|Oracle Master Glossary||
range searching Searching for terms between specified values. Normally relates to numeric or structured fields; for example, dates, ages.
RAW datatype A standard ORACLE datatype, a RAW data column may contain data in any form, including binary. You can use RAW columns for storing binary (non-character) data.
raw mode A mode in which data is transmitted "as is," i.e., 8-bit data characters are directly transmitted across the link. Raw mode is only suitable for direct, machine-to-machine links.
RCDATA The "reserved character data" declared content character type. This type indicates that all SGML delimiters are ignored except for the end tag and entity reference delimiters (</, &, and %).
RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) An ORACLE Version 6 (and earlier) term. Refers to the software used to create and maintain the system, as well as the actual data stored in the database. See also Relational Database Management System.
read consistency A feature of all versions of ORACLE Server that guarantees that the results of any query are a consistent set of data as of the time the query was executed. A read-consistent view of the data can be thought of as a "snapshot" of the data at the time the query began. See integrity (data).
read lock A lock used by some databases (not ORACLE) to allow shared read access to an object, thus preventing updates. ORACLE Server does not use read locks. See also share lock.
read-only transactions The ability to run multiple queries within a single transaction, all which are read-consistent with respect to the same point-in-time (i.e., queries in this transaction do not see the effects of intervening committed transactions). If you want to run a number of queries against multiple tables and if you are doing no updating, you may prefer a read-only transaction. After indicating that your transaction is read-only, you can execute as many queries as you like against any database table, knowing that the results of each query are consistent with respect to the same point-in-time.
real-time event In CASE*Method, any point in the life of an enterprise when, under specified conditions, realtime reaches a predetermined date and time.
real-time system A system in which events control the mechanisms. These are often found controlling machinery (e.g. a control system for an aircraft) and are often time and/or safety critical. See also event.
recall The measure of a text retrieval system's ability to deliver all of the documents relevant to a user query. Recall is calculated as the ratio of the documents retrieved to the total number of relevant documents available.
RECO See Recoverer.
record (1) A synonym for row; one row of data in a database table, having values for one or more columns. (2) A unit of information in the SQL*Forms workspace that corresponds to a row in a database table. A record can be fetched from and/or stored into a row. (3) A unit of information in a particular panel, corresponding to a row in that panel.
record group A user-named, internal SQL*Forms data structure for storing ordered sets of records. See non-query, query, and static record group.
record locking See row locking.
record type A predetermined set of fields within a file.
Recoverer (RECO) A background process that automatically resolves the outcome of an "in-doubt distributed transactions" - a distributed transaction where the commit was interrupted by any type of system or network failure. After the failure is repaired and communication is reestablished, the RECO of each local database automatically commits or rolls back any in-doubt distributed transactions consistently on all involved nodes.
recovery A process in which ORACLE Server brings the database and associated files back to the state immediately before an instance failure or media failure by rolling forward and rolling back. Some types of recovery are automatic and some require DBA intervention. See also instance recovery and media recovery.
recursive calls Calls made to the database that generate other calls on their behalf. A SQL statement that is required to execute another SQL statement.
redo log A sequential log of all changes made to the data. The redo log is written and used in the event that a failure caused the changes to fail to be written to disk; it is used to reapply the changes to disk. The redo log consists of two or more redo log files; one is optionally being saved while the other is being written by ORACLE Server. When the file currently being written fills, the other file is reused. See also online redo log and offline redo log.
redo log buffer Buffer that stores redo entries a log of changes made to the database. The redo entries stored in the redo log buffers are written to an online redo log file, which is used if database recovery is necessary. Its size is static.
redo log file A file containing records of changes to the databases. These files are used for recovery purposes. See also redo log.
redo log sequence number A number used to identify a redo log. It is used when applying the redo log files during recovery.
redo server An optional process that writes redo entries to the online redo log file for multiple instances of the ORACLE Parallel Server on the nCUBE 2 supercomputer.
redraw event The toolkit delivers a redraw event when a view has been damaged and must be redrawn.
reference line A line that appears at a specified value on a chart.
