; 
EXEC SQL DECLARE emp_cursor CURSOR FOR my_statement; 
EXEC SQL PREPARE my_statement FROM :my_string; 
...

Related Topics

CLOSE command on F - 8 DECLARE DATABASE command on F - 16 FETCH command on F - 32 PREPARE command on F - 41 OPEN command on F - 39

DECLARE TABLE (Oracle Embedded SQL Directive)

Purpose

To define the structure of a table or view, including each column's datatype, default value, and NULL or NOT NULL specification for semantic checking by the Oracle Precompilers.

Prerequisites

None.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

table

is the name of the declared table.

column

is a column of the table.

datatype

is the datatype of a column. For information on Oracle7 datatypes, see Chapter 3.

DEFAULT

specifies the default value of a column.

NULL

specifies that a column can contain nulls.

NOT NULL

specifies that a column cannot contain nulls.

WITH DEFAULT

is supported for compatibility with the IBM DB2 database.

Usage Notes

For information on using this command, see Chapter 3.

Example

The following statement declares the PARTS table with the PARTNO, BIN, and QTY columns:

EXEC SQL DECLARE parts TABLE 
    (partno  NUMBER  NOT NULL, 
     bin     NUMBER, 
     qty     NUMBER) 

Related Topics

None.

DELETE (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To remove rows from a table or from a view's base table.

Prerequisites

For you to delete rows from a table, the table must be in your own schema or you must have DELETE privilege on the table.

For you to delete rows from the base table of a view, the owner of the schema containing the view must have DELETE privilege on the base table. Also, if the view is in a schema other than your own, you must be granted DELETE privilege on the view.

The DELETE ANY TABLE system privilege also allows you to delete rows from any table or any view's base table.

If you are using Trusted Oracle7 in DBMS MAC mode, your DBMS label must dominate the creation label of the table or view or you must meet one of the following criteria:

In addition, for each row to be deleted, your DBMS label must match the row's label or you must meet one of the following criteria:

Syntax

AT Keywords and Parameters

identifies the database to which the DELETE statement is issued. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

If you omit this clause, the DELETE statement is issued to your default database.

FOR :host_integer

limits the number of times the statement is executed if the WHERE clause contains array host variables. If you omit this clause, Oracle7 executes the statement once for each component of the smallest array.

schema

is the schema containing the table or view. If you omit schema, Oracle7 assumes the table or view is in your own schema.

table view

is the name of a table from which the rows are to be deleted. If you specify view, Oracle7 deletes rows from the view's base table.

dblink

is the complete or partial name of a database link to a remote database where the table or view is located. For information on referring to database links, see Chapter 2 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference. You can only delete rows from a remote table or view if you are using Oracle7 with the distributed option.

If you omit dblink, Oracle7 assumes that the table or view is located on the local database.

alias

is an alias assigned to the table. Aliases are generally used in DELETE statements with correlated queries.

WHERE

specifies which rows are deleted:

condition deletes only rows that satisfy the condition. This condition can contain host variables and optional indicator variables. See the syntax description of condition in Chapter 3 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference.

CURRENT OF deletes only the row most recently fetched by the cursor. The cursor cannot be associated with a SELECT statement that performs a join, unless its FOR UPDATE clause specifically locks only one table.

If you omit this clause entirely, Oracle7 deletes all rows from the table or view.

Usage Notes

The host variables in the WHERE clause must be either all scalars or all arrays. If they are scalars, Oracle7 executes the DELETE statement only once. If they are arrays, Oracle7 executes the statement once for each set of array components. Each execution may delete zero, one, or multiple rows.

Array host variables in the WHERE clause can have different sizes. In this case, the number of times Oracle7 executes the statement is determined by the smaller of the following values:

If no rows satisfy the condition, no rows are deleted and the SQLCODE returns a NOT_FOUND condition.

The cumulative number of rows deleted is returned through the SQLCA. If the WHERE clause contains array host variables, this value reflects the total number of rows deleted for all components of the array processed by the DELETE statement.

