|Oracle Master Glossary||
accelerator A control key sequence that can be used for menu item selection on some platforms.
access To enter or communicate with a particular computer resource, such as an operating system, an ORACLE database, or specific files or tables. Various commands or controls are used to set and alter the ability to access, depending on the type of resource.
access (database) One of three standard privileges to an ORACLE database. A DBA can grant a user one or more of the database privileges CONNECT, RESOURCE, and DBA.
access (database object) One of several types of privileges, such as SELECT, ALTER, or DROP, for using or altering ORACLE database objects such as tables, views, or indexes. Database users can grant other users access via the GRANT statement.
access category The type of method used to access a specific target system. In Oracle Open Gateway Technology, the following categories are defined: file-based, procedural, SQL-based.
access control The process of limiting access to the resources of a system only to authorized programs, processes, or other systems. See also discretionary and mandatory access control.
Access Control List (ACL) A list of privileges associated with every directory and file that specifies the type of access allowed for any user. Refer to the Data General Command Line Interpreter (CLI) User's Manual.
access path (database) The algorithm used by the ORACLE Server to locate data within a database. When the optimizer parses a SQL statement it evaluates possible access paths in order to use the best access path. To some degree, users can help the optimizer choose an access path through deliberate wording of SQL statements.
account An authorized user of an operating system or a product (such as ORACLE Server or SQL*Forms). Depending on the operating system, may be referred to as ID, User ID, login, etc. Accounts are often created and controlled by a system administrator. See also schema, username.
ACL See Access Control List.
actions In SQL*Forms, operations that you may perform. Some actions are selected from menu lists; others are controlled by function keys.
active window/view A window or view that can receive user input.
activity Anything that needs to be done to complete a task. See task.
address A unique network location used to identify a client on a network. TNS addresses have a specific format. Addresses must be unique. See TNS address.
address (row) See ROWID.
admin privileges The authorization to perform certain administrative procedures on a system.
administrative region An organizational entity for administration of SQL*Net network components.
aim See business aim.
alert A modal window with a limited interface, warning the user that the action immediately preceding the alert may cause unexpected results. An alert displays a brief message and requires a response. Also known as an alert box.
alias (1)An alternative name for an existing network object, such as a host (server), or a set of parameters. (2) In SQL, a temporary name assigned to a table, view, column, or value within a SQL statement, used to refer to that item later in the same statement or in associated SQL*Plus commands. (3) In SQL*Net, a nickname for a string by which a remote database can be accessed.
alignment The way in which data is positioned in a field. It may be positioned to the left, right, center, flush/left, flush/right, or flush/center of the defined width of a field.
ALX See Autologon Exerciser Facility.
ancestor group A group that owns another group, either directly or indirectly.
anchor A layout object that enables you to fix a spot on one object to a spot on another object, ensuring the position of one object in relation to another.
anchoring object The object to which another object is anchored.
anonymous block A PL/SQL program unit that has no name and does not require the explicit presence of the BEGIN and END keywords to enclose the executable statements. You can use anonymous blocks in the trigger text of SQL*ReportWriter triggers.
anonymous function A PL/SQL value construct similar to a function, except that it has no name and does not require the explicit presence of the BEGIN and END keywords. You can use anonymous functions in the text of format triggers, group filters, and column formulas.
anonymous procedure A PL/SQL non-value construct similar to a procedure, except that it has no name and does not require the explicit presence of the BEGIN and END keywords. You can use anonymous procedures in the trigger text of SQL*ReportWriter report triggers.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) An organization for establishing voluntary industry standards.
antecedent An object that appears in another object's group tree at any position above that other object. Every object is an antecedent of its descendants.
AOS/VS Advanced Operating System/Virtual Storage, Data General's Advanced Operating System for all 32-bit ECLIPSE computers with which ORACLE is compatible.
AOS/VS II An enhanced version of AOS/VS that offers increased file system reliability, kernel-based networking services, MRC support, and several other features not available with AOS/VS.
API (Application Program Interface) A set of program functions or calls that allow an application to make use of, or communicate with, an underlying program or system.
APPC (Advanced Program-to-Program Communication) IBM's peer-to-peer protocol for a System Network Architecture (SNA) network. The APPC protocol is independent of the computer operating system, programming language, and hardware interface environment. It allows the client and server to communicate over an SNA network without forcing the client to emulate a terminal.
application One or more program modules used to achieve a specific result. Applications can be nested within other applications. For example, an application to control a company's inventory could consist of various SQL*Forms applications for input of data, and various SQL*ReportWriter applications to produce hard copy output of summary data.
application system A name given to a collection of business functions, entities, programs, and tables that can be further described by system documentation of various forms. It is typically used to describe a unit of related work such as in a project, subsystem, or data subject area. The status of an application system may change (e.g. it may be frozen), and new versions may be created. It is also a unit of access control to the collection of elements that it contains. Elements may be shared between application systems.
arc A means of identifying two or more mutually exclusive relationships or foreign keys. See also exclusive arc.
