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Release 2 (8.1.6)

A76989-01

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About SQL Statements, 3 of 3


Finding the Right SQL Statement

The particular SQL statement you use to accomplish a given database task is sometimes obvious and sometimes difficult to predict. For example, you create a table with the CREATE TABLE statement. However, you don't enable a constraint with the ENABLE CONSTRAINT statement, because such a statement doesn't exist. Rather, you modify the column options using the ALTER TABLE statement.

This section lists, by database object and task, the appropriate SQL statement to use to accomplish various database tasks. You can then refer to Chapter 7, "SQL Statements", for the syntax and semantics of each SQL statement.


Note:

Your ability to use the SQL statements listed in this section depends on the version and edition of Oracle you are using, as well as the options you have installed. Be sure to read the detailed descriptions in Chapter 7, "SQL Statements", before using these statements. 


Database Object / Task  Operation  SQL Statement 

application 

allowing to connect as a user 

ALTER USER proxy_clause 

application server 

allowing to connect as a user 

ALTER USER proxy_clause 

auditing 

of database events 

CREATE TRIGGER 

call 

limit CPU time for 

CPU_PER_CALL parameter 

 

limit data blocks read 

LOGICAL_READS_PER_CALL parameter 

checkpoint 

perform explicitly 

ALTER SYSTEM CHECKPOINT 

clone database 

mount 

ALTER DATABASE MOUNT 

cluster 

cluster key, change columns of  

prohibited 

 

extent, allocate for 

ALTER CLUSTER allocate_extent_clause 

 

migrated or chained rows, identify 

ANALYZE 

 

parallelism of, change 

ALTER CLUSTER parallel_clause 

 

rename 

prohibited 

 

storage characteristics of, change 

ALTER CLUSTER physical_attributes_clause 

 

tablespace of, change  

prohibited 

 

unused space in, release 

ALTER CLUSTER deallocate_unused_clause 

column 

add to a table or modify 

ALTER TABLE add_column_options, modify_column_options 

 

define 

CREATE TABLE 

 

drop from a table 

ALTER TABLE drop_column_clause 

 

generate derived values automatically 

CREATE TRIGGER 

 

organization of, define 

CREATE TABLE 

commit operation 

prevent procedure or function from issuing 

ALTER SESSION 

compilation 

avoid run-time of 

ALTER FUNCTION ... COMPILE 

constraint 

add to a table or modify 

ALTER TABLE add_column_options, modify_column_options 

 

business, enforce 

CREATE TRIGGER 

 

enable, disable, or drop 

ALTER TABLE enable_disable_clause, drop_constraint_clause 

 

specify 

CREATE TABLE 

control file 

back up 

ALTER DATABASE controlfile_clauses 

 

standby, create 

ALTER DATABASE CREATE STANDBY CONTROLFILE 

currency symbol 

reset for session 

ALTER SESSION SET NLS_CURRENCY 

data 

frequently used, caching 

ALTER TABLE cache_clause 

 

specify as temporary or permanent 

CREATE TABLE 

data dictionary 

convert from Oracle7 to Oracle8i 

ALTER DATABASE CONVERT 

data independence 

provide 

CREATE SYNONYM 

database 

character set of, change 

ALTER DATABASE CHARACTER SET 

 

create script for 

ALTER DATABASE controlfile_clauses 

 

database character set for, specify  

CREATE DATABASE 

 

datafiles for, specify  

CREATE DATABASE 

 

datafiles of, modify  

ALTER DATABASE 

 

datafiles, establish number of  

CREATE DATABASE 

 

downgrade to an earlier release 

ALTER DATABASE RESET COMPATIBILITY 

 

global name of, change 

ALTER DATABASE RENAME GLOBAL_NAME 

 

global name resolution, enable for the session 

ALTER SESSION SET GLOBAL_NAMES 

 

instances, establish number of 

CREATE DATABASE 

 

media recovery, design 

ALTER DATABASE general_recovery_clause 

 

media recovery, perform ongoing 

ALTER DATABASE managed_recovery_clause 

 

mount 

ALTER DATABASE MOUNT 

 

move a subset to a different Oracle database 

ALTER TABLE exchange_partition_clause 

 

national character set for, specify 

CREATE DATABASE 

 

national character set of, change 

ALTER DATABASE CHARACTER SET 

 

open 

ALTER DATABASE OPEN 

 

parallelize recovery of 

ALTER DATABASE parallel_clause 

 

place in read-only mode 

ALTER DATABASE OPEN 

 