If no rows satisfy the condition, Oracle7 returns an error through the SQLCODE of the SQLCA. If you omit the WHERE clause, Oracle7 raises a warning flag in the fifth component of SQLWARN in the SQLCA. For more information on this command and the SQLCA, see Chapter 8.

You can use comments in a DELETE statement to pass instructions, or hints, to the Oracle7 optimizer. The optimizer uses hints to choose an execution plan for the statement. For more information on hints, see Oracle7 Server Tuning.

Example

This example illustrates the use of the DELETE statement within a Pro*C/C++ embedded SQL program:

EXEC SQL DELETE FROM emp 
    WHERE deptno = :deptno 
    AND job = :job; ... 
EXEC SQL DECLARE emp_cursor CURSOR 
    FOR SELECT empno, comm 
        FROM emp; 
EXEC SQL OPEN emp_cursor; 
EXEC SQL FETCH c1 
    INTO :emp_number, :commission; 
EXEC SQL DELETE FROM emp 
    WHERE CURRENT OF emp_cursor; 

Related Topics

DECLARE DATABASE command on F - 16 DECLARE STATEMENT command on F - 17

DESCRIBE (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To initialize a descriptor to hold descriptions of host variables for a dynamic SQL statement or PL/SQL block.

Prerequisites

You must have prepared the SQL statement or PL/SQL block in a previous embedded SQL PREPARE statement.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

BIND VARIABLES

initializes the descriptor to hold information about the input variables for the SQL statement or PL/SQL block.

SELECT LIST

initializes the descriptor to hold information about the select list of a SELECT statement.

The default is SELECT LIST FOR.

statement_name block_name

identifies a SQL statement or PL/SQL block previously prepared with a PREPARE statement.

descriptor

is the name of the descriptor to be initialized.

Usage Notes

You must issue a DESCRIBE statement before manipulating the bind or select descriptor within an embedded SQL program.

You cannot describe both input variables and output variables into the same descriptor.

The number of variables found by a DESCRIBE statement is the total number of placeholders in the prepare SQL statement or PL/SQL block, rather than the total number of uniquely named placeholders. For more information on this command, see Chapter 10.

Example

This example illustrates the use of the DESCRIBE statement in a Pro*C embedded SQL program:

EXEC SQL PREPARE my_statement FROM :my_string; 
EXEC SQL DECLARE emp_cursor 
    FOR SELECT empno, ename, sal, comm 
            FROM emp 
            WHERE deptno = :dept_number 
EXEC SQL DESCRIBE BIND VARIABLES FOR my_statement 
    INTO bind_descriptor; 
EXEC SQL OPEN emp_cursor 
    USING bind_descriptor; 
EXEC SQL DESCRIBE SELECT LIST FOR my_statement 
    INTO select_descriptor; 
EXEC SQL FETCH emp_cursor 
    INTO select_descriptor; 

Related Topics

PREPARE command on F - 41

EXECUTE ... END-EXEC (Executable Embedded SQL Extension)

Purpose

To embed an anonymous PL/SQL block into an Oracle Precompiler program.

Prerequisites

None.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

AT

identifies the database on which the PL/SQL block is executed. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

If you omit this clause, the PL/SQL block is executed on your default database.

pl/sql_block

For information on PL/SQL, including how to write PL/SQL blocks, see the PL/SQL User's Guide and Reference.

END-EXEC

must appear after the embedded PL/SQL block, regardless of which programming language your Oracle Precompiler program uses. Of course, the keyword END-EXEC must be followed by the embedded SQL statement terminator for the specific language.

Usage Notes

Since the Oracle Precompilers treat an embedded PL/SQL block like a single embedded SQL statement, you can embed a PL/SQL block anywhere in an Oracle Precompiler program that you can embed a SQL statement. For more information on embedding PL/SQL blocks in Oracle Precompiler programs, see Chapter 5.

