Oracle9i Data Cartridge Developer's Guide
Release 1 (9.0.1)

Part Number A88896-01
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A
Example: Pipelined Table Functions: Interface Approach

This appendix supplements the discussion of table functions in Chapter 12. The appendix shows two complete implementations of the StockPivot table function using the interface approach. One implementation is done in C and one in Java.

The function StockPivot converts a row of the type (Ticker, OpenPrice, ClosePrice) into two rows of the form (Ticker, PriceType, Price). For example, from an input row ("ORCL", 41, 42), the table function returns the two rows ("ORCL", "O", 41) and ("ORCL", "C", 42).


Note:

The StockPivot function implemented in this appendix contains a REF CURSOR argument. Support for passing REF CURSOR arguments to C and Java external functions is not provided in the initial Oracle9i release. Until support is provided, these examples will not work. 


C Implementation

In this example, the three ODCITable interface methods of the implementation type are implemented as external functions in C. The code to implement these methods is shown after the following SQL declarations:

SQL Declarations for C Implementation


-- Create the input stock table

CREATE TABLE StockTable (
  ticker VARCHAR(4),
  open_price NUMBER,
  close_price NUMBER
);

-- Create the types for the table function's output collection 
-- and collection elements

CREATE TYPE TickerType AS OBJECT
(
  ticker VARCHAR2(4),
  PriceType VARCHAR2(1),
  price NUMBER
);
/

CREATE TYPE TickerTypeSet AS TABLE OF TickerType;
/

-- Create the external library object

CREATE LIBRARY StockPivotLib IS '/home/bill/libstock.so';
/

-- Create the implementation type

CREATE TYPE StockPivotImpl AS OBJECT
(
  key RAW(4),

  STATIC FUNCTION ODCITableStart(sctx OUT StockPivotImpl, cur SYS_REFCURSOR) 
  RETURN PLS_INTEGER 
    AS LANGUAGE C
    LIBRARY StockPivotLib
    NAME "ODCITableStart"
    WITH CONTEXT
    PARAMETERS (
      context,
      sctx,
      sctx INDICATOR STRUCT,
      cur,
      RETURN INT
    ),
 
  MEMBER FUNCTION ODCITableFetch(self IN OUT StockPivotImpl, nrows IN NUMBER, 
                                 outSet OUT TickerTypeSet) RETURN PLS_INTEGER
    AS LANGUAGE C
    LIBRARY StockPivotLib
    NAME "ODCITableFetch"
    WITH CONTEXT
    PARAMETERS (
      context,
      self,
      self INDICATOR STRUCT,
      nrows,
      outSet,
      outSet INDICATOR,
      RETURN INT
    ),

  MEMBER FUNCTION ODCITableClose(self IN StockPivotImpl) RETURN PLS_INTEGER
    AS LANGUAGE C
    LIBRARY StockPivotLib
    NAME "ODCITableClose"
    WITH CONTEXT
    PARAMETERS (
      context,
      self,
      self INDICATOR STRUCT,
      RETURN INT
    )

);
/

-- Define the ref cursor type

CREATE PACKAGE refcur_pkg IS
  TYPE refcur_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN StockTable%ROWTYPE;
END refcur_pkg;
/

-- Create table function

CREATE FUNCTION StockPivot(p refcur_pkg.refcur_t) RETURN TickerTypeSet
PIPELINED USING StockPivotImpl;
/

C Implementation of the ODCITable Methods

The following code implements the three ODCITable methods as external functions in C:

#ifndef OCI_ORACLE
# include <oci.h>
#endif
#ifndef ODCI_ORACLE
# include <odci.h>
#endif

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     PRIVATE TYPES AND CONSTANTS
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
                
/* The struct holding the user's stored context */

struct StoredCtx
{
  OCIStmt* stmthp;
};
typedef struct StoredCtx StoredCtx;

/* OCI Handles */

struct Handles_t
{
  OCIExtProcContext* extProcCtx;
  OCIEnv* envhp;
  OCISvcCtx* svchp;
  OCIError* errhp;
  OCISession* usrhp;
};
typedef struct Handles_t Handles_t;

