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Sample Programs


This appendix provides several PL/SQL programs to guide you in writing your own. The sample programs illustrate the following important PL/SQL concepts and features:


Running the Samples

The sample programs in this appendix and many others throughout this Guide are available online. Therefore, they are preceded by the following comment:

-- available online in file <filename>

The list below gives their locations in this Guide and the names of the corresponding online files. However, the exact name and storage location of an online file are system dependent.

Location in Guide Online File
Chapter 1, page 1 - 2 EXAMP1
Chapter 1, page 1 - 8 EXAMP2
Chapter 1, page 1 - 10 EXAMP3
Chapter 2, page 2 - 26 EXAMP4
Chapter 5, page 5 - 35 EXAMP5
Chapter 5, page 5 - 36 EXAMP6
Chapter 5, page 5 - 15 EXAMP7
Chapter 5, page 5 - 16 EXAMP8
Chapter 9, page 9 - 8 EXAMP9
Chapter 9, page 9 - 10 EXAMP10
Chapter 10, page 10 - 11 EXAMP11
Chapter 10, page 10 - 21 EXAMP12
Chapter 10, page 10 - 21 EXAMP13
Chapter 10, page 10 - 22 EXAMP14
Appendix B, page B - 11 SAMPLE1
Appendix B, page B - 12 SAMPLE2
Appendix B, page B - 13 SAMPLE3
Appendix B, page B - 14 SAMPLE4
Appendix B, page B - 18 SAMPLE5
Appendix B, page B - 22 SAMPLE6
Some samples are run interactively from SQL*Plus; others are run from Pro*C programs. You can experiment with the samples from any Oracle account. However, the Pro*C examples expect you to use the SCOTT/TIGER account.

Before trying the samples, you must create some database tables, then load the tables with data. You do that by running two SQL*Plus scripts, EXAMPBLD and EXAMPLOD, supplied with PL/SQL. These scripts can be found in the PL/SQL installation library. Check the Oracle installation or user's guide for your system.

Creating the Tables

Below is a listing of the SQL*Plus script EXAMPBLD. The CREATE statements in this script build the database tables processed by the sample programs. To run the script, invoke SQL*Plus, then issue the following command:

SQL> START EXAMPBLD

EXAMPBLD Script

set compatibility V6

/
drop table accounts
/
create table accounts(
   account_id  number(4) not null,
   bal         number(11,2))
/
create unique index accounts_index on accounts (account_id)
/
drop table action
/
create table action(
   account_id  number(4) not null,
   oper_type   char(1) not null,
   new_value   number(11,2),
   status      char(45),
   time_tag    date not null)
/
drop table bins
/
create table bins(
   bin_num     number(2) not null,
   part_num    number(4),
   amt_in_bin  number(4))
/
drop table data_table
/
create table data_table(
   exper_num  number(2),
   n1         number(5),
   n2         number(5),
   n3         number(5))
/
drop table emp
/
create table emp(
   empno      number(4) not null,
   ename      char(10),
   job        char(9),
   mgr        number(4),
   hiredate   date,
   sal        number(7,2),
   comm       number(7,2),
   deptno     number(2))
/
drop table inventory
/
create table inventory(
   prod_id     number(5) not null,
   product     char(15),
   quantity    number(5))
/
drop table journal
/
create table journal(
   account_id   number(4) not null,
   action       char(45) not null,
   amount       number(11,2),
   date_tag     date not null)
/
drop table num1_tab
/
create table num1_tab(
   sequence   number(3) not null,
   num        number(4))
/
drop table num2_tab
/
create table num2_tab(
   sequence   number(3) not null,
   num        number(4))
/
drop table purchase_record
/
create table purchase_record(
   mesg        char(45),
   purch_date  date)
/
drop table ratio
/
create table ratio(
   sample_id  number(3) not null,
   ratio      number)
/
drop table result_table
/
create table result_table(
   sample_id  number(3) not null,
   x          number,
   y          number)
/
drop table sum_tab
/
create table sum_tab(
   sequence   number(3) not null,
   sum        number(5))
/
drop table temp
/
create table temp(
   num_col1   number(9,4),
   num_col2   number(9,4),
   char_col   char(55))
/
create or replace package personnel as
   type charArrayTyp is table of varchar2(10)
      index by binary_integer;
   type numArrayTyp is table of float
      index by binary_integer;
   procedure get_employees(
      dept_number in     integer,
      batch_size  in     integer,
      found       in out integer,
      done_fetch  out    integer,
      emp_name    out    charArrayTyp,
      job-title   out    charArrayTyp,
      salary      out    numArrayTyp);
end personnel;
/
create or replace package body personnel as
   cursor get_emp (dept_number integer) is
      select ename, job, sal from emp
         where deptno = dept_number;
   procedure get_employees(
      dept_number in     integer,
      batch_size  in     integer,
      found       in out integer,
      done_fetch  out    integer,
      emp_name    out    charArrayTyp,
      job_title   out    charArrayTyp,
      salary      out    numArrayTyp) is
   begin
      if not get_emp%isopen then
         open get_emp(dept_number);
      end if;
      done_fetch := 0;
      found := 0;
      for i in 1..batch_size loop
         fetch get_emp into emp_name(i),
            job_title(i), salary(i);
         if get_emp%notfound then
            close get_emp;
            done_fetch := 1;
            exit;
         else
            found := found + 1;
         end if;
      end loop;
   end get_employees;
end personnel;
/

