Oracle8i Parallel Server Concepts
Release 2 (8.1.6)

Part Number A76968-01




Updated information for Release 8.1.7 can be found in the Oracle8i Documentation Addendum.
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Part I Parallel Processing Fundamentals

1 Introduction to Oracle Parallel Server

What Is Oracle Parallel Server?
Benefits of Oracle Parallel Server
High Availability

2 Parallel Hardware Architecture

Overview of Cluster Hardware Components
What is a Node?
Memory Access
Uniform Memory Access
Non-Uniform Memory Access
The High Speed Interconnect
Clusters - Nodes and the Interconnect
Storage Access in Clustered Systems
Uniform Disk Access
Non-Uniform Disk Access
Oracle Parallel Server Runs on a Wide Variety of Clusters

3 Oracle Parallel Server Architecture

Oracle Parallel Server Components for Clustered Systems
Overview of Components for Clustered Systems
The Cluster Manager
Distributed Lock Manager
The Cluster Interconnect and Inter-Process Communication (Node-to-Node)
Disk Subsystems

Part II Oracle Parallel Server Lock Processing

4 Inter-instance Coordination

Local Locks
Global Locks
Non-Parallel Cache Management Coordination
Non-Parallel Cache Management Locks
Non-PCM Global Locks
Overview of Non-Parallel Cache Management Locks
Parallel Cache Management Coordination
Example of Parallel Cache Management Processing
Block Level Locking

5 Parallel Cache Management

Parallel Cache Management and Lock Implementation
The Role of Cache Fusion in Resolving Cache Coherency Conflicts
Lock Duration and Granularity
Two Types of Lock Duration
Two Forms of Lock Granularity
The Cost of Locks
Coordination of Locking Mechanisms by the Distributed Lock Manager
Lock Modes As Resource Access Rights
Instances Map Database Resources to Distributed Lock Manager Resources
The Distributed Lock Manager Records Lock Information
How Distributed Lock Manager Locks and Global Locks Relate
One Lock Per Instance on a Resource
Lock Elements and Parallel Cache Management Locks
Lock Elements for Fixed Parallel Cache Management Locks
Lock Elements for Releasable Parallel Cache Management Locks
Lock Elements for 1:1 Parallel Cache Management Locks
How Parallel Cache Management Locks Operate
Parallel Cache Management Locks Are Owned by Instance LCK Processes
Multiple Instances Can Own the Same Locks
How 1:1 Locking Works
Number of Blocks Per Parallel Cache Management Lock
Example of Locks Covering Multiple Blocks
Periodicity of Fixed Parallel Cache Management Locks
Pinging: Signaling the Need to Update
Lock Mode and Buffer State
How The DLM Grants and Coordinates Resource Lock Requests
Specifying the Allocation and Duration of Locks
Number of Blocks Per Parallel Cache Management Lock
Selecting Lock Granularity
Simultaneously Using Fixed and Releasable Locking
Group-Owned Locks
Distributed Lock Manager Support for Multi-threaded Server and XA
Memory Requirements for the Distributed Lock Manager

Part III Implementing Oracle Parallel Server

6 Oracle Parallel Server Components

Instance and Database Components for Oracle Parallel Server
Parallel Server-Specific Processes
Overview of Oracle Parallel Server Processes
Cache Fusion Processing and the Block Server Process
System Change Number Processing
How Lamport SCN Generation Works

7 Oracle Parallel Server Storage Considerations

Oracle Parallel Server-Specific Storage Issues
Data Files
Redo Log Files
Rollback Segments
Space Management and Free List Groups
How Oracle Handles Free Space
Segments, Extents, and The High Water Mark
Free Lists and Free List Groups
Free List Groups
Avoiding Contention for The Segment Header and Free LIst
Free List Group Examples
Partitioning Data with Free List Groups
How Oracle Partitions Free List Groups
Associating Instances, Users, and Locks with Free List Groups
Associating Instances with Free Lists
Associating User Processes with Free Lists
Associating PCM Locks with Free Lists
SQL Options for Managing Free Space
Controlling Extent Allocation
Automatic Allocation of New Extents
Pre-allocation of New Extents
Moving the High Water Mark of a Segment