/********************** SQL Types C representation **********************/

/* Table function's implementation type */

struct StockPivotImpl
{
  OCIRaw* key;
};
typedef struct StockPivotImpl StockPivotImpl;

struct StockPivotImpl_ind
{
  short _atomic;
  short key;
};
typedef struct StockPivotImpl_ind StockPivotImpl_ind;

/* Table function's output collection element type */

struct TickerType
{
  OCIString* ticker;
  OCIString* PriceType;
  OCINumber price;
};
typedef struct TickerType TickerType;

struct TickerType_ind
{
  short _atomic;
  short ticker;
  short PriceType;
  short price;
};
typedef struct TickerType_ind TickerType_ind;
  
/* Table function's output collection type */

typedef OCITable TickerTypeSet;

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* Static Functions */
/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static int GetHandles(OCIExtProcContext* extProcCtx, Handles_t* handles);

static StoredCtx* GetStoredCtx(Handles_t* handles, StockPivotImpl* self, 
                               StockPivotImpl_ind* self_ind);

static int checkerr(Handles_t* handles, sword status);

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* Functions definitions */
/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/* Callout for ODCITableStart */

int ODCITableStart(OCIExtProcContext* extProcCtx, StockPivotImpl*  self, 
                   StockPivotImpl_ind* self_ind, OCIStmt** cur)
{
  Handles_t handles;                   /* OCI hanldes */
  StoredCtx* storedCtx;                /* Stored context pointer */

  ub4 key;                             /* key to retrieve stored context */

  /* Get OCI handles */
  if (GetHandles(extProcCtx, &handles))
    return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* Allocate memory to hold the stored context */
  if (checkerr(&handles, OCIMemoryAlloc((dvoid*) handles.usrhp, handles.errhp,
                                        (dvoid**) &storedCtx,
                                        OCI_DURATION_STATEMENT,
                                        (ub4) sizeof(StoredCtx),
                                        OCI_MEMORY_CLEARED)))
    return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* store the input ref cursor in the stored context */
  storedCtx->stmthp=*cur;

  /* generate a key */
  if (checkerr(&handles, OCIContextGenerateKey((dvoid*) handles.usrhp, 
                                               handles.errhp, &key)))
    return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* associate the key value with the stored context address */
  if (checkerr(&handles, OCIContextSetValue((dvoid*)handles.usrhp, 
                                            handles.errhp,
                                            OCI_DURATION_STATEMENT,
                                            (ub1*) &key, (ub1) sizeof(key),
                                            (dvoid*) storedCtx)))
    return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* stored the key in the scan context */
  if (checkerr(&handles, OCIRawAssignBytes(handles.envhp, handles.errhp, 
                                           (ub1*) &key, (ub4) sizeof(key),
                                           &(self->key))))
    return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* set indicators of the scan context */
  self_ind->_atomic = OCI_IND_NOTNULL;
  self_ind->key = OCI_IND_NOTNULL;

  return ODCI_SUCCESS;
}

/***********************************************************************/

/* Callout for ODCITableFetch */

int ODCITableFetch(OCIExtProcContext* extProcCtx, StockPivotImpl* self, 
                   StockPivotImpl_ind* self_ind, OCINumber* nrows,
                   TickerTypeSet** outSet, short* outSet_ind)
{
  Handles_t handles;                   /* OCI hanldes */
  StoredCtx* storedCtx;                /* Stored context pointer */
  int nrowsval;                        /* number of rows to return */

  /* Get OCI handles */
  if (GetHandles(extProcCtx, &handles))
    return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* Get the stored context */
  storedCtx=GetStoredCtx(&handles,self,self_ind);
  if (!storedCtx) return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* get value of nrows */
  if (checkerr(&handles, OCINumberToInt(handles.errhp, nrows, sizeof(nrowsval),
                                        OCI_NUMBER_SIGNED, (dvoid *)&nrowsval)))
    return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* return up to 10 rows at a time */
  if (nrowsval>10) nrowsval=10;

  /* Initially set the output to null */
  *outSet_ind=OCI_IND_NULL;

  while (nrowsval>0)
  {

    TickerType elem;           /* current collection element */
    TickerType_ind elem_ind;   /* current element indicator */