Loading the Data

Below is a listing of the SQL*Plus script EXAMPLOD. The INSERT statements in this script load (or reload) the database tables processed by the sample programs. To run the script, invoke SQL*Plus in the same Oracle account from which you ran EXAMPBLD, then issue the following command:

SQL> START EXAMPLOD

EXAMPLOD Script

delete from accounts

/
insert into accounts values (1,1000.00)
/
insert into accounts values (2,2000.00)
/
insert into accounts values (3,1500.00)
/
insert into accounts values (4,6500.00)
/
insert into accounts values (5,500.00)
/
delete from action
/
insert into action values
   (3,'u',599,null,sysdate)
/
insert into action values
   (6,'i',20099,null,sysdate)
/
insert into action values
   (5,'d',null,null,sysdate)
/
insert into action values
   (7,'u',1599,null,sysdate)
/
insert into action values
   (1,'i',399,null,sysdate)
/
insert into action values
   (9,'d',null,null,sysdate)
/
insert into action values
   (10,'x',null,null,sysdate)
/
delete from bins
/
insert into bins values (1, 5469, 650)
/
insert into bins values (2, 7243, 450)
/
insert into bins values (3, 5469, 120)
/
insert into bins values (4, 5469, 300)
/
insert into bins values (5, 6085, 415)
/
insert into bins values (6, 5469, 280)
/
insert into bins values (7, 8159, 619)
/
delete from data_table
/
insert into data_table values
   (1, 10, 167, 17)
/
insert into data_table values
   (1, 16, 223, 35)
/
insert into data_table values
   (2, 34, 547, 2)
/
insert into data_table values
   (3, 23, 318, 11)
/
insert into data_table values
   (1, 17, 266, 15)
/
insert into data_table values
   (1, 20, 117, 9)
/
delete from emp
/
insert into emp values
   (7369,'SMITH','CLERK',7902,TO_DATE('12-17-80','MM-DD-YY'),
    800,NULL,20)
/
insert into emp values
   (7499,'ALLEN','SALESMAN',7698,TO_DATE('02-20-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    1600,300,30)
/
insert into emp values
   (7521,'WARD','SALESMAN',7698,TO_DATE('02-22-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    1250,500,30)
/
insert into emp values
   (7566,'JONES','MANAGER',7839,TO_DATE('04-02-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    2975,NULL,20)
/
insert into emp values
(7654,'MARTIN','SALESMAN',7698,TO_DATE('09-28-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    1250,1400,30)
/
insert into emp values
   (7698,'BLAKE','MANAGER',7839,TO_DATE('05-1-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    2850,NULL,30)
/
insert into emp values
   (7782,'CLARK','MANAGER',7839,TO_DATE('06-9-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    2450,NULL,10)
/
insert into emp values
   (7788,'SCOTT','ANALYST',7566,SYSDATE-85,3000,NULL,20)
/
insert into emp values
   (7839,'KING','PRESIDENT',NULL,TO_DATE('11-17-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    5000,NULL,10)
/
insert into emp values
   (7844,'TURNER','SALESMAN',7698,TO_DATE('09-8-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    1500,0,30)
/
insert into emp values
   (7876,'ADAMS','CLERK',7788,SYSDATE-51,1100,NULL,20)
/
insert into emp values
   (7900,'JAMES','CLERK',7698,TO_DATE('12-3-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    950,NULL,30)
/
insert into emp values
   (7902,'FORD','ANALYST',7566,TO_DATE('12-3-81','MM-DD-YY'),
    3000,NULL,20)
/
insert into emp values
   (7934,'MILLER','CLERK',7782,TO_DATE('01-23-82','MM-DD-YY'),
    1300,NULL,10)
/
delete from inventory
/
insert into inventory values
   ('TENNIS RACKET', 3)
/
insert into inventory values
   ('GOLF CLUB', 4)
/
insert into inventory values
   ('SOCCER BALL', 2)
/
delete from journal
/
delete from num1_tab
/
insert into num1_tab values (1, 5)
/
insert into num1_tab values (2, 7)
/
insert into num1_tab values (3, 4)
/
insert into num1_tab values (4, 9)
/
delete from num2_tab
/
insert into num2_tab values (1, 15)
/
insert into num2_tab values (2, 19)
/
insert into num2_tab values (3, 27)
/
delete from purchase_record
/
delete from ratio
/
delete from result_table
/
insert into result_table values (130, 70, 87)
/
insert into result_table values (131, 77, 194)
/
insert into result_table values (132, 73, 0)
/
insert into result_table values (133, 81, 98)
/
delete from sum_tab
/
delete from temp
/
commit