ARCH (Archive task) Process that copies the online redo log files to archival storage when they are full. ARCH is active only when a database's redo log is used in ARCHIVELOG mode. This is one of many background processes that are part of an ORACLE instance. See also background process, redo log.
archive To save data for later use.
archive server A parallel, distributed program that makes archive copies of the online redo log files for ORACLE on nCUBE 2. array node (processing node) An nCUBE 2 node (CPU and associated memory) connected to other array nodes in a hypercube topology.
argument (1) An independent variable whose value can be used to modify a command. (2) In Oracle Graphics, an expression within the parentheses of a subprogram, supplying a value for the subprogram to operate on. For example, in the expression MY_PROC(x), x is the argument. (3) Clauses containing Oracle Graphics executable keywords and their specified values. For example, `PRINT=YES' is an executable argument.
arithmetic operator A symbol, such as + or -, used to perform an arithmetic operation, such as addition or subtraction. See also operator.
Arrange menu A menu that enables you to organize the graphical objects in the painting or drawing region and specify attributes for the components.
array processing Processing performed on multiple rows of data rather than one row at a time. In some ORACLE utilities such as SQL*Plus, Export/Import, and the precompilers, users can set the size of the array; increasing the array size often improves performance.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) character set Stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange character set, a convention for representing alphanumeric information using digital data. ASCII is the collation sequence used by most computers with the exception of IBM and IBM-compatible computers. Contrast with EBCDIC character set.
association A significant relationship between elements of the same or different type within a CASE environment. See also element.
asynchronous A communications mode in which data is sent without being synchronized by a clock or timer. A variety of methods are used to facilitate correct transmission, including (but not limited to) the use to start and stop bits. Also called start/stop or TTY. Contrast with synchronous.
Asynchronous Dialogue Language A set of valid send and response strings, including reserved characters, special strings, control commands, and substitution variables, that facilitate the auto logon process when used properly in the dialogue files.
asynchronous event An event queued for delivery to the appropriate event handler.
asynchronous parameters A set of parameters that define the communication rules for the asynchronous protocol.
asynchronous protocol A set of rules for exchanging information between computers in a network environment using asynchronous lines.
asynchronous terminal A terminal that transmits and receives data a character at time (as opposed to a field or screen at a time). Contrast with block-mode terminal and synchronous terminal.
asynchronous transmission Data transmission in which the time intervals between transmitted characters may be of uneven length. Transmission is controlled by start and stop elements at the beginning and end of each character.
atomic function A business function that is not further decomposed into consistent business functions.
attribute (1) A property or characteristic of an object that determines the behavior or appearance of that object. 2) Any detail that serves to qualify, identify, classify, quantify, or express the state of an entity or object. (2) In SQL*Forms, a property of a field in a form that influences the way the field behaves. Some examples of attributes are Input Allowed, Mandatory, and Fixed Length. (3) In SGML, a modifier to or further classification of an element. For example, a heading level.
attribute descriptor A data structure that stores the attributes of an entity.
attribute mask The first element in an attribute descriptor. It is a 32-bit mask that informs the toolkit of the attributes that will be set or retrieved by a subsequent function call. Only those elements that have their corresponding bits set in the attribute mask are set or retrieved.
Attributes menu A menu that enables you to specify attributes that affect the appearance of graphical objects in the painting region.
audit (noun) The result of the auditing activity.
audit trail Data, in the form of a logical path linking a sequence of events, used for tracing the transactions that have affected the contents of a record.
auditing The process of recording or analyzing operations that have been performed on a body of data.
auditing feature An ORACLE Server feature that enables a database administrator to monitor user activity on a database. Auditing information is stored in the data dictionary and SQL statements are used to control which information is stored.
augment To add functionality to a process's inherent functionality. You can augment the behavior of certain SQL*Forms operations by using When-triggers.
authenticate The process of verifying the identity of a user, device, or other entity in a computer system, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in a system.
authorization Permission given to a user, program, or process to access...... [access what?]
auto commit A SQL*Plus feature that optionally requests an automatic commit after every successful execution of a SQL statement or PL/SQL block.
auto logon facility A SQL*Net facility for use with terminal emulation protocols in SQL*Net Asynchronous (and SQL*Net 3270) that uses a set of four dialog files to establish a connection between a client and a host.
auto logon parameters A set of parameters used by the auto logon facility. See also dialogue name.
Autologon Exerciser Utility (ALX) An interactive utility that helps users build and test dialogue files independent of an ORACLE database.
automatic logon A feature of CICS Attach that provides an automatic logon to the ORACLE database on behalf of a transaction.
auto skip A SQL*Forms field characteristic. When a character is entered in the last position of an auto skip field, the cursor automatically skips to the next field. Autoskip fields are customarily short, fixed-length fields, such as one-character response codes or two-character state name abbreviations.
auxiliary process The auxiliary processes for ORACLE on nCUBE 2 cooperate with the ORACLE Server to manage the database. They include the distributed lock manager, volume manager, message logging server, and optionally the gigacache, redo server, archive server, and tape backup and recovery processes. These processes must run in the ORACLE subcube. Additional required processes that run on I/O nodes include the name server and SQL*Net server.
axis chart A type of chart in which the data is plotted according to where it lies along the chart's edges, called axes. An axis chart may contain two or three axes, each of which may be one of the following types: discrete, continuous, or date.
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