Net8 Administrator's Guide
Release 8.1.6

Part Number A76933-01




Updated information for Release 8.1.7 can be found in the Oracle8i Documentation Addendum.
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Part I Net8 Overview and Concepts

1 Introduction to Net8

Net8 Overview
Oracle Connectivity Overview
Configuration Overview
Naming Method Configuration
Listener Configuration on the Server

2 Net8 Concepts

Networking Environments
Distributed Processing
Distributed Databases
Connect Operations
Connecting to Servers
Disconnecting from Servers
Exception Operations
Net8 Connection Models
Multi-Threaded Server Model
Dedicated Server Model
Client Connection Options
Client Load Balancing for Multiple Listeners
Connect-Time Failover for Multiple Listeners
Transparent Application Failover for High Availability
Service Registration to the Listener
Registration with the Default Local Listener
Registration with a Non-Default Listener
Registration with Remote Listeners
Connection Load Balancing
Database Identification by Service Name Rather than SID
Connect Descriptors Using SERVICE_NAME and INSTANCE_NAME
Multiple Instances Belonging to the Same Service
Single Instance Belonging to Multiple Services
Service Resolution through Naming Methods
Local Naming
Directory Naming
Oracle Names
Host Naming
External Naming
Net8 and an LDAP-Compliant Directory Server
Directory Naming Overview
Directory Entries
Adding or Modifying Entries in the Directory
Client Connections Using Directory Naming
Specifying Absolute Names
Net8 Naming and Directory Design

3 Net8 Architecture

Transparent Network Substrate (TNS)
Overview of Stack Communications
Stack Communications in a Typical Net8 Client/Server Environment
Net8 Client-Side Interaction
Server-Side Interaction
Server-to-Server Interaction
Stack Communications for Clients Connecting to a Directory Server
Stack Communications for JDBC Clients
Stack Communications for Oracle8i JServer Clients

4 Net8 Products and Tools

Net8 Client
Net8 Server
Oracle Protocols
Named Pipes
Oracle Connection Manager
Oracle Connection Manager Processes
Connection Concentration
Net8 Access Control
Multi-Protocol Support
Oracle Names
Administrative Regions
Oracle Names As Data Repository
Data Stored in an Oracle Names Server
Organizing and Naming Network Components
Using Multiple Regions to Decentralize Administrative Responsibilities
Differences Between Versions of Oracle Names
Understanding Discovery
External Naming Services
Authentication Methods
Oracle Advanced Security
Network Security
Single Sign-On
Distributed Computing Environment Integration
Administration Tools
Net8 Configuration Assistant
Net8 Assistant
Control Utilities

5 Planning Your Network

Planning Overview
Defining Your Network Layout
Resolving Names to Connect Descriptors
Improving Large Network Performance
Using Shared Servers or Prespawned Dedicated Servers
Increasing Listener Queuesize
Enabling Connection Pooling
Enabling Connection Concentration
Enabling Client Load Balancing
Adjusting the Session Data Unit (SDU) Size for Data Transfer Optimization
Persistent Buffer Flushing for TCP/IP
Planning Summary

Part II Configuration

6 Configuring Naming Methods

Configuration Overview
Understanding Connect Descriptors
Configuration Models
Naming Methods
Configuring the Local Naming Method
Configuring the tnsnames.ora File During Installation
Configuring the tnsnames.ora File After Installation
Configuring the Directory Naming Method
Directory Naming Configuration Steps
Modifying Connectivity Information for Database Service Entries
Adding Users to and Removing Users from the OracleNetAdmins Group
Exporting Net Service Names from a tnsnames.ora File
Exporting Network Objects from an Oracle Names Server
Configuring the Oracle Names Method
Task 1: Consider Oracle Names Options
Task 2: Install Necessary Components
Task 3: Create an Oracle Names Server
Task 4: Configure Clients and Database Servers To Use Oracle Names Servers
Task 5: Configure the Listener
Task 6: Register Data with the Oracle Names Server
Task 7: (Optional) Delegate Domains to Delegated Administrative Regions
Task 8: Connect to the Database
Configuring the Host Naming Method
Task 1: Configure the Listener with the Global Database Name
Task 2: Configure HOSTNAME as the First Naming Method
Task 3: Set Up Host Name Resolution Environment
Task 4: Connect to the Database
Configuring External Naming Methods
Configuring NIS
Configuring NDS