Sample 1. FOR Loop

The following example uses a simple FOR loop to insert ten rows into a database table. The values of a loop index, counter variable, and either of two character strings are inserted. Which string is inserted depends on the value of the loop index.

Input Table

Not applicable.

PL/SQL Block

-- available online in file SAMPLE1

DECLARE
   x NUMBER := 100;
BEGIN
   FOR i IN 1..10 LOOP
      IF MOD(i,2) = 0 THEN     -- i is even
         INSERT INTO temp VALUES (i, x, 'i is even');
      ELSE
         INSERT INTO temp VALUES (i, x, 'i is odd');
      END IF;
      x := x + 100;
   END LOOP;
   COMMIT;
END;

Output Table

SQL> SELECT * FROM temp ORDER BY col1;

 
 COL1    COL2    MESSAGE
 ----- -------    ---------
     1     100    i is odd
     2     200    i is even
     3     300    i is odd
     4     400    i is even
     5     500    i is odd
     6     600    i is even
     7     700    i is odd
     8     800    i is even
     9     900    i is odd
    10    1000    i is even

 10 records selected.


Sample 2. Cursors

The next example uses a cursor to select the five highest paid employees from the emp table.

Input Table

SQL> SELECT ename, empno, sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC;

 
ENAME            EMPNO      SAL
---------- ----------- --------
KING              7839     5000
SCOTT             7788     3000
FORD              7902     3000
JONES             7566     2975
BLAKE             7698     2850
CLARK             7782     2450
ALLEN             7499     1600
TURNER            7844     1500
MILLER            7934     1300
WARD              7521     1250
MARTIN            7654     1250
ADAMS             7876     1100
JAMES             7900      950
SMITH             7369      800

14 records selected.

