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U


Ungroup option The Oracle Data Browser menu option that enables you to remove a logical operator without removing the enclosed conditions. You cannot ungroup the top-level operator.

unique identifier Any combination of attributes and/or relationships that serves to uniquely identify an occurrence of an entity; or, any combination of columns that serves to uniquely identify an occurrence of a row in a table. Primary keys and unique indexes are alternative ways of implementing unique identifiers on a relational database management system.

unique key One or more columns that are unique in each row of a table. A unique key can be used as a primary key.

uniqueness A property of having no duplicates. If an index has been created for a table using the keyword UNIQUE, then every row in that table is guaranteed to be unique. In SQL*Forms, uniqueness is a property of a block; no commit operation in a block may succeed if it would result in two rows of the associated table having the same value for the key field.

unmap To unmap a view is to make it invisible on the display screen.

unmatched row A record returned because of a relationship used in a query, where there is a value on one side of the relationship, but not the other. Unmatched rows are retrieved only when you use the A not found in B or B not found in A option, accessed by using Set Relationship... option from the Data menu.

unrestricted A class of built-ins that are not affected by the physical or logical position of focus in the form, and thus can be called from any trigger. See also restricted.

update To change the values for table data, in particular, by altering data values using the SQL command UPDATE, but also by deleting values using the SQL command DELETE or by inserting values using the command INSERT.

update allowed A SQL*Forms field characteristic denoting a field whose value you may update.

update if null A SQL*Forms field characteristic denoting a field whose value you may update only if the value is currently null. This characteristic is mutually exclusive with update allowed.

upgrading The reclassification of information to a higher label when used in the context of reclassifying information.

UPI See User Program Interface.

uppercase A field characteristic denoting a field in which lowercase letters are converted to uppercase as they are entered.

use term The main or preferred term in a synonym list or thesaurus entry. In a thesaurus the Use For operator is used to track these terms. Also known as a Preferred Term or Lead Term.

used extents Extents (database blocks) that are currently allocated to a data or index segment, and thus contain data or are reserved for data. Contrast with free extents.

user Any person or group of people with some rights to access a computer facility. The same person may be known to a sophisticated system in several ways; for example, as an ORACLE User, CASE*Dictionary User, a user of an operating system, or a user of an electronic mail system.

user area item An item that is given over to a user exit.

user (client) processes Processes created and maintained to execute the software code of an application program (such as a Pro*C program) or an ORACLE tool (such as SQL*DBA). The user process also manages the communication with the server processes. User processes communicate with the server processes through the program interface, described later in this section.

user-defined relationship A relationship that you establish to relate two datasources in an Oracle Data Browser query, although no relationship has been established between the datasources in the underlying ORACLE database. See also relationship and self-relationship.

user exit (1) In SQL*Forms, a program written by a user in a programming language such as COBOL or C, which may be invoked by a step of a trigger to perform tasks outside the scope of, but related to, a form. (2) In SQL*ReportWriter, a program written to send parameters from or return parameters to SQL*ReportWriter. (3) A way in which to pass control (and possibly arguments) from Oracle Graphics to another Oracle product or 3GL, and then return control (and possibly arguments) back to Oracle Graphics.

user ID See account and username.

user-developed gateway A gateway built using a Transparent Gateway Developer's Kit or a Procedural Gateway Developer's Kit. See also Oracle-developed Gateway.

user-named A type of procedure, function, or trigger defined by the designer. Contrast with built-in.

user-named routine A procedure or function defined by the user.

user-named trigger A trigger named anything other than a predefined SQL*Forms name. User-named triggers may be referenced (executed) by other triggers using the macro statement EXETRG.

user-owned tables SQL*ReportWriter tables that are owned by users: the users do not share these tables with other users.

user preferences A facility by which a user can influence the behavior of a utility, user interface or other system process of a computer system. For example, in the CASE*Generator family, preference values may be set for style, performance, user interface behavior, code standards, and so on.

User Program Interface (UPI) The user half of the ORACLE Program Interface, which is responsible for keeping a separation between the user program and the ORACLE kernel for data security.

user memory In a user-developed gateway, allocated memory that is not system memory.

user variable In SQL*Plus, a variable named and assigned by the user. Variables are set explicitly with the DEFINE command or implicitly with an argument to the START command.

USERID A command line argument that allows you to specify your ORACLE username and password with an optional SQL*Net address.

username The name by which a user is known to the ORACLE server and to other users. Every username is associated with a private password, and both must be entered to connect to an ORACLE database. See also account.

utility routines (1) In ORACLE Server, various routines that support the use of ORACLE Server but are not considered primary end-user applications. (2) Commands or operations that work at the level of the operating system.

validation A processing step verifying that a piece of information is at least superficially valid. Example: a check that a number representing a day of the week is in the range 1 to 7. In SQL*Forms, field-level triggers are often used for validation.

value A single value, as in the data for a column or field.

value axis See continuous axis.

value construct A PL/SQL code structure that returns a value. Value constructs include functions, anonymous functions, and expressions.