Example

Placing this EXECUTE statement in an Oracle Precompiler program embeds a PL/SQL block in the program:

EXEC SQL EXECUTE 
    BEGIN 
        SELECT ename, job, sal 
            INTO :emp_name:ind_name, :job_title, :salary 
            FROM emp 
            WHERE empno = :emp_number; 
        IF :emp_name:ind_name IS NULL 
            THEN RAISE name_missing; 
        END IF; 
    END; 
END-EXEC 

Related Topics

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE embedded SQL command on F - 30

EXECUTE (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To execute a DELETE, INSERT, or UPDATE statement or a PL/SQL block that has been previously prepared with an embedded SQL PREPARE statement.

Prerequisites

You must first prepare the SQL statement or PL/SQL block with an embedded SQL PREPARE statement.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

FOR :host_integer

limits the number of times the statement is executed when the USING clause contains array host variables If you omit this clause, Oracle7 executes the statement once for each component of the smallest array.

statement_id

is a precompiler identifier associated with the SQL statement or PL/SQL block to be executed. Use the embedded SQL PREPARE command to associate the precompiler identifier with the statement or PL/SQL block.

USING

specifies a list of host variables with optional indicator variables that Oracle7 substitutes as input variables into the statement to be executed. The host and indicator variables must be either all scalars or all arrays.

Usage Notes

For more information on this command, see Chapter 10.

Example

This example illustrates the use of the EXECUTE statement in a Pro*C/C++ embedded SQL program:

EXEC SQL PREPARE my_statement 
    FROM :my_string; 
EXEC SQL EXECUTE my_statement
    USING :my_var; 

Related Topics

DECLARE DATABASE command on F - 16 PREPARE command on F - 41

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To prepare and execute a DELETE, INSERT, or UPDATE statement or a PL/SQL block containing no host variables.

Prerequisites

None.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

AT

identifies the database on which the SQL statement or PL/SQL block is executed. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

If you omit this clause, the statement or block is executed on your default database.

:host_string

is a host variable whose value is the SQL statement or PL/SQL block to be executed.

text

is a quoted text literal containing the SQL statement or PL/SQL block to be executed.

The SQL statement can only be a DELETE, INSERT, or UPDATE statement.

Usage Notes

When you issue an EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement, Oracle7 parses the specified SQL statement or PL/SQL block, checking for errors, and executes it. If any errors are encountered, they are returned in the SQLCODE component of the SQLCA.

For more information on this command, see Chapter 10.

Example

This example illustrates the use of the EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement:

EXEC SQL EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = 9460' 

Related Topics

PREPARE command on F - 41 EXECUTE command on F - 28

FETCH (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To retrieve one or more rows returned by a query, assigning the select list values to host variables.

Prerequisites

You must first open the cursor with an the OPEN statement.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

FOR :host_integer

limits the number of rows fetched if you are using array host variables. If you omit this clause, Oracle7 fetches enough rows to fill the smallest array.

cursor

is a cursor that is declared by a DECLARE CURSOR statement. The FETCH statement returns one of the rows selected by the query associated with the cursor.

:cursor_variable

is a cursor variable is allocated an ALLOCATE statement. The FETCH statement returns one of the rows selected by the query associated with the cursor variable.

INTO

specifies a list of host variables and optional indicator variables into which data is fetched. These host variables and indicator variables must be declared within the program.

USING

specifies the descriptor referenced in a previous DESCRIBE statement. Only use this clause with dynamic embedded SQL, method 4. Also, the USING clause does not apply when a cursor variable is used.

Usage Notes

The FETCH statement reads the rows of the active set and names the output variables which contain the results. Indicator values are set to -1 if their associated host variable is null. The first FETCH statement for a cursor also sorts the rows of the active set, if necessary.

The number of rows retrieved is specified by the size of the output host variables and the value specified in the FOR clause. The host variables to receive the data must be either all scalars or all arrays. If they are scalars, Oracle7 fetches only one row. If they are arrays, Oracle7 fetches enough rows to fill the arrays.

Array host variables can have different sizes. In this case, the number of rows Oracle7 fetches is determined by the smaller of the following values:

Of course, the number of rows fetched can be further limited by the number of rows that actually satisfy the query.