7 Configuring the Listener

Configuration Overview
Default Listening Protocol Addresses
Configuration During Installation
Configuration with Net8 Assistant
Re-Starting the Listener After a listener.ora File Modification
Configuring Listener Protocol Addresses
Configuring Listening Addresses for Oracle8i JServer
Configuring a Listener that Uses a Non-Default Address
Configuring the LOCAL_LISTENER Parameter
Configuring a Naming Method
Handling Large Volumes of Connection Requests
Configuring Static Service Information
Configuring Prespawned Dedicated Servers

8 Enabling Advanced Net8 Features

Configuring Advanced Network Address and Connect Data Information
Creating a List of Listener Protocol Addresses
Configuring Address List Parameters
Configuring Advanced Connect Data Parameters
Configuring Transparent Application Failover
TAF Implementation
Configuring Client Attributes for Names Resolution
Configuring a Default Domain for Clients
Prioritizing Naming Methods
Routing Connection Requests
Configuring Advanced Profile Information
Configuring Preferred Oracle Names Servers
Configuring Oracle Connection Manager Features
Enabling Connection Concentration
Enabling Multi-Protocol Support
Enabling Net8 Access Control
Configuring Clients for Oracle Connection Manager
Configuring Connections to Non-Oracle Database Services
Configuring Net8 for External Procedures
Configuring Net8 for Oracle Heterogeneous Services
Configuring Net8 for an Oracle Rdb Database

9 Configuring Multi-Threaded Server

Configuring MTS with the MTS_DISPATCHERS Parameter
Setting the Initial Number of Dispatchers
Enabling Connection Pooling
Allocating Resources
Using MTS on Clients
Overriding MTS on Clients

10 Enabling Net8 Enhancements for Programmers

Net8 OPEN API Function Calls
Finding the Net8 OPEN Applications Program Interface
Building Your Own Application
Configuring the System to Use Your Net8 OPEN Application
Sample Programs
Net8 OPEN API Errors
UNIX Client Programming
Signal Handler and Alarm Programming

Part III Net8 Testing and Troubleshooting

11 Establishing a Connection and Testing the Network

Connecting to a Database
Using Net8 Control Utilities
Net8 Component Startup Overview
Entering a Connect String
Connect Identifier Syntax Characteristics
Initiating Connections
Testing the Network
Testing an Oracle Names Server
Testing Network Objects Using Net8 Assistant or NAMESCTL Utility
Testing a Listener
Testing Oracle Connection Manager
Testing Configuration on the Server
Testing Network Connectivity from the Client

12 Troubleshooting

Diagnosing Net8
Server Diagnostics
Client Diagnostics
Resolving the Most Common Error Messages
Troubleshooting Tips from the Field
Questions to Ask When Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Network Problems Using Log and Trace Files
Logging Error Information
Error Stacks
Log File Names
Understanding and Setting Log Parameters
Setting Log Settings During Runtime of Control Utilities
Using Log Files
Understanding Listener Log Files
Understanding Oracle Connection Manager Logs
Tracing Error Information
Trace File Names
Understanding and Setting Trace Parameters
Setting Trace Settings During Runtime of Control Utilities
Evaluating Net8 Traces
Using the Trace Assistant to Examine Your Trace Files
Contacting Oracle Customer Support

Part IV Reference

A Control Utilities

Operating Modes
Listener Control Utility (LSNRCTL)
SET and SHOW Commands
LSNRCTL Commands
Oracle Names Control Utility (NAMESCTL)
SET and SHOW Commands
NAMESCTL's Distributed Operation
Confirmation Mode in NAMESCTL
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility (CMCTL)
SET and SHOW Commands
Shutdown Commands
CMCTL Commands

B Protocol Addresses

Protocol Parameters
Recommended Port Numbers
Port Number Limitations

C Configuration Parameters

Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
Further Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
Network Character Set
Character Set
Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora)
General Syntax
Multiple Descriptions
Multiple Address Lists
Changed Functionality of Client Load Balancing and DESCRIPTION_LISTs
Optional Parameters for Lists
Listener Parameters (listener.ora)
Listener Address Section
SID_LIST_listener_name Static Service Section
Control Parameters
Oracle Names Parameters (names.ora)
Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora)
Protocol-Specific Parameters (protocol.ora)
Directory Server Access Parameters (ldap.ora)
Configuration File Changes in Release 8.1
Obsolete Parameters for Release 8.1
Configuration File Syntax Changes
tnsnames.ora Changes
cman.ora Changes

D LDAP Schema for Net8

Structural Object Classes



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