PL/SQL Block

-- available online in file SAMPLE2

DECLARE
   CURSOR c1 is
      SELECT ename, empno, sal FROM emp
         ORDER BY sal DESC;   -- start with highest paid employee
   my_ename CHAR(10);
   my_empno NUMBER(4);
   my_sal   NUMBER(7,2);

BEGIN
   OPEN c1;
   FOR i IN 1..5 LOOP
      FETCH c1 INTO my_ename, my_empno, my_sal;
      EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND;  /* in case the number requested */
                              /* is more than the total       */
                              /* number of employees          */
      INSERT INTO temp VALUES (my_sal, my_empno, my_ename);
      COMMIT;
   END LOOP;
   CLOSE c1;
END;

Output Table

SQL> SELECT * FROM temp ORDER BY col1 DESC;

 
     COL1     COL2    MESSAGE
--------- --------    -------
     5000     7839    KING
     3000     7902    FORD
     3000     7788    SCOTT
     2975     7566    JONES
     2850     7698    BLAKE


Sample 3. Scoping

The following example illustrates block structure and scope rules. An outer block declares two variables named x and counter and loops four times. Inside this loop is a sub-block that also declares a variable named x. The values inserted into the temp table show that the two x's are indeed different.

Input Table

Not applicable.

PL/SQL Block

-- available online in file SAMPLE3

DECLARE
   x       NUMBER := 0;
   counter NUMBER := 0;
BEGIN
   FOR i IN 1..4 LOOP
      x := x + 1000;
      counter := counter + 1;
      INSERT INTO temp VALUES (x, counter, 'outer loop');
      /* start an inner block */
      DECLARE
         x NUMBER := 0;  -- this is a local version of x
      BEGIN
         FOR i IN 1..4 LOOP
            x := x + 1;  -- this increments the local x
            counter := counter + 1;
            INSERT INTO temp VALUES (x, counter, 'inner loop');
         END LOOP;
      END;
   END LOOP;
   COMMIT;
END;

Output Table

SQL> SELECT * FROM temp ORDER BY col2;


   COL1          COL2    MESSAGE
-------      --------    -------------
   1000             1    OUTER loop
      1             2    inner loop
      2             3    inner loop
      3             4    inner loop
      4             5    inner loop
   2000             6    OUTER loop
      1             7    inner loop
      2             8    inner loop
      3             9    inner loop
      4            10    inner loop
   3000            11    OUTER loop
      1            12    inner loop
      2            13    inner loop
      3            14    inner loop
      4            15    inner loop
   4000            16    OUTER loop
      1            17    inner loop
      2            18    inner loop
      3            19    inner loop
      4            20    inner loop

20 records selected.


Sample 4. Batch Transaction Processing

In the next example the accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. Each row in the action table contains an account number, an action to be taken (I, U, or D for insert, update, or delete), an amount by which to update the account, and a time tag used to sequence the transactions.

On an insert, if the account already exists, an update is done instead. On an update, if the account does not exist, it is created by an insert. On a delete, if the row does not exist, no action is taken.

Input Tables

SQL> SELECT * FROM accounts ORDER BY account_id;


ACCOUNT_ID         BAL
----------   ---------
         1        1000
         2        2000
         3        1500
         4        6500
         5         500

SQL> SELECT * FROM action ORDER BY time_tag;
 
ACCOUNT_ID  O  NEW_VALUE STATUS                   TIME_TAG
----------  - ---------- ------------------------ ---------
         3  u        599                          18-NOV-88
         6  i      20099                          18-NOV-88
         5  d                                     18-NOV-88
         7  u       1599                          18-NOV-88
         1  i        399                          18-NOV-88
         9  d                                     18-NOV-88
        10  x                                     18-NOV-88
 
7 records selected.

PL/SQL Block

-- available online in file SAMPLE4

DECLARE
   CURSOR c1 IS
      SELECT account_id, oper_type, new_value FROM action
      ORDER BY time_tag
      FOR UPDATE OF status;
 
BEGIN
   FOR acct IN c1 LOOP  -- process each row one at a time
 
   acct.oper_type := upper(acct.oper_type);
 
   /*----------------------------------------*/
   /* Process an UPDATE.  If the account to  */
   /* be updated doesn't exist, create a new */
   /* account.                               */
   /*----------------------------------------*/
   IF acct.oper_type = 'U' THEN
      UPDATE accounts SET bal = acct.new_value
         WHERE account_id = acct.account_id;
 
      IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN  -- account didn't exist. Create it.
         INSERT INTO accounts
            VALUES (acct.account_id, acct.new_value);
         UPDATE action SET status =
            'Update: ID not found. Value inserted.'
            WHERE CURRENT OF c1;
      ELSE
         UPDATE action SET status = 'Update: Success.'
            WHERE CURRENT OF c1;
      END IF;
 
   /*--------------------------------------------*/
   /* Process an INSERT.  If the account already */
   /* exists, do an update of the account        */
   /* instead.                                   */
   /*--------------------------------------------*/
   ELSIF acct.oper_type = 'I' THEN
      BEGIN
         INSERT INTO accounts
            VALUES (acct.account_id, acct.new_value);
         UPDATE action set status = 'Insert: Success.'
            WHERE CURRENT OF c1;
         EXCEPTION
            WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN   -- account already exists
               UPDATE accounts SET bal = acct.new_value
                  WHERE account_id = acct.account_id;
               UPDATE action SET status =
                  'Insert: Acct exists. Updated instead.'
                  WHERE CURRENT OF c1;
       END;
 
   /*--------------------------------------------*/
   /* Process a DELETE.  If the account doesn't  */
   /* exist, set the status field to say that    */
   /* the account wasn't found.                  */
   /*--------------------------------------------*/
   ELSIF acct.oper_type = 'D' THEN
      DELETE FROM accounts
         WHERE account_id = acct.account_id;
 
      IF SQL%NOTFOUND THEN   -- account didn't exist.
         UPDATE action SET status = 'Delete: ID not found.'
            WHERE CURRENT OF c1;
      ELSE
         UPDATE action SET status = 'Delete: Success.'
            WHERE CURRENT OF c1;
      END IF;
   /*--------------------------------------------*/
   /* The requested operation is invalid.        */
   /*--------------------------------------------*/
   ELSE  -- oper_type is invalid
      UPDATE action SET status =
         'Invalid operation. No action taken.'
         WHERE CURRENT OF c1;
 
   END IF;
 
   END LOOP;
   COMMIT;
END;

Output Tables

SQL> SELECT * FROM accounts ORDER BY account_id;


ACCOUNT_ID         BAL
----------   ---------
         1         399
         2        2000
         3         599
         4        6500
         6       20099
         7        1599
 
6 records selected.


SQL> SELECT * FROM action ORDER BY time_tag;
 
ACCOUNT_ID  O  NEW_VALUE STATUS                    TIME_TAG
----------  - ---------- ------------------------  ---------
         3  u        599 Update: Success.          18-NOV-88
         6  i      20099 Insert: Success.          18-NOV-88
         5  d            Delete: Success.          18-NOV-88
         7  u       1599 Update: ID not found.     18-NOV-88
                         Value inserted.
         1  i        399 Insert: Acct exists.      18-NOV-88
                         Updated instead.
         9  d            Delete: ID not found.     18-NOV-88
        10  x            Invalid operation.        18-NOV-88
                         No action taken.
 
7 records selected.


Sample 5. Embedded PL/SQL

The following example shows how you can embed PL/SQL in a high-level host language such as C and demonstrates how a banking debit transaction might be done.

Input Table

SQL> SELECT * FROM accounts ORDER BY account_id;

 
ACCOUNT_ID         BAL
----------   ---------
         1        1000
         2        2000
         3        1500
         4        6500
         5         500

PL/SQL Block in a C Program

/* available online in file SAMPLE5 */ #include <stdio.h>

   char     buf[20];
 
EXEC SQL BEGIN DECLARE SECTION;
   int     acct;
   double  debit;
   double  new_bal;
   VARCHAR status[65];
   VARCHAR uid[20];
   VARCHAR pwd[20];
EXEC SQL END DECLARE SECTION;
 