referenced object An object whose properties are used as the basis for creating one or more similar objects.
referential integrity A condition that guarantees that the values in one column also exist in another column. This guarantee is enforced through the use of integrity constraints.
referential integrity constraints A set of validation rules applied to an entity or table such as uniqueness constraints, domain validation of columns or correspondence of foreign keys to the primary key of their related table.
referential integrity rule A particular integrity constraint rule defined by a user to enforce referential integrity.
region Area in the report that owns the object being defined. Valid regions are Header, Body/Margin, and Trailer.
relate To combine columns from multiple data sources for use in a single Oracle Data Browser query. You can relate different data sources when they share a common column, called a key. Occasionally one data source is related to itself (see self-relationship), and occasionally data sources are related when they do not share a common column. See also non-equal relationship.
related term A term that bears greater insight to another term, but is not synonymous or a broader/narrower definition of that term. Related terms can be tracked in a thesaurus using the related term operator.
relation Synonym for table. See also table and view.
relation, relationship indication Hierarchical relationship between terms in the thesaurus structure. The relationship is expressed in: preferred term; non-preferred terms; synonyms, quasi-synonyms, abbreviations, acronyms; top term; broader term; related term.
relation object An object that defines the relationship between blocks in a master-detail relationship.
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) An ORACLE Version 6 (and earlier) term. A computer program designed to store and retrieve shared data. In a relational system, data is stored in tables consisting of one or more rows, each containing the same set of columns. ORACLE is a relational database management system. Other types of database systems are called hierarchical or network database systems.
relational operator A symbol used in search criteria to indicate a comparison between two values, such as the equal sign in "WHERE DEPTNO = 10." Rows in which the comparison results in "true" are returned in the result (fetched), while rows in which the comparison returns "false" are rejected from the result.
relationship (1) In ORACLE Server, a connection between two or more tables (implied by the data values). (2) In CASE*Method, any significant way in which two things of the same or different type may be associated. (3) In Oracle Data Browser, a connection between two or more datasources. The connection is usually identified by a common field, shown in the Query Window with a relationship line drawn connecting fields where the relationship exists. See also key, primary key, and foreign key.
relationship line A graphical representation in the Datasource Panel of the Oracle Data Browser query window, showing where a relationship exists between two columns (usually from different data sources). The relationship line usually appears lighter or grey, until you activate it. See also relationship and self-relationship.
release medium See distribution medium.
remark In SQL*Plus, a comment you can insert into a command file with the REMARK command.
remote computer A computer on a network other than the local computer.
remote database A database on a computer other than the local database. Usually a computer on the same network, but at a different node (i.e., a database that you use through a database link).
Rename (File menu) Option used to change the name of a module.
renamed data source A data source that has been assigned a temporary name in a query, using the rename data source... option from the Data menu. You generally rename a data source only to shorten the actual name shown in the query window or make it more descriptive. Contrast with data source alias.
repeatable read A database feature in which you can execute repeated queries on one or more tables with the assurance that the data you see will not appear to change while you are using it. A desirable feature (such as for printing a set of related reports), but one that requires additional DBMS logic, if the database tables are to be concurrently accessed by numerous users or updaters. Repeatable reads are supported in at least two different ways (using LOCK TABLE or SET TRANSACTION READ ONLY), yet other users can update the tables.
repeating frame A placeholder for a group, used to present rows of data retrieved from the database.
repeater A hardware device that connects two identical networks, extending the maximum transmission distance by regenerating the electronic signals that attenuate with distance.
replace To take the place of a process's default functionality. You can replace the behavior of certain SQL*Forms operations by using On-triggers.
replace mode A text entry mode in which each character you enter replaces the current character at the terminal's display cursor. The opposite of insert mode.
replication A database feature in which identical (and updatable) copies of a table are stored in the database, on more than one node. Table replicates are called synchronized copies.
report (1) The results of a query. (2) Any output, but especially output that has been formatted for quick reading. In particular, output from SQL*Plus, SQL*Report, or SQL*ReportWriter. (3) Module that defines all of the information about itself, including its history, page size, references to other modules, and use of report-level objects.
report column A column that appears in a report. See column.
report-level objects Used to define a report's data model and layout. Report-level objects are assigned to a single report, and cannot be shared by other reports or other Oracle products.
