Oracle9i JDBC Developer's Guide and Reference
Release 1 (9.0.1)

Part Number A90211-01
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1 Overview

What is JDBC?
JDBC versus SQLJ
Overview of the Oracle JDBC Drivers
Common Features of Oracle JDBC Drivers
JDBC Thin Driver
JDBC Server-Side Thin Driver
JDBC Server-Side Internal Driver
Choosing the Appropriate Driver
Overview of Application and Applet Functionality
Application Basics
Applet Basics
Oracle Extensions
Package oracle.jdbc
Server-Side Basics
Session and Transaction Context
Connecting to the Database
Environments and Support
Supported JDK and JDBC Versions
JNI and Java Environments
JDBC and the Oracle Application Server

2 Getting Started

Requirements and Compatibilities for Oracle JDBC Drivers
Verifying a JDBC Client Installation
Check Installed Directories and Files
Check the Environment Variables
Make Sure You Can Compile and Run Java
Determine the Version of the JDBC Driver
Testing JDBC and the Database Connection: JdbcCheckup

3 Basic Features

First Steps in JDBC
Import Packages
Register the JDBC Drivers
Open a Connection to a Database
Create a Statement Object
Execute a Query and Return a Result Set Object
Process the Result Set
Close the Result Set and Statement Objects
Make Changes to the Database
Commit Changes
Close the Connection
Sample: Connecting, Querying, and Processing the Results
Datatype Mappings
Table of Mappings
Notes Regarding Mappings
Java Streams in JDBC
Streaming LONG or LONG RAW Columns
Streaming CHAR, VARCHAR, or RAW Columns
Data Streaming and Multiple Columns
Streaming LOBs and External Files
Closing a Stream
Notes and Precautions on Streams
Stored Procedure Calls in JDBC Programs
PL/SQL Stored Procedures
Java Stored Procedures
Processing SQL Exceptions
Retrieving Error Information
Printing the Stack Trace

4 Overview of JDBC 2.0 Support

JDBC 2.0 Support: JDK 1.2.x versus JDK 1.1.x
Datatype Support
Standard Feature Support
Extended Feature Support
Standard versus Oracle Performance Enhancement APIs
Migration from JDK 1.1.x to JDK 1.2.x
Overview of JDBC 2.0 Features

5 Overview of Oracle Extensions

Introduction to Oracle Extensions
Support Features of the Oracle Extensions
Support for Oracle Datatypes
Support for Oracle Objects
Support for Schema Naming
OCI Extensions
Oracle JDBC Packages and Classes
Package oracle.sql
Package oracle.jdbc
Package oracle.jdbc2 (for JDK 1.1.x only)
Oracle Character Datatypes Support
SQL CHAR Datatypes
SQL NCHAR Datatypes
Class oracle.sql.CHAR
Additional Oracle Type Extensions
Oracle ROWID Type
Oracle REF CURSOR Type Category
Support for Oracle Extensions in 8.0.x and 7.3.x JDBC Drivers

6 Accessing and Manipulating Oracle Data

Data Conversion Considerations
Standard Types versus Oracle Types