If a FETCH statement does not retrieve all rows returned by the query, the cursor is positioned on the next returned row. When the last row returned by the query has been retrieved, the next FETCH statement results in an error code returned in the SQLCODE element of the SQLCA.

Note that the FETCH command does not contain an AT clause. You must specify the database accessed by the cursor in the DECLARE CURSOR statement.

You can only move forward through the active set with FETCH statements. If you want to revisit any of the previously fetched rows, you must reopen the cursor and fetch each row in turn. If you want to change the active set, you must assign new values to the input host variables in the cursor's query and reopen the cursor.

Example

This example illustrates the FETCH command in a pseudo-code embedded SQL program:

EXEC SQL DECLARE emp_cursor CURSOR FOR 
    SELECT job, sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 30; 
... 
EXEC SQL WHENEVER NOT FOUND GOTO ... 
LOOP 
    EXEC SQL FETCH emp_cursor INTO :job_title1, :salary1; 
    EXEC SQL FETCH emp_cursor INTO :job_title2, :salary2; 
... 
END LOOP; 
... 

Related Topics

PREPARE command on F - 41 DECLARE CURSOR command on F - 14 OPEN command on F - 39 CLOSE command on F - 8

INSERT (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To add rows to a table or to a view's base table.

Prerequisites

For you to insert rows into a table, the table must be in your own schema or you must have INSERT privilege on the table.

For you to insert rows into the base table of a view, the owner of the schema containing the view must have INSERT privilege on the base table. Also, if the view is in a schema other than your own, you must have INSERT privilege on the view.

The INSERT ANY TABLE system privilege also allows you to insert rows into any table or any view's base table.

If you are using Trusted Oracle7 in DBMS MAC mode, your DBMS label must match the creation label of the table or view:

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

AT

identifies the database on which the INSERT statement is executed. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name

If you omit this clause, the INSERT statement is executed on your default database.

FOR :host_integer

limits the number of times the statement is executed if the VALUES clause contains array host variables. If you omit this clause, Oracle7 executes the statement once for each component in the smallest array.

schema

is the schema containing the table or view. If you omit schema, Oracle7 assumes the table or view is in your own schema.

table view

is the name of the table into which rows are to be inserted. If you specify view, Oracle7 inserts rows into the view's base table.

dblink

is a complete or partial name of a database link to a remote database where the table or view is located. For information on referring to database links, see Chapter 2 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference. You can only insert rows into a remote table or view if you are using Oracle7 with the distributed option.

If you omit dblink, Oracle7 assumes that the table or view is on the local database.

column

is a column of the table or view. In the inserted row, each column in this list is assigned a value from the VALUES clause or the query.

If you omit one of the table's columns from this list, the column's value for the inserted row is the column's default value as specified when the table was created. If you omit the column list altogether, the VALUES clause or query must specify values for all columns in the table.

VALUES

specifies a row of values to be inserted into the table or view. See the syntax description of expr in Chapter 3 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference. Note that the expressions can be host variables with optional indicator variables. You must specify an expression in the VALUES clause for each column in the column list.

subquery

is a subquery that returns rows that are inserted into the table. The select list of this subquery must have the same number of columns as the column list of the INSERT statement. For the syntax description of a subquery, see "SELECT" in Chapter 4 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference.

Usage Notes

Any host variables that appear in the WHERE clause must be either all scalars or all arrays. If they are scalars, Oracle7 executes the INSERT statement once. If they are arrays, Oracle7 executes the INSERT statement once for each set of array components, inserting one row each time.

Array host variables in the WHERE clause can have different sizes. In this case, the number of times Oracle7 executes the statement is determined by the smaller of the following values:

For more information on this command, see Chapter 4.

Example I

This example illustrates the use of the embedded SQL INSERT command:

EXEC SQL 
    INSERT INTO emp (ename, empno, sal) 
    VALUES (:ename, :empno, :sal); 

Example II

This example shows an embedded SQL INSERT command with a subquery:

EXEC SQL 
    INSERT INTO new_emp (ename, empno, sal) 
    SELECT ename, empno, sal FROM emp
    WHERE deptno = :deptno; 

Related Topics

DECLARE DATABASE command on F - 16

OPEN (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To open a cursor, evaluating the associated query and substituting the host variable names supplied by the USING clause into the WHERE clause of the query.