EXEC SQL INCLUDE SQLCA;
 
main()
{
   extern double atof();
 
   strcpy (uid.arr,"scott");
   uid.len=strlen(uid.arr);
   strcpy (pwd.arr,"tiger");
   pwd.len=strlen(pwd.arr);
 
   printf("\n\n\tEmbedded PL/SQL Debit Transaction Demo\n\n");
   printf("Trying to connect...");
   EXEC SQL WHENEVER SQLERROR GOTO errprint;
   EXEC SQL CONNECT :uid IDENTIFIED BY :pwd;
   printf(" connected.\n");
 
for (;;)       /*  Loop infinitely */
{
   printf("\n** Debit which account number? (-1 to end) ");
   gets(buf);
   acct = atoi(buf);
   if (acct == -1)     /* Need to disconnect from Oracle */
   {                   /* and exit loop if account is -1 */
       EXEC SQL COMMIT RELEASE;
       exit(0);
   }

   printf("   What is the debit amount? ");
   gets(buf);
   debit = atof(buf);
 
   /* ---------------------------------- */
   /* ----- Begin the PL/SQL block ----- */
   /* ---------------------------------- */
   EXEC SQL EXECUTE
 
   DECLARE
      insufficient_funds    EXCEPTION;
      old_bal               NUMBER;
      min_bal               NUMBER := 500;
 
   BEGIN
      SELECT bal INTO old_bal FROM accounts
         WHERE account_id = :acct;
         -- If the account doesn't exist, the NO_DATA_FOUND
         -- exception will be automatically raised.
      :new_bal := old_bal - :debit;
      IF :new_bal >= min_bal THEN
         UPDATE accounts SET bal = :new_bal
            WHERE account_id = :acct;
         INSERT INTO journal
            VALUES (:acct, 'Debit', :debit, SYSDATE);
         :status := 'Transaction completed.';
      ELSE
         RAISE insufficient_funds;
      END IF;
 
   COMMIT;
   EXCEPTION
      WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
         :status := 'Account not found.';
         :new_bal := -1;
      WHEN insufficient_funds THEN
         :status := 'Insufficient funds.';
         :new_bal := old_bal;
      WHEN OTHERS THEN
         ROLLBACK;
         :status := 'Error: ' || SQLERRM(SQLCODE);
         :new_bal := -1;
   END;
 
   END-EXEC;
   /* -------------------------------- */
   /* ----- End the PL/SQL block ----- */
   /* -------------------------------- */
 
   status.arr[status.len] = '\0';  /* null-terminate */
                                   /* the string     */
   printf("\n\n   Status:  %s\n", status.arr);
   if (new_bal >= 0)
      printf("   Balance is now:  $%.2f\n", new_bal);
}  /* End of loop */
 
errprint:
   EXEC SQL WHENEVER SQLERROR CONTINUE;
   printf("\n\n>>>>> Error during execution:\n");
   printf("%s\n",sqlca.sqlerrm.sqlerrmc);
   EXEC SQL ROLLBACK RELEASE;
   exit(1);
}

Interactive Session

Embedded PL/SQL Debit Transaction Demo

 
Trying to connect... connected.
 
** Debit which account number? (-1 to end) 1
   What is the debit amount? 300

   Status:  Transaction completed.
   Balance is now:  $700.00

** Debit which account number? (-1 to end) 1
   What is the debit amount? 900
   Status:  Insufficient funds.
   Balance is now:  $700.00
** Debit which account number? (-1 to end) 2
   What is the debit amount? 500

   Status:  Transaction completed.
   Balance is now:  $1500.00

** Debit which account number? (-1 to end) 2
   What is the debit amount? 100

   Status:  Transaction completed.
   Balance is now:  $1400.00

** Debit which account number? (-1 to end) 99
   What is the debit amount? 100

   Status:  Account not found.

