Oracle8 Reference
Release 8.0






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This manual provides reference information about the Oracle8 Server, running on all operating systems. This information includes:

Feature Coverage and Availability

Oracle8 Reference contains information relating to both Oracle8 and the Oracle8 Enterprise Edition. Some of the features documented in this manual are available only if you have purchased the Oracle8 Enterprise Edition. Furthermore, some of these features are only available if you have purchased a particular option, such as the Objects option.

For information about the differences between Oracle8 and the Oracle8 Enterprise Edition, please refer to Getting to Know Oracle8 and the Oracle8 Enterprise Edition. Oracle8 Reference describes those features which are common to both products, and those which are only available with the Oracle8 Enterprise Edition or a particular option.


This manual is written for database administrators, system administrators, and database application developers.

Knowledge Assumed of the Reader

It is assumed that readers of this manual are familiar with relational database concepts, basic Oracle Server concepts, and with the operating system environment under which they are running Oracle.

Installation and Migration Information

This manual is not an installation or migration guide. If your primary interest is installation, refer to your operating system-specific Oracle documentation. If your primary interest is database and application migration, refer to Oracle8 Migration.

Information Database Administration

While this manual describes the architecture, processes, structures, and other concepts of the Oracle Server, it does not explain how to administer the Oracle Server. For that information, see the Oracle8 Administrator's Guide.

Application Design Information

In addition to administrators, experienced users of Oracle and advanced database application designers will find information in this manual useful. However, database application developers should also refer to the Oracle8 Application Developer's Guide and to the documentation for the tool or language product they are using to develop Oracle database applications.

How Oracle8 Server Reference Is Organized

This manual is organized as follows:

Chapter 1, "Initialization Parameters"

This chapter contains detailed descriptions of the database initialization parameters in the parameter file that are required to start an instance.

Chapter 2, "Static Data Dictionary Views"

This chapter contains descriptions of the Oracle data dictionary tables and views.

Chapter 3, "Dynamic Performance (V$) Views"

This chapter contains descriptions of the dynamic performance views, also known as the V$ views.

Chapter 4, "National Language Support"

This chapter describes features that enable Oracle8 applications to operate with multiple languages using conventions specified by the application user.

Chapter 5, "Database Limits"

This chapter lists the limits of values associated with database functions and objects.

Chapter 6, "SQL Scripts"

This chapter describes the SQL scripts that are required for optimal operation of the Oracle8 Server.

Appendix A, "Oracle Wait Events"

This appendix describes the event name, wait time and parameters for wait events displayed by the V$SESSION_WAIT and V$SYSTEM_EVENT views.

Appendix B, "Enqueue and Lock Names"

This appendix describes the enqueues and locks used by the Oracle Server.

Appendix C, "Statistics Descriptions"

This appendix describes the statistics stored in the V$SESSION_WAIT and V$SYSSTAT dynamic performance table.

Conventions Used in This Manual

The following sections describe the conventions used in this manual.

Text of the Manual

The following textual conventions are used:



Uppercase text is used to call attention to command keywords, object names, parameters, filenames, and so on. For example:


"If you create a private rollback segment, the name of the rollback segment must be included in the ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS parameter of the
parameter file."




Italicized Words


Italicized words within text indicate the definition of a term. For example:


"A database is a collection of data to be treated as a unit. The general purpose of a database is to store and retrieve related information, as needed."

Italics also call out specific book titles and emphasized words.


Examples of Commands and Statements

SQL, Server Manager line mode, and SQL*Plus commands and statements appear separated from the text of paragraphs in a monospaced font. For example:

INSERT INTO emp (empno, ename) VALUES (1000, 'SMITH'); 

Punctuation , ' "


Example statements can include punctuation such as commas or quotation marks. All punctuation given in example statements is required. All example statements are terminated with a semicolon. Note that depending on the application being used, a semicolon or other terminator might or might not be required to end a statement.


Uppercase Words: INSERT, SIZE


Uppercase words in example statements are used to indicate the keywords within Oracle SQL. However, note that when issuing statements, keywords are not case sensitive.


Lowercase Words: emp, users2.ora


Lowercase words in example statements are used to indicate words supplied only for the context of the example. For example, lowercase words can indicate the name of a table, column, or file.


Your Comments Are Welcome

We value and appreciate your Comments as an Oracle user and reader of the manuals. As we write, revise, and evaluate our documentation, your opinions are the most important input we receive. At the back of this manual is a Reader's Comment Form which we encourage you to use to tell us what you like and dislike about this manual or other Oracle manuals.

If the form is not available, please use the following address.

Server Technologies Documentation Manager
Oracle Corporation
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065 U.S.A.


Copyright © 1997 Oracle Corporation.

All Rights Reserved.