place in read-write mode 

ALTER DATABASE OPEN 

 

place in sustained standby recovery mode 

ALTER DATABASE general_recovery_clause 

 

prepare to re-create 

ALTER DATABASE controlfile_clauses 

 

recover 

ALTER DATABASE recover_clauses 

 

redo log file groups, establish number of  

CREATE DATABASE 

 

redo log files for, specify  

CREATE DATABASE 

 

redo log files of, create or modify  

ALTER DATABASE 

 

redo log files, establish number of  

CREATE DATABASE 

 

redo log, choose mode for  

CREATE DATABASE 

 

upgrade to Oracle8i 

ALTER DATABASE 

database character set 

specify for a database 

CREATE DATABASE 

database events 

transparent logging of 

CREATE TRIGGER 

database link 

close 

ALTER SESSION 

database security 

enforce authorizations 

CREATE TRIGGER 

datafile 

automatic extension of, allow 

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE autoextend_clause 

 

create 

ALTER DATABASE CREATE DATAFILE 

 

put online 

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ONLINE 

 

reconstruct damaged 

ALTER DATABASE general_recovery_clause 

 

reconstruct lost or damaged 

ALTER DATABASE CREATE DATAFILE 

 

recover specified 

ALTER DATABASE general_recovery_clause 

 

replace an old, for recovery 

ALTER DATABASE CREATE DATAFILE 

 

resize 

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE RESIZE 

 

take offline 

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ONLINE/OFFLINE 

 

begin or end backup of 

ALTER TABLESPACE ... BACKUP 

 

number of, establish for a database 

CREATE DATABASE 

 

online, update instance information on 

ALTER SYSTEM check_datafiles_clause 

 

specify for a database 

CREATE DATABASE 

dates 

format of 

See Table 2-9, "Date Format Elements"

decimal character 

reset for session 

ALTER SESSION SET NLS_NUMERIC_CHARACTERS 

dimension 

add a level, hierarchy, or attribute to 

ALTER DIMENSION ... ADD 

 

change the relationships of 

ALTER DIMENSION 

 

drop a level, hierarchy, or attribute from 

ALTER DIMENSION ... DROP 

 

explicitly compile 

ALTER DIMENSION ... COMPILE 

dispatcher processes 

multi-threaded server, manage 

MTS_ parameters of ALTER SYSTEM 

domain index 

alter 

ALTER INDEX ... PARAMETERS 

 

rebuild 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

dump file 

limit the size of 

ALTER SESSION SET MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE 

error messages 

language in which displayed, change  

ALTER SESSION SET NLS_LANGUAGE 

function 

allow to or prevent from committing a transaction 

ALTER SESSION 

 

declaration of, change 

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION 

 

definition of, change 

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION 

 

recompile explicitly 

ALTER FUNCTION 

function-based index 

disable 

ALTER INDEX ... [rebuild_clause] DISABLE 

 

disabled, re-enable 

ALTER INDEX ... [rebuild_clause] ENABLE 

global names 

enforce resolution of 

GLOBAL_NAMES parameter of ALTER SYSTEM 

hash join operations 

data blocks for, allocate  

ALTER SESSION SET HASH_MULTIBLOCK_IO_COUNT 

 

in queries, enable or disable 

ALTER SESSION SET HASH_JOIN_ENABLED ... 

 

memory for, allocate  

ALTER SESSION SET HASH_AREA_SIZE 

index 

allow DML operations during rebuilding of 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

based on a function; see "function-based index" 

CREATE INDEX ... column_expression 

 

based on an indextype; see "domain index" 

CREATE INDEX domain_index_clause 

 

collect statistics during rebuilding of 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

default attribute values of, change  

ALTER INDEX partitioning_clauses 

 

degree of parallelism for, change  

ALTER INDEX parallel_clause 

 

direct-load INSERT operations, write to a log 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

extent for, allocate new 

ALTER INDEX allocate_extent_clause 

 

key compression, enable  

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

key values, eliminate repetition of 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

merge block contents of 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

physical attributes of a partition of, change 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

physical attributes of a subpartition of, change the  

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

physical attributes of, change 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

re-create 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

rebuild operations, write to a log 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