** Debit which account number? (-1 to end) -1

Output Tables

SQL> SELECT * FROM accounts ORDER BY account_id;


ACCOUNT_ID   BAL
---------- -----
         1   700
         2  1400
         3  1500
         4  6500
         5   500

SQL> SELECT * FROM journal ORDER BY date_tag;

ACCOUNT_ID  ACTION                           AMOUNT  DATE_TAG
----------  --------------------------   ----------  ---------
         1  Debit                               300  28-NOV-88
         2  Debit                               500  28-NOV-88
         2  Debit                               100  28-NOV-88


Sample 6. Calling a Stored Procedure

This Pro*C program connects to Oracle, prompts the user for a department number, then calls a procedure named get_employees, which is stored in a package named personnel. The procedure declares three PL/SQL tables as OUT formal parameters, then fetches a batch of employee data into the PL/SQL tables. The matching actual parameters are host arrays. When the procedure finishes, it automatically assigns all row values in the PL/SQL tables to corresponding elements in the host arrays. The program calls the procedure repeatedly, displaying each batch of employee data, until no more data is found.

Input Table

SQL> SELECT ename, empno, sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC;


ENAME            EMPNO      SAL
---------- ----------- --------
KING              7839     5000
SCOTT             7788     3000
FORD              7902     3000
JONES             7566     2975
BLAKE             7698     2850
CLARK             7782     2450
ALLEN             7499     1600
TURNER            7844     1500
MILLER            7934     1300
WARD              7521     1250
MARTIN            7654     1250
ADAMS             7876     1100
JAMES             7900      950
SMITH             7369      800

14 records selected.

Stored Procedure

/* available online in file SAMPLE6 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

typedef char asciz;

EXEC SQL BEGIN DECLARE SECTION;
   /* Define type for null-terminated strings. */
   EXEC SQL TYPE asciz IS STRING(20);
   asciz  username[20];
   asciz  password[20];
   int    dept_no;    /* which department to query */
   char   emp_name[10][21];
   char   job[10][21];
   float  salary[10];
   int    done_flag;
   int    array_size;
   int    num_ret;    /* number of rows returned */
   int    SQLCODE;
EXEC SQL END DECLARE SECTION;

EXEC SQL INCLUDE sqlca;

int print_rows();       /* produces program output      */
int sqlerror();         /* handles unrecoverable errors */

main()
{
   int i;

   /* Connect to Oracle. */
   strcpy(username, "SCOTT");
   strcpy(password, "TIGER");

   EXEC SQL WHENEVER SQLERROR DO sqlerror();

   EXEC SQL CONNECT :username IDENTIFIED BY :password;
   printf("\nConnected to Oracle as user: %s\n\n", username);

   printf("Enter department number: ");
   scanf("%d", &dept_no);
   fflush(stdin);
   /* Print column headers. */
   printf("\n\n");
   printf("%-10.10s%-10.10s%s\n", "Employee", "Job", "Salary");
   printf("%-10.10s%-10.10s%s\n", "--------", "---", "------");

   /* Set the array size. */
   array_size = 10;
   done_flag = 0;
   num_ret = 0;

   /* Array fetch loop - ends when NOT FOUND becomes true. */
   for (;;)
   {
      EXEC SQL EXECUTE
         BEGIN personnel.get_employees
            (:dept_no, :array_size, :num_ret, :done_flag,
            :emp_name, :job, :salary);
         END;
      END-EXEC;
      print_rows(num_ret);

      if (done_flag)
         break;
   }

   /* Disconnect from Oracle. */
   EXEC SQL COMMIT WORK RELEASE;
   exit(0);
}

print_rows(n)
int n;
{
   int i;

   if (n == 0)
   {
      printf("No rows retrieved.\n");
      return;
   }

   for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
      printf("%10.10s%10.10s%6.2f\n",
         emp_name[i], job[i], salary[i]);
}
sqlerror()
{
   EXEC SQL WHENEVER SQLERROR CONTINUE;
   printf("\nOracle error detected:");
   printf("\n% .70s \n", sqlca.sqlerrm.sqlerrmc);
   EXEC SQL ROLLBACK WORK RELEASE;
   exit(1);
}

Interactive Session

Connected to Oracle as user: SCOTT


Enter department number: 20

Employee  Job       Salary
--------  ---       ------
SMITH     CLERK     800.00
JONES     MANAGER   2975.00
SCOTT     ANALYST   3000.00
ADAMS     CLERK     1100.00
FORD      ANALYST   3000.00




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