Prerequisites

You must declare the cursor with a DECLARE CURSOR embedded SQL statement before opening it.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

cursor

is the cursor to be opened.

USING

specifies the host variables to be substituted into the WHERE clause of the associated query.

:host_variable specifies a host variable with an optional indicator variable to be substituted into the statement associated with the cursor.

DESCRIPTOR

specifies a descriptor that describes the host variables to be substituted into the WHERE clause of the associated query. The descriptor must be initialized in a previous DESCRIBE statement.

The substitution is based on position. The host variable names specified in this statement can be different from the variable names in the associated query.

Usage Notes

The OPEN command defines the active set of rows and initializes the cursor just before the first row of the active set. The values of the host variables at the time of the OPEN are substituted in the statement. This command does not actually retrieve rows; rows are retrieved by the FETCH command.

Once you have opened a cursor, its input host variables are not reexamined until you reopen the cursor. To change any input host variables and therefore the active set, you must reopen the cursor.

All cursors in a program are in a closed state when the program is initiated or when they have been explicitly closed using the CLOSE command.

You can reopen a cursor without first closing it. For more information on this command, see Chapter 4.

Example

This example illustrates the use of the OPEN command in a Pro*C/C++ embedded SQL program:

EXEC SQL DECLARE emp_cursor CURSOR FOR 
    SELECT ename, empno, job, sal 
    FROM emp 
    WHERE deptno = :deptno; 
EXEC SQL OPEN emp_cursor; 

Related Topics

PREPARE command on F - 41 DECLARE CURSOR command on F - 14 FETCH command on F - 32 CLOSE command on F - 8

PREPARE (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To parse a SQL statement or PL/SQL block specified by a host variable and associate it with an identifier.

Prerequisites

None.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

statement_id

is the identifier to be associated with the prepared SQL statement or PL/SQL block. If this identifier was previously assigned to another statement or block, the prior assignment is superseded.

:host_string

is a host variable whose value is the text of a SQL statement or PL/SQL block to be prepared.

text

is a string literal containing a SQL statement or PL/SQL block to be prepared.

Usage Notes

Any variables that appear in the :host_string or text are placeholders. The actual host variable names are assigned in the USING clause of the OPEN command (input host variables) or in the INTO clause of the FETCH command (output host variables).

A SQL statement is prepared only once, but can be executed any number of times.

Example

This example illustrates the use of a PREPARE statement in a Pro*C/C++ embedded SQL program:

EXEC SQL PREPARE my_statement FROM :my_string; 
EXEC SQL EXECUTE my_statement;

Related Topics

DECLARE CURSOR command on F - 14 OPEN command on F - 39 FETCH command on F - 32 CLOSE command on F - 8

ROLLBACK (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To undo work done in the current transaction.

You can also use this command to manually undo the work done by an in-doubt distributed transaction.

Prerequisites

To roll back your current transaction, no privileges are necessary.

To manually roll back an in-doubt distributed transaction that you originally committed, you must have FORCE TRANSACTION system privilege. To manually roll back an in-doubt distributed transaction originally committed by another user, you must have FORCE ANY TRANSACTION system privilege.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

WORK

is optional and is provided for ANSI compatibility.

TO

rolls back the current transaction to the specified savepoint. If you omit this clause, the ROLLBACK statement rolls back the entire transaction.

FORCE

manually rolls back an in-doubt distributed transaction. The transaction is identified by the text containing its local or global transaction ID. To find the IDs of such transactions, query the data dictionary view DBA_2PC_PENDING.

ROLLBACK statements with the FORCE clause are not supported in PL/SQL.

RELEASE

frees all resources and disconnects the application from the Oracle7 Server. The RELEASE clause is not allowed with SAVEPOINT and FORCE clauses.