SQL*Loader operations against, write to a log 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

store bytes in reverse order 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

tablespace for, specify 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

tell Oracle not to use 

ALTER INDEX ... [rebuild_clause] UNUSABLE 

 

unused space, release 

ALTER INDEX deallocate_unused_clause 

 

rename 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

index partition 

create-time attributes, change 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

log direct-load INSERT operations 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

log SQL*Loader operations against 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

move to a different tablespace 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

physical attributes of, change 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

physical, logging, or storage characteristics of, change 

ALTER INDEX partitioning_clauses 

 

re-create 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

remove from the database 

ALTER INDEX partitioning_clauses 

 

specify a tablespace for 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

split into two partitions 

ALTER INDEX partitioning_clauses 

 

tell Oracle not to use 

ALTER INDEX ... UNUSABLE 

index subpartition 

change a create-time attributes, change 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

log direct-load INSERT operations 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

log SQL*Loader operations against 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

move to a different tablespace 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

physical attributes, change 

ALTER INDEX physical_attributes_clause 

 

physical, logging, or storage characteristics, change 

ALTER INDEX partitioning_clauses 

 

re-create 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

tablespace for, specify 

ALTER INDEX rebuild_clause 

 

tell Oracle not to use 

ALTER INDEX ... UNUSABLE 

index-organized table 

characteristics, change 

ALTER TABLE 

indexes 

on a cluster 

CREATE INDEX 

 

on a nested table storage table 

CREATE INDEX 

 

on a partitioned table 

CREATE INDEX 

 

on an index-organized table 

CREATE INDEX 

 

on columns of a table 

CREATE INDEX 

 

on scalar typed object attributes 

CREATE INDEX 

instance 

dynamically modify 

ALTER SYSTEM 

 

make an index extent available to 

ALTER INDEX allocate_extent_clause 

 

switch to a different 

ALTER SESSION SET INSTANCE 

instance recovery 

continue after interruption 

ALTER DATABASE general_recovery_clause 

instances 

number of, establish for a database 

CREATE DATABASE 

Java class 

force resolution of 

ALTER JAVA 

Java resource 

force compilation of 

ALTER JAVA 

Java source 

force compilation of 

ALTER JAVA 

licensing 

changing limits or thresholds 

LICENSE_ parameters of ALTER SYSTEM 

LOB columns 

add to a table or modify 

ALTER TABLE add_column_options, modify_column_options, LOB_storage_clause 

location transparency 

provide 

CREATE SYNONYM 

materialized view 

automatic refresh, change the mode or timing of 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW refresh_clause 

 

change from rowid-based to primary-key-based 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG 

 

degree of parallelism, specify or change 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW parallel_clause 

 

divide into partitions 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW partitioning_clauses 

 

LOB storage characteristics, change 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW modify_LOB_storage_clause 

 

LOB storage characteristics, specify 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOB_storage_clause 

 

log changes to 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW ... LOGGING 

 

make eligible for query rewrite 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW ... QUERY REWRITE

ALTER SESSION SET QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED 

 

make frequently accessed data accessible 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW ... CACHE 

 

revalidate 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW ... COMPILE 

 

storage characteristics, change 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW physical_attributes_clause 

materialized view log 

automatic refresh, change the mode and timing of 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG 

 

change from rowid-based to primary-key-based 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG 

 

divide into partitions 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG partitioning_clauses 

 

physical and storage characteristics, change 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ... physical_attributes_clause 

 

save both old and new values 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ...NEW VALUES 

 

store primary key of changed rows 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ... ADD 

 

store rowid of changed rows 

ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ... ADD 

media recovery 

avoid on startup 

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE END BACKUP 

 

from specified redo log file 

ALTER DATABASE general_recovery_clause 

 

prepare for 

ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG 

national character set 

specify for a database 

CREATE DATABASE 

national language support 

change settings for the session 

ALTER SESSION SET NLS_ parameters 

nested table 

update in a view 

create an INSTEAD OF trigger 

nested table columns 

indexing 

CREATE INDEX 

numbers 

format 

See Table 2-7, "Number Format Elements"

object references. See REFs 

online redo log 

reinitialize 

ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE 

outline 

assign to a different category 

ALTER OUTLINE ... CHANGE CATEGORY TO 

 

recompile 

ALTER OUTLINE ... REBUILD 

 

rename 

ALTER OUTLINE ... RENAME 

 

automatically create and store 

ALTER SESSION SET CREATE_STORED_OUTLINES 

 

use to generate execution plans 

ALTER SESSION SET USE_STORED_OUTLINES 

package 

avoid run-time compilation 

ALTER PACKAGE 

 

compile explicitly 

ALTER PACKAGE 

package body 

avoid run-time compilation 

ALTER PACKAGE 

 

recompile explicitly 

ALTER PACKAGE 

parallelism 

specify for a table 

CREATE TABLE 

 