VARCHAR datatype Equivalent to the CHAR datatype, a standard ORACLE datatype used to store character (alphanumeric) data. In ORACLE RDBMS V6, CHAR and VARCHAR are equivalent. In ORACLE7 Server, CHAR data is fixed-length and VARCHAR is variable-length. [Is this in fact true with ORACLE7?]

variable A named object that can be assigned a value and whose assigned value may change over time. SQL*Plus uses substitution, system, and user variables.

variable parameters (1) Parameters whose value may change or can be reset. (2) The INIT.ORA parameters whose values may vary and whose values may affect the performance of a database. DBAs may wish to "tune" or experiment with the variable parameter values in order to optimize their database's performance.

variable-length field Field containing documents that need not be a defined, fixed length.

version control A mechanism to help system engineers handle the problem of a system going into a production (live) state and then moving on to a second or subsequent development state. Version control is a facility that includes the capability of changing the state of a version of an application, archiving a version and creating new versions.

version group A collection of application systems consisting of one application system at a specified version plus all the dummy application systems that own elements shared by this application system. The version group is significant because to drop an application system, its entire version group must be dropped in order to retain consistency of shared elements.

version number The primary identifying number of ORACLE software. In V6.0.20, the version number is 6. See also maintenance release and revision level.

vertical partitioning The partitioning or "fragmenting" of a table's data, where some columns of the table are stored on one node and other columns are stored on another node. The primary key columns of each partitioned table must be stored on all nodes. See also horizontal partitioning.

vertical sizing (Layout objects) Setting that determines how the vertical size of the layout object will change at runtime to accommodate the objects or data within it. Valid options are Contract, Expand, Fixed, and Variable.

vertical spacing (Repeating Frame Definition/Properties) Number of lines that should appear vertically between instances of a repeating frame.

view (1) A rectangular section of a window that exists outside the area of the scroll bar alleys and window decoration such as borders and title bars. (2) In Oracle Graphics, region of the Layout or Chart Template editors that focuses on a specific section of that editor. (3) A custom tailored presentation of the data in one or more tables. A view can also be thought of as a "stored query." Views do not actually contain or store data; rather, they derive their data from the tables on which they are based, called base tables. Base tables can in turn be actual tables or can themselves be views. Views can be queried, updated, inserted into, and deleted from, with restrictions. All operations performed on a view actually affect the base tables of the view.

view tree The hierarchy of related views within a window, usually descending from the content view.

virtual column A column in a query result whose values do not exist in the underlying tables. Instead, the values are calculated from the value(s) of other column(s).

virtual machine A guest operating system or CMS session running under CP. Each virtual machine has its own virtual console, virtual DASD and tape, and virtual card readers and punches.

VM/ESA (Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems Architecture) A new operating system for the S/370/390 line of processors. This new version of VM is geared toward improving service machine performance in the VM environment and positions the VM mainframe as a superserver.

VM/XA (Virtual Machine/Extended Architecture) A version of VM that supports IBM's Extended Architecture, which extends the addressability of virtual memory past the maximum of 16M (with 24-bit addressing) to a maximum of over 2000M (with 31-bit addressing).

VM (Virtual Machine/System Product) An IBM operating system that runs in the System/370 architecture hardware. VM's CP (Control Program) can run one or more System/370 operating systems concurrently. Each of these operating systems runs in its own "virtual machine," as if it were in sole possession of its own System/370 architecture mainframe. CMS (Conversational Monitor System) also runs as a "virtual machine" under CP.

virtual storage A technique by which an operating system, such as VM, can make a limited amount of memory appear to be a much larger amount. The operating system divides each program into "pages," which are uniformly sized sections of the program, usually 4096 bytes in size. The active pages, those containing instructions and data that is currently in use, are kept in real memory. The inactive pages are written to a direct access storage device until the program needs to access either the instructions or data on one of those pages. When this occurs, the required page is copied back into real memory.

VTAM (Virtual Telecommunications Access Method) An IBM program that resides on the host, and .that controls communications and the flow of data in a SNA network.

Virtual Terminal Manager (VTM) A utility that allows users to manually log on to remote hosts to invoke ORACLE or other programs.

visual attribute A display property of any text item or region in a window or block. The designer can create, modify, and delete a set of visual properties that belong to the application.

volume (1) In Wang VS, the name for a directory. (2) The logical storage device that contains a striped file system. A volume consists of one or more disk partitions, usually on separate disks, all of which have the same stripe width.

volume manager The auxiliary process that manages disk partitions and file striping for the ORACLE subcube. The volume manager also cooperates with the processes that manage the gigacache.




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