    OCIDefine* defnp1=(OCIDefine*)0;   /* define handle */
    OCIDefine* defnp2=(OCIDefine*)0;   /* define handle */
    OCIDefine* defnp3=(OCIDefine*)0;   /* define handle */

    sword status;    

    char ticker[5];
    float open_price;
    float close_price;
    char PriceType[2];

    /* Define the fetch buffer for ticker symbol */
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCIDefineByPos(storedCtx->stmthp, &defnp1,  
                                          handles.errhp, (ub4) 1, 
                                          (dvoid*) &ticker, 
                                          (sb4) sizeof(ticker),
                                          SQLT_STR, (dvoid*) 0, (ub2*) 0,
                                          (ub2*) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* Define the fetch buffer for open price */
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCIDefineByPos(storedCtx->stmthp, &defnp2, 
                                          handles.errhp, (ub4) 2, 
                                          (dvoid*) &open_price, 
                                          (sb4) sizeof(open_price),
                                          SQLT_FLT, (dvoid*) 0, (ub2*) 0,
                                          (ub2*) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* Define the fetch buffer for closing price */
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCIDefineByPos(storedCtx->stmthp, &defnp3, 
                                          handles.errhp, (ub4) 3, 
                                          (dvoid*) &close_price, 
                                          (sb4) sizeof(close_price),
                                          SQLT_FLT, (dvoid*) 0, (ub2*) 0,
                                          (ub2*) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* fetch a row from the input ref cursor */
    status = OCIStmtFetch(storedCtx->stmthp, handles.errhp, (ub4) 1,
                          (ub4) OCI_FETCH_NEXT, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);

    /* finished if no more data */
    if (status!=OCI_SUCCESS && status!=OCI_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO) break;
 
    /* Initialize the element indicator struct */

    elem_ind._atomic=OCI_IND_NOTNULL;
    elem_ind.ticker=OCI_IND_NOTNULL;
    elem_ind.PriceType=OCI_IND_NOTNULL;
    elem_ind.price=OCI_IND_NOTNULL;

    /* assign the ticker name */
    elem.ticker=NULL;
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCIStringAssignText(handles.envhp, handles.errhp, 
                                               (text*) ticker, 
                                               (ub2) strlen(ticker), 
                                               &elem.ticker)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* assign the price type */
    elem.PriceType=NULL;
    sprintf(PriceType,"O");
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCIStringAssignText(handles.envhp, handles.errhp, 
                                               (text*) PriceType,
                                               (ub2) strlen(PriceType),
                                               &elem.PriceType)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* assign the price */
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCINumberFromReal(handles.errhp, &open_price,
                                             sizeof(open_price), &elem.price)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* append element to output collection */
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCICollAppend(handles.envhp, handles.errhp,
                                         &elem, &elem_ind, *outSet)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* assign the price type */
    elem.PriceType=NULL;
    sprintf(PriceType,"C");
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCIStringAssignText(handles.envhp, handles.errhp, 
                                               (text*) PriceType,
                                               (ub2) strlen(PriceType),
                                               &elem.PriceType)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* assign the price */
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCINumberFromReal(handles.errhp, &close_price,
                                             sizeof(close_price), &elem.price)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* append row to output collection */
    if (checkerr(&handles, OCICollAppend(handles.envhp, handles.errhp,
                     &elem, &elem_ind, *outSet)))
      return ODCI_ERROR;

    /* set collection indicator to not null */
    *outSet_ind=OCI_IND_NOTNULL;

    nrowsval-=2;
  }

  return ODCI_SUCCESS;
}

/***********************************************************************/

/* Callout for ODCITableClose */

int ODCITableClose(OCIExtProcContext* extProcCtx, StockPivotImpl* self, 
                   StockPivotImpl_ind* self_ind)
{
  Handles_t handles;                   /* OCI hanldes */
  StoredCtx* storedCtx;                /* Stored context pointer */

  /* Get OCI handles */
  if (GetHandles(extProcCtx, &handles))
    return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* Get the stored context */
  storedCtx=GetStoredCtx(&handles,self,self_ind);
  if (!storedCtx) return ODCI_ERROR;