specify for DML on a table 

CREATE TABLE 

parameter, initialization 

change the setting for the current session 

ALTER SESSION set_clause 

parameter, session 

set or change the setting of 

ALTER SESSION set_clause 

partition 

add to a table or modify 

ALTER TABLE 

 

default attributes, change  

ALTER TABLE modify_default_attributes_clause 

 

logging characteristics, change 

ALTER TABLE logging_clause 

 

merge with another partition 

ALTER TABLE merge_partitions_clause 

 

point to data in a nonpartitioned table 

ALTER TABLE exchange_partition_clause 

 

real attributes, change 

ALTER TABLE modify_partition_clause 

password 

complexity of, guarantee  

PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION parameter 

 

make unavailable 

PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME parameter 

 

number of days account will be locked after failed login attempts, specify  

PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME parameter 

 

number of days before reuse, limit 

PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME parameter 

 

number of days in grace period, specify 

PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME parameter 

 

number of days usable, limit 

PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME parameter 

 

number of times reused, limit 

PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX parameter 

 

special characters in, allow 

PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION parameter 

performance 

optimize for index access path 

ALTER SESSION SET OPTIMIZER_INDEX_COST_ADJ 

 

optimize for nested loop joins 

ALTER SESSION SET OPTIMIZER_INDEX_CACHING 

 

specify the optimizer approach for the session 

ALTER SESSION SET OPTIMIZER_MODE 

procedure 

allow to or prevent from committing a transaction 

ALTER SESSION 

 

avoid run-time compilation 

ALTER PROCEDURE 

 

recompile explicitly 

ALTER PROCEDURE 

profile 

resource limit, add to 

ALTER PROFILE 

 

resource limit, change 

ALTER PROFILE 

 

resource limit, drop from 

ALTER PROFILE 

recovery 

distributed, enable or disable 

ALTER SYSTEM distributed_recovery_clause 

recovery data 

discard 

ALTER DATABASE RESETLOGS 

redo log 

remove changes from 

ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS 

 

reset sequence of 

ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS 

 

specify mode of 

CREATE DATABASE 

redo log file 

add 

ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE MEMBER 

 

automatically generates names for 

ALTER DATABASE general_recovery_clause 

 

clear 

ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE 

 

drop 

ALTER DATABASE DROP LOGFILE 

 

enable or disable thread 

ALTER DATABASE ENABLE THREAD 

 

rename 

ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE 

 

number of, establish for a database 

CREATE DATABASE 

 

archive manually or automatically 

ALTER SYSETM archive_log_clause 

 

number of, establish for a database 

CREATE DATABASE 

 

specify a path for 

ALTER SESSION SET LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n 

 

switch manually 

ALTER SYSTEM switch_logfile_clause 

REFS 

validate and update 

ANALYZE 

role 

change authorization required 

ALTER ROLE 

rollback segment 

bring online 

ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT 

 

reduce in size 

ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT 

 

storage characteristics, change 

ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT 

 

take offline 

ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT 

rowid 

examine 

query the ROWID pseudocolumn 

 

extended, interpreting contents 

DBMS_ROWID package; see Oracle8i Supplied PL/SQL Packages Reference 

schema 

change during the session 

ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA 

schema object 

reference without referencing its location 

CREATE SYNONYM 

 

reference without referencing its owner 

CREATE SYNONYM 

 

specify another name for 

CREATE SYNONYM 

 

validate structure of  

ANALYZE 

sequence 

cached sequence values, change number of 

ALTER SEQUENCE cache_clause 

 

consecutive order of values, guarantee 

CREATE SEQUENCE ... ORDER

ALTER SEQUENCE ... ORDER 

 

create 

CREATE SEQUENCE 

 

determine current value of 

See "CURRVAL and NEXTVAL"

 

increment value, set 

CREATE SEQUENCE ... INCREMENT BY

ALTER SEQUENCE ... INCREMENT BY 

 

maximum or minimum value, eliminate  

ALTER SEQUENCE 

 

minimum or maximum value, set 

CREATE SEQUENCE

ALTER SEQUENCE 

 

preallocate values for faster access 

CREATE SEQUENCE

ALTER SEQUENCE 

 

restart after a predefined limit 

CREATE SEQUENCE ... CYCLE

ALTER SEQUENCE ... CYCLE 

 

starting value, set 

CREATE SEQUENCE 

server processes 

multi-threaded server, manage 

MTS_ parameters of ALTER SYSTEM 

session 

CPU time for, limit 

CPU_PER_SESSION parameter 

 