Report menu The Report menu provides users access to report global properties, triggers, and procedures.
repository A mechanism for storing any information to do with the definition of a system at any point in its life-cycle. Repository services would typically be provided for extensibility, recovery, integrity, naming standards and a wide variety of other management functions.
reserved word (1) A word that has a special meaning in a particular software or operating system. (2) In SQL, a set of words reserved for use in SQL statements; you cannot use a reserved word as the name of a database object. Contrast with keyword.
reset (Column Definition) The group at which the value of a function is to be reset to 0.
resource A logical database object or physical structure that may be required or locked by database users. Resources that users can directly lock are rows and tables; resources that ORACLE Server can lock are more numerous and include data dictionary tables, caches, and files.
resource editor The resource editor is an application that enables a developer to create toolkit resources interactively. It provides the facilities to store resources into and load them from a resource store.
resource file A file containing all the device, product, and mapping definitions for a specific platform.
resource manager A library of routines that enable the client to store resources separately from code and to load resources into an application.
resource store An area on disk in which resources are stored.
response string The component of an exchange block representing the data that the client expects back from the host in response to a send string.
restore (1) To use previously archived data in order to bring data up to date or to replace corrupted data with data known to be correct. (2) To reactivate data that has been stored in archives. See also recovery, instance recovery, and media recovery.
restricted Refers to the navigational nature of a certain class of built-in routines. You can only issue a call to these routines from triggers that fire when the focus is in a clearly defined physical or logical location in the form. See also unrestricted.
Result file In Oracle Data Query, a file containing the results of a query. Users can choose to save the results of a query in a file, and give the file a name.
Results Browser Oracle Data Query shows the results of a query on the Results Browser screen.
Results window The Oracle Data Browser window you use to display the results of an executed query and to format, sort, or otherwise manipulate the query results. Contrast with query window.
retrieve (1) To copy, or fetch, selected rows from one or more tables. (2) In SQL*Forms, to fetch desired rows into the workspace. (3) To fetch selected rows from one or more datasources in an Oracle Data Browser query. Also called fetch.
Retrieve All Rows A command from the Query menu that when invoked, causes Oracle Data Browser to retrieve all qualifying records from the database before displaying any of them in the Results Window. Contrast with the Execute command, which when invoked, fetches records from the database in groups.
RETURN key The key on your computer keyboard that you use to execute some operations in Oracle Data Browser. The name of this key varies according to your operating system and keyboard type. On some systems, it is called the ENTER key, and on some systems this key is labelled with an arrow that points downward and left.
reverse engineering An automatic and/or manual procedure that takes a component of an existing system and transforms it into a logical definition within a CASE tool. Reverse engineering may apply to both data and computer programs. Such a logical definition so derived will often be refined, integrated with some new top-down definition of requirement, and forward engineered or generated to some replacement technology.
revert (File menu) Option enabling you to reset the current module definition to a previous state, depending on when you last saved the module.
revision level The third identifying number of ORACLE software. In V6.0.20, the revision level number is 20. See also maintenance release and version number.
RGB Refers to the intensities of the red, green, and blue components of a color.
ring A barrier separating 512 Mb segments of main memory from access by programs in other segments. AOS/VS protects system and user data by enforcing ring-crossing protocols.
ring A LAN in which each workstation is attached to two other workstations, so that the workstations form a loop or ring. Each node receives a message, checks the address on the message, and forwards it to the next node on the ring.
ring topology A LAN topology in which each workstation is attached to two other workstations to form a logical loop or ring. Each machine receives a message, checks the address on the message, and forwards it to the next machine on the ring.
role A list of usernames that can be granted privileges to use form and/or menu modules.
roles Named groups of related privileges that are granted to users or other roles.