  /* Free the memory for the stored context */
  if (checkerr(&handles, OCIMemoryFree((dvoid*) handles.usrhp, handles.errhp, 
                                       (dvoid*) storedCtx)))
    return ODCI_ERROR;

  return ODCI_SUCCESS;
}

/***********************************************************************/

/* Get the stored context using the key in the scan context */

static StoredCtx* GetStoredCtx(Handles_t* handles, StockPivotImpl* self, 
                               StockPivotImpl_ind* self_ind)
{
  StoredCtx *storedCtx;           /* Stored context pointer */
  ub1 *key;                       /* key to retrieve context */
  ub4 keylen;                     /* length of key */
  
  /* return NULL if the PL/SQL context is NULL */
  if (self_ind->_atomic == OCI_IND_NULL) return NULL;

  /* Get the key */
  key = OCIRawPtr(handles->envhp, self->key);
  keylen = OCIRawSize(handles->envhp, self->key);
  
  /* Retrieve stored context using the key */
  if (checkerr(handles, OCIContextGetValue((dvoid*) handles->usrhp, 
                                           handles->errhp,
                                           key, (ub1) keylen, 
                                           (dvoid**) &storedCtx)))
    return NULL;

  return storedCtx;
}

/***********************************************************************/

/* Get OCI handles using the ext-proc context */

static int GetHandles(OCIExtProcContext* extProcCtx, Handles_t* handles)
{
  /* store the ext-proc context in the handles struct */
  handles->extProcCtx=extProcCtx;

  /* Get OCI handles */
  if (checkerr(handles, OCIExtProcGetEnv(extProcCtx, &handles->envhp,
                          &handles->svchp, &handles->errhp)))
    return -1;

  /* get the user handle */
  if (checkerr(handles, OCIAttrGet((dvoid*)handles->svchp,
                                   (ub4)OCI_HTYPE_SVCCTX, 
                                   (dvoid*)&handles->usrhp,
                                   (ub4*) 0, (ub4)OCI_ATTR_SESSION, 
                                   handles->errhp)))
    return -1;

  return 0;
}

/***********************************************************************/

/* Check the error status and throw exception if necessary */

static int checkerr(Handles_t* handles, sword status)
{
  text errbuf[512];     /* error message buffer */
  sb4 errcode;          /* OCI error code */

  switch (status)
  {
  case OCI_SUCCESS:
  case OCI_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO:
    return 0;
  case OCI_ERROR:
    OCIErrorGet ((dvoid*) handles->errhp, (ub4) 1, (text *) NULL, &errcode,
                 errbuf, (ub4) sizeof(errbuf), (ub4) OCI_HTYPE_ERROR);
    sprintf((char*)errbuf, "OCI ERROR code %d",errcode);
    break;
  default:
    sprintf((char*)errbuf, "Warning - error status %d",status);
    break;
  }

  OCIExtProcRaiseExcpWithMsg(handles->extProcCtx, 29400, errbuf,
    strlen((char*)errbuf));

  return -1;
}

Java Implementation

In this example, the declaration of the implementation type references Java methods instead of C functions. This is the only change from the preceding, C example: all the other objects (TickerType, TickerTypeSet, refcur_pkg, StockTable, and StockPivot) are the same. The code to implement the Java methods is shown after the SQL declarations below.

SQL Declarations for Java Implementation

// create the directory object

CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY JavaDir AS '/home/bill/Java';

// compile the java source

CREATE AND COMPILE JAVA SOURCE NAMED source01
USING BFILE (JavaDir,'StockPivotImpl.java');
/
show errors

-- Create the implementation type

CREATE TYPE StockPivotImpl AS OBJECT
(
  key INTEGER,

  STATIC FUNCTION ODCITableStart(sctx OUT StockPivotImpl, cur SYS_REFCURSOR)
    RETURN NUMBER
    AS LANGUAGE JAVA
    NAME 'StockPivotImpl.ODCITableStart(oracle.sql.STRUCT[], java.sql.ResultSet) 
return java.math.BigDecimal',

  MEMBER FUNCTION ODCITableFetch(self IN OUT StockPivotImpl, nrows IN NUMBER,
                                 outSet OUT TickerTypeSet) RETURN NUMBER
    AS LANGUAGE JAVA
    NAME 'StockPivotImpl.ODCITableFetch(java.math.BigDecimal, 
oracle.sql.ARRAY[]) return java.math.BigDecimal',