Usage Notes

A transaction (or a logical unit of work) is a sequence of SQL statements that Oracle7 treats as a single unit. A transaction begins with the first executable SQL statement after a COMMIT, ROLLBACK or connection to the database. A transaction ends with a COMMIT statement, a ROLLBACK statement, or disconnection (intentional or unintentional) from the database. Note that Oracle7 issues an implicit COMMIT statement before and after processing any Data Definition Language statement.

Using the ROLLBACK command without the TO SAVEPOINT clause performs the following operations:

Using the ROLLBACK command with the TO SAVEPOINT clause performs the following operations:

It is recommended that you explicitly end transactions in application programs using either a COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement. If you do not explicitly commit the transaction and the program terminates abnormally, Oracle7 rolls back the last uncommitted transaction.

Example I

The following statement rolls back your entire current transaction:

EXEC SQL ROLLBACK; 

Example II

The following statement rolls back your current transaction to savepoint SP5:

EXEC SQL ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp5;

Distributed Transactions

Oracle7 with the distributed option allows you to perform distributed transactions, or transactions that modify data on multiple databases. To commit or roll back a distributed transaction, you need only issue a COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement as you would any other transaction.

If there is a network failure during the commit process for a distributed transaction, the state of the transaction may be unknown, or in-doubt. After consultation with the administrators of the other databases involved in the transaction, you may decide to manually commit or roll back the transaction on your local database. You can manually roll back the transaction on your local database by issuing a ROLLBACK statement with the FORCE clause.

For more information on when to roll back in-doubt transactions, see Oracle7 Server Distributed Systems, Volume I.

You cannot manually roll back an in-doubt transaction to a savepoint.

A ROLLBACK statement with a FORCE clause only rolls back the specified transaction. Such a statement does not affect your current transaction.

Example III

The following statement manually rolls back an in-doubt distributed transaction:

EXEC SQL
    ROLLBACK WORK
    FORCE '25.32.87';

Related Topics

COMMIT command on F - 9 SAVEPOINT command on F - 45

SAVEPOINT (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To identify a point in a transaction to which you can later roll back.

Prerequisites

None.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

AT

identifies the database on which the savepoint is created. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

If you omit this clause, the savepoint is created on your default database.

savepoint

is the name of the savepoint to be created.

Usage Notes

For more information on this command, see Chapter 7.

Example

This example illustrates the use of the embedded SQL SAVEPOINT command:

EXEC SQL SAVEPOINT save3;

Related Topics

COMMIT command on F - 9 ROLLBACK command on F - 42

SELECT (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To retrieve data from one or more tables, views, or snapshots, assigning the selected values to host variables.

Prerequisites

For you to select data from a table or snapshot, the table or snapshot must be in your own schema or you must have SELECT privilege on the table or snapshot.

For you to select rows from the base tables of a view, the owner of the schema containing the view must have SELECT privilege on the base tables. Also, if the view is in a schema other than your own, you must have SELECT privilege on the view.

The SELECT ANY TABLE system privilege also allows you to select data from any table or any snapshot or any view's base table.

If you are using Trusted Oracle7 in DBMS MAC mode, your DBMS label must dominate the creation label of each queried table, view, or snapshot or you must have READUP system privileges.

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

AT

identifies the database to which the SELECT statement is issued. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

If you omit this clause, the SELECT statement is issued to your default database.

select_list

identical to the non-embedded SELECT command except that a host variables can be used in place of literals.

INTO

specifies output host variables and optional indicator variables to receive the data returned by the SELECT statement. Note that these variables must be either all scalars or all arrays, but arrays need not have the same size.

WHERE

restricts the rows returned to those for which the condition is TRUE. See the syntax description of condition in Chapter 3 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference. The condition can contain host variables, but cannot contain indicator variables. These host variables can be either scalars or arrays.

All other keywords and parameters are identical to the non-embedded SQL SELECT command.

Usage Notes

If no rows meet the WHERE clause condition, no rows are retrieved and Oracle7 returns an error code through the SQLCODE component of the SQLCA.