8 Scalability and Oracle Parallel Server

Scalability Features of Oracle Parallel Server
Enhanced Throughput: Scale-up
Speed-Up and Scale-up: the Goals of Parallel Processing
When Is Parallel Processing Advantageous?
Decision Support Systems
Applications Updating Different Data Blocks
Application Profiles
Multi-Node Parallel Execution
Overview of Client-to-server Connectivity
Enhanced Scalability Using the Multi-threaded Server
Connect-Time Failover for Multiple Listeners
Client Load Balancing for Multiple Listeners
The Four Levels of Scalability
Scalability of Hardware and Network
Scalability of Operating System
Scalability of Database Management System
Scalability of Application
The Sequence Generator
Oracle Parallel Execution on Oracle Parallel Server

9 High Availability and Oracle Parallel Server

What is High Availability?
Measuring Availability
The Metrics of High Availability
Causes of Outages
Planning for High Availability
System Level Planning
Oracle Parallel Server and High Availability
Cluster Components and High Availability
Disaster Planning
Failure Protection Validation
Failover and Oracle Parallel Server Systems
The Basics of Failover
The Duration of Failover
Client Failover
Uses of Transparent Application Failover
Server Failover
Host-Based Failover
Oracle Parallel Server Failover
How Does Oracle Parallel Server Failover Work?
Oracle Parallel Server High Availability Configurations
Default N-node Parallel Server Configuration
Basic High Availability Configuration
Shared High Availability Node Configuration
Toward Deploying High Availability

Part IV Reference

A Differences Between Releases

Differences Between 8.1 and 8.1.6
New Features
Obsolete Parameters
Obsolete Statistics
New Statistics
Changes in Default Parameter Settings
Differences Between 8.0.4 and 8.1
Cache Fusion Architecture Changes
New Views
Removal of GMS
Parallel Transaction Recovery is now"Fast-Start Parallel Rollback"
Changes to Instance Registration
Listener Load Balancing
Diagnostic Enhancements
Oracle Parallel Server Management (OPSM)
Parallel Server Installation and Database Configuration
Instance Affinity for Jobs
Obsolete Parameters
Differences Between Release 8.0.3 and Release 8.0.4
New Initialization Parameters
Obsolete Initialization Parameters
Obsolete Startup Parameters
Dynamic Performance Views
Group Membership Services
Differences Between Release 7.3 and Release 8.0.3
New Initialization Parameters
Obsolete GC_* Parameters
Changed GC_* Parameters
Dynamic Performance Views
Global Dynamic Performance Views
Integrated Distributed Lock Manager
Instance Groups
Group Membership Services
Fine Grain Locking
Client-side Application Failover
Recovery Manager
Differences Between Release 7.2 and Release 7.3
Initialization Parameters
Data Dictionary Views
Dynamic Performance Views
Free List Groups
Fine Grain Locking
Instance Registration
Sort Improvements
XA Performance Improvements
XA Recovery Enhancements
Deferred Transaction Recovery
Load Balancing at Connect
Bypassing Cache for Sort Operations
Delayed-Logging Block Cleanout
Parallel Execution Processor Affinity
Differences Between Release 7.1 and Release 7.2
Pre-allocating Space Unnecessary
Data Dictionary Views
Dynamic Performance Views
Free List Groups
Table Locks
Lock Processes
Differences Between Release 7.0 and Release 7.1
Initialization Parameters
Dynamic Performance Views
Differences Between Version 6 and Release 7.0
Version Compatibility
File Operations
Deferred Rollback Segments
Redo Logs
Free Space Lists
Initialization Parameters
Media Recovery

B Restrictions

Compatibility Between Shared and Exclusive Mode
The Export and Import Utilities
Compatibility Between Shared and Exclusive Modes
Maximum Number of Blocks Allocated at a Time
Restrictions in Shared Mode

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