  MEMBER FUNCTION ODCITableClose(self IN StockPivotImpl) RETURN NUMBER
    AS LANGUAGE JAVA
    NAME 'StockPivotImpl.ODCITableClose() return java.math.BigDecimal'

);
/
show errors

Java Implementation of the ODCITable Methods

The following code implements the three ODCITable methods as external functions in Java:


import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
import oracle.sql.*;
import java.sql.*;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import oracle.CartridgeServices.*;

// stored context type

public class StoredCtx
{
  ResultSet rset;
  public StoredCtx(ResultSet rs) { rset=rs; }
}

// implementation type

public class StockPivotImpl implements SQLData 
{
  private BigDecimal key;

  final static BigDecimal SUCCESS = new BigDecimal(0);
  final static BigDecimal ERROR = new BigDecimal(1);
  
  // Implement SQLData interface.

  String sql_type;
  public String getSQLTypeName() throws SQLException 
  {
    return sql_type;
  }

  public void readSQL(SQLInput stream, String typeName) throws SQLException 
  {
    sql_type = typeName;
    key = stream.readBigDecimal();
  }

  public void writeSQL(SQLOutput stream) throws SQLException 
  {
    stream.writeBigDecimal(key);
  }
  
  // type methods implementing ODCITable interface

  static public BigDecimal ODCITableStart(STRUCT[] sctx,ResultSet rset)
    throws SQLException 
  {
    Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:default:connection:");

    // create a stored context and store the result set in it
    StoredCtx ctx=new StoredCtx(rset);

    // register stored context with cartridge services
    int key;
    try {
      key = ContextManager.setContext(ctx);
    } catch (CountException ce) {
      return ERROR;
    }

    // create a StockPivotImpl instance and store the key in it
    Object[] impAttr = new Object[1];
    impAttr[0] = new BigDecimal(key); 
    StructDescriptor sd = new StructDescriptor("STOCKPIVOTIMPL",conn);
    sctx[0] = new STRUCT(sd,conn,impAttr);
      
    return SUCCESS;
  }

  public BigDecimal ODCITableFetch(BigDecimal nrows, ARRAY[] outSet)
    throws SQLException 
  {
    Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:default:connection:");

    // retrieve stored context using the key
    StoredCtx ctx;
    try {
      ctx=(StoredCtx)ContextManager.getContext(key.intValue());
    } catch (InvalidKeyException ik ) {
      return ERROR;
    }

    // get the nrows parameter, but return up to 10 rows
    int nrowsval = nrows.intValue();
    if (nrowsval>10) nrowsval=10;

    // create a vector for the fetched rows
    Vector v = new Vector(nrowsval);
    int i=0;

    StructDescriptor outDesc = 
      StructDescriptor.createDescriptor("TICKERTYPE", conn);
    Object[] out_attr = new Object[3];

    while(nrowsval>0 && ctx.rset.next()){
      out_attr[0] = (Object)ctx.rset.getString(1);
      out_attr[1] = (Object)new String("O");
      out_attr[2] = (Object)new BigDecimal(ctx.rset.getFloat(2));
      v.add((Object)new STRUCT(outDesc, conn, out_attr));

      out_attr[1] = (Object)new String("C");
      out_attr[2] = (Object)new BigDecimal(ctx.rset.getFloat(3));
      v.add((Object)new STRUCT(outDesc, conn, out_attr));

      i+=2;
      nrowsval-=2;
    }

    // return if no rows found
    if(i==0) return SUCCESS;

    // create the output ARRAY using the vector
    Object out_arr[] = v.toArray();
    ArrayDescriptor ad = new ArrayDescriptor("TICKERTYPESET",conn);
    outSet[0] = new ARRAY(ad,conn,out_arr);
   
    return SUCCESS;
  }

  public BigDecimal ODCITableClose() throws SQLException {
    
    // retrieve stored context using the key, and remove from ContextManager
    StoredCtx ctx;
    try {
      ctx=(StoredCtx)ContextManager.clearContext(key.intValue());
    } catch (InvalidKeyException ik ) {
      return ERROR;
    }

    // close the result set
    Statement stmt = ctx.rset.getStatement();
    ctx.rset.close();
    if(stmt!=null) stmt.close();

    return SUCCESS;
  }

}


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