data blocks read, limit 

LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION parameter 

 

enable or disable parallel transactions in 

ALTER SESSION 

 

inactive period duration, limit 

IDLE_TIME parameter 

 

private SGA space for, limit 

PRIVATE_SGA parameter 

 

resource costs allowed, change 

ALTER RESOURCE COST 

 

restrict to privileged users 

ALTER SYSTEM restricted_session_clause 

 

terminate 

ALTER SYSTEM kill_session_clause 

 

total elapsed time, limit 

CONNECT_TIME parameter 

 

total resources for, limit 

COMPOSITE_LIMIT parameter 

SGA 

flush data from shared pool 

ALTER SYSTEM flush_shared_pool_clause 

shared pool 

flush 

ALTER SYSTEM flush_shared_pool_clause 

snapshot. See "materialized view". 

sort operations 

linguistic sequence, change  

ALTER SESSION SET NLS_SORT 

standby database 

activate 

ALTER DATABASE ACTIVATE STANDBY DATABASE 

 

recover 

ALTER DATABASE recover_clauses 

statistics 

on a schema object, collect  

ANALYZE 

 

on a schema object, delete 

ANALYZE 

 

on scalar object attributes, collect 

ANALYZE 

subpartition 

add to a table or modify 

ALTER TABLE 

 

default attributes, change  

ALTER TABLE modify_default_attributes_clause, modify_partition_clause 

 

logging characteristics, change 

ALTER TABLE logging_clause 

 

real attributes, change 

ALTER TABLE modify_subpartition_clause 

system resources 

enable or disable 

RESOURCE_LIMITS parameter of ALTER SYSTEM 

table 

allocate space for 

ALTER TABLE allocate_extent_clause 

 

characteristics, change  

ALTER TABLE physical_attributes_clause, modify_storage_clauses 

 

column, drop from table 

ALTER TABLE drop_column_clause 

 

degree of parallelism, change 

ALTER TABLE parallel_clause 

 

logging characteristics, change 

ALTER TABLE logging_clause 

 

make read-only, read-write 

ALTER TABLE 

 

migrated or chained rows, identify 

ANALYZE 

 

organization, define 

CREATE TABLE 

 

partition, point to the contents of another table 

ALTER TABLE exchange_partition_clause 

 

partitioning, specify 

CREATE TABLE 

 

rename 

ALTER TABLE 

 

unused space of, release 

ALTER TABLE deallocate_unused_clause 

 

heap or index organized 

CREATE TABLE 

 

include in a cluster 

CREATE TABLE 

 

replicate asynchronous, maintain 

CREATE TRIGGER 

 

storage characteristics of, set 

CREATE TABLE 

tablespace 

allow or disallow writing to 

ALTER TABLESPACE READ WRITE/ONLY 

 

datafiles, add or rename 

ALTER TABLESPACE datafile/tempfile_clauses 

 

logging characteristics, change 

ALTER TABLESPACE 

 

minimum extent length, change 

ALTER TABLESPACE 

 

reconstruct damaged 

ALTER DATABASE general_recovery_clause 

 

reconstruct lost or damaged 

ALTER DATABASE CREATE DATAFILE 

 

recover specified 

ALTER DATABASE general_recovery_clause 

 

specifying for a table 

CREATE TABLE 

 

storage characteristics, change 

ALTER TABLESPACE 

 

take online or offline 

ALTER TABLESPACE 

 

user quota on, change 

ALTER USER 

 

assign to a user 

CREATE USER 

 

space quota for a user, allocate 

CREATE USER 

tempfile 

allow for automatic extension of 

ALTER DATABASE TEMPFILE 

 

resize 

ALTER DATABASE TEMPFILE 

transaction 

distributed, force commit of 

ALTER SESSION 

 

distributed, force rollback of 

ALTER SESSION 

trigger 

enable or disable 

ALTER TABLE 

user 

authentication, change 

ALTER USER 

 

database resources limits, change 

ALTER USER profile_clause 

 

default roles, change 

ALTER USER 

 

failed attempts to log in, limit 

FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS parameter 

 

number of sessions, limit 

SESSIONS_PER_USER parameter 

 

password, change 

ALTER USER 

 

resource limits, set 

CREATE USER 

 

restrict access to Oracle 

ALTER SYSTEM restricted_session_clause 

 

tablespace quota, allocate 

CREATE USER 

 

tablespaces, assign 

CREATE USER 


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