roll back (verb) (1) To discard some or all pending changes made to data in the current transaction, using the SQL statement ROLLBACK. You can roll back a portion of a transaction by rolling back to a savepoint. (2) In SQL*Forms, to clear and discard all or part of the workspace, by not committing work just performed. (3) As a part of recovery, to undo changes made to a database that were never committed by users.
roll forward (noun) A point in time when changes made to the data are redone by ORACLE Server during recovery.
roll forward (verb) To reapply changes made to data that were committed by users but subsequently lost due to hardware failure. Data is rolled forward during media recovery and instance recovery. The redo log contains the redo entries used to roll forward; occasionally media recovery will also require offline redo logs.
rollback (noun) The second half of the recovery procedures. After the roll forward, any changes that were not committed must be undone. After the redo log files have been applied, then the rollback segments are used to identify and undo transactions that were never committed, yet were recorded in the redo log. ORACLE completes this step automatically.
rollback segment A set of entries used to undo changes in the database in the event of transaction rollback (i.e. undoing all the changes done in a current transaction), crash, media recovery or, if necessary, for read consistency. Every instance requires at least one dedicated rollback segment.
root (1) In a table with tree-structured data (row data with an implicit hierarchy), the top of the tree; that is, a row that has no parent row, and whose descendant rows constitute the entire tree. (2) In a tree-structured query (one using CONNECT BY), the row specified by the START WITH clause. (3) The group object to which all other objects in Oracle Graphics belong. Every layer is a child of the root object, and other objects are children of the layers.
root administrative region The highest level administrative region in a distributed administration installation. The root administrative region contains the root domain.
root domain The highest level domain in a hierarchical naming model.
root window A built-in window that displays the default menu and the title bar. It also contains all an application's other windows and the application's global menu. Root windows are not available on all platforms.
ROS (Resource Object Store) The place where SQL*Forms (Design) keeps records before they are committed to the database.
router A combination of software and hardware network modules functioning at the OSI network layer to selectively pass messages from one network to another. The two networks usually run differnet protocols only at the layers beneath the network layer (that is, at the data-link and physical layers). Routers are transparent to SQL*Net and other network modules that run above them. See also bridge, gateway, and repeater.
row (1) Synonym for record; one row of data in a database table, having values for one or more columns. Also called tuple. (2) One set of field values in the output of a query. See also column.
row-level lock manager The portion of the kernel that controls row locking and supports a high level of concurrency and transaction throughput.
row-level locking See row locking.
row locking A feature in which database users changing data need only lock the row being updated rather than the block or table containing the row, at the instant of update. Row-level locking supports higher concurrency than block-level or table locking.
row piece A portion of a row containing row header information and row data. Each database row is stored in one or more row pieces.
rowheader The portion of each row's required storage that contains information about the row other than row data, such as the number of row pieces, pointers, and length of columns.
ROWID A sequence of characters that uniquely identifies a row and that represents the physical address of the row. Considered a pseudo-column. ROWIDs can be retrieved in a query using the reserved word ROWID. In SQL*Forms, ROWIDs are like a pseudo-column present for every ORACLE table, and a corresponding (normally invisible) field present in every block of a form.
ROWNUM A pseudo-column generated by using the SQL keyword ROWNUM in a query. ROWNUM returns an integer for each row, starting with 1. The ROWNUM identifies the position of each row within the set of rows satisfying the query, before ordering.
RU Stands for Request Unit or Response Unit. A message that makes a request or responds to a request during an SNA session.
run (File menu) To produce the report output.
run file A compact representation of the report definition that is used at runtime to control the output of the report.
RUNFORM The command used to run a form created in SQL*Forms.
running summary Every packaged summary function has a running version that returns cumulative values of the function between reset points.
RUNREP Executable command that runs previously defined report(s).
runtime (1) The time during which SQL*Forms (Runform) is executing an application. (2) The time during which SQL*ReportWriter is running a report. (3) The time during which Oracle Graphics is running a display.
Runtime The executable used to run a display.
runtime file A definition file of all objects in a single module. A runtime file results from generating a form or menu module.
Runtime Parameter Form Screen that appears when you run a report. In this screen you can modify print options and parameters before the report executes.
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