You can use comments in a SELECT statement to pass instructions, or hints, to the Oracle7 optimizer. The optimizer uses hints to choose an execution plan for the statement. For more information on hints, see Oracle7 Server Tuning.

Example

This example illustrates the use of the embedded SQL SELECT command:

EXEC SQL SELECT ename, sal + 100, job 
    INTO :ename, :sal, :job 
    FROM emp 
    WHERE empno = :empno 

Related Topics

DECLARE DATABASE command on F - 16 DECLARE CURSOR command on F - 14 EXECUTE command on F - 28 FETCH command on F - 32 PREPARE command on F - 42

REFERENCE makes the equivalenced type a pointer type.

UPDATE (Executable Embedded SQL)

Purpose

To change existing values in a table or in a view's base table.

Prerequisites

For you to update values in a table or snapshot, the table must be in your own schema or you must have UPDATE privilege on the table.

For you to update values in the base table of a view, the owner of the schema containing the view must have UPDATE privilege on the base table. Also, if the view is in a schema other than your own, you must have UPDATE privilege on the view.

The UPDATE ANY TABLE system privilege also allows you to update values in any table or any view's base table.

If you are using Trusted Oracle7 in DBMS MAC mode, your DBMS label must match the creation label of the table or view:

Syntax

Keywords and Parameters

AT

identifies the database to which the UPDATE statement is issued. The database can be identified by either:

db_name is a database identifier declared in a previous DECLARE DATABASE statement.

:host_variable is a host variable whose value is a previously declared db_name.

If you omit this clause, the UPDATE statement is issued to your default database.

FOR :host_integer

limits the number of times the UPDATE statement is executed if the SET and WHERE clauses contain array host variables. If you omit this clause, Oracle7 executes the statement once for each component of the smallest array.

schema

is the schema containing the table or view. If you omit schema, Oracle7 assumes the table or view is in your own schema.

table view

is the name of the table to be updated. If you specify view, Oracle7 updates the view's base table.

dblink

is a complete or partial name of a database link to a remote database where the table or view is located. For information on referring to database links, see Chapter 2 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference. You can only use a database link to update a remote table or view if you are using Oracle7 with the distributed option.

alias

is a name used to reference the table, view, or subquery elsewhere in the statement.

column

is the name of a column of the table or view that is to be updated. If you omit a column of the table from the SET clause, that column's value remains unchanged.

expr

is the new value assigned to the corresponding column. This expression can contain host variables and optional indicator variables. See the syntax of expr in Chapter 3 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference.

subquery_1

is a subquery that returns new values that are assigned to the corresponding columns. For the syntax of a subquery, see "SELECT" in Chapter 4 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference.

subquery_2

is a subquery that return a new value that is assigned to the corresponding column. For the syntax of a subquery, see "SELECT" in Chapter 4 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference.

WHERE

specifies which rows of the table or view are updated:

condition updates only rows for which this condition is true. This condition can contain host variables and optional indicator variables. See the syntax of condition in Chapter 3 of the Oracle7 Server SQL Reference.

CURRENT OF updates only the row most recently fetched by the cursor. The cursor cannot be associated with a SELECT statement that performs a join unless its FOR UPDATE clause explicitly locks only one table.

If you omit this clause entirely, Oracle7 updates all rows of the table or view.

Usage Notes

Host variables in the SET and WHERE clauses must be either all scalars or all arrays. If they are scalars, Oracle7 executes the UPDATE statement only once. If they are arrays, Oracle7 executes the statement once for each set of array components. Each execution may update zero, one, or multiple rows.

Array host variables can have different sizes. In this case, the number of times Oracle7 executes the statement is determined by the smaller of the following values:

The cumulative number of rows updated is returned through the third element of the SQLERRD component of the SQLCA. When arrays are used as input host variables, this count reflects the total number of updates for all components of the array processed in the UPDATE statement. If no rows satisfy the condition, no rows are updated and Oracle7 returns an error message through the SQLCODE element of the SQLCA. If you omit the WHERE clause, all rows are updated and Oracle7 raises a warning flag in the fifth component of the SQLWARN element of the SQLCA.

You can use comments in an UPDATE statement to pass instructions, or hints, to the Oracle7 optimizer. The optimizer uses hints to choose an execution plan for the statement. For more information on hints, see Oracle7 Server Tuning.

For more information on this command, see Chapters 4 and 7.

Examples

The following examples illustrate the use of the embedded SQL UPDATE command:

EXEC SQL UPDATE emp 
    SET sal = :sal, comm = :comm INDICATOR :comm_ind 
    WHERE ename = :ename; 
 
EXEC SQL UPDATE emp 
    SET (sal, comm) = 
        (SELECT AVG(sal)*1.1, AVG(comm)*1.1 
         FROM emp) 
    WHERE ename = 'JONES'; 

Related Topics

DECLARE DATABASE command on F - 16

VAR (Oracle Embedded SQL Directive)

Purpose

To perform host variable equivalencing, or to assign a specific Oracle7 external datatype to an individual host variable, overriding the default datatype assignment.

Prerequisites

The host variable must be previously declared in the Declare Section of the embedded SQL program.

Syntax

host_variable Keywords and Parameters

is the host variable to be assigned an Oracle7 external datatype.

datatype

is an Oracle7 external datatype recognized by the Oracle Precompilers (not an Oracle7 internal datatype). The datatype may include a length, precision, or scale. This external datatype is assigned to the host_variable. For a list of external datatypes, see Chapter 3.

Usage Notes

Host variable equivalencing is one kind of datatype equivalencing. Datatype equivalencing is useful for any of the following purposes:

Example

This example equivalences the host variable DEPT_NAME to the datatype STRING and the host variable BUFFER to the datatype RAW(2000):

EXEC SQL BEGIN DECLARE SECTION; 
    ... 
    dept_name CHARACTER(15);  -- default datatype is CHAR 
    EXEC SQL VAR dept_name IS STRING; -- reset to STRING 
    ... 
    buffer CHARACTER(200); -- default datatype is CHAR 
    EXEC SQL VAR buffer IS RAW(200); -- refer to RAW 
    ...
EXEC SQL END DECLARE SECTION; 

Related Topics

None.

WHENEVER (Embedded SQL Directive)

Purpose

To specify the action to be taken when an error or warning results from executing an embedded SQL program.

Prerequisites

None.

Syntax

The following syntax diagram shows how to construct a WHENEVER statement:

Keywords and Parameters

NOT FOUND

identifies any exception condition that returns an error code of +1403 to SQLCODE (or a +100 code when MODE=ANSI).

SQLERROR

identifies a condition that results in a negative return code.

SQLWARNING

identifies a non-fatal warning condition.

CONTINUE

indicates that the program should progress to the next statement.

GOTO

indicates that the program should branch to the statement named by label.

STOP

stops program execution.

DO

indicates that the program should call a host language routine. The syntax of routine depends on your host language. See your language-specific Supplement to the Oracle Precompilers Guide.

Usage Notes

The WHENEVER command allows your program to transfer control to an error handling routine in the event an embedded SQL statement results in an error or warning.

The scope of a WHENEVER statement is positional, rather than logical. A WHENEVER statement applies to all embedded SQL statements that textually follow it in the source file, not in the flow of the program logic. A WHENEVER statement remains in effect until it is superseded by another WHENEVER statement checking for the same condition.

For more information on this command, see Chapter 7. Do not confuse the WHENEVER embedded SQL command with the WHENEVER SQL*Plus command.

Example

The following example illustrates the use of the WHENEVER command in a Pro*C/C++ embedded SQL program:

EXEC SQL WHENEVER NOT FOUND CONTINUE;
... 
EXEC SQL WHENEVER SQLERROR GOTO sql_error: 
... 
sql_error: 
    EXEC SQL WHENEVER SQLERROR CONTINUE; 
    EXEC SQL ROLLBACK RELEASE; 

Related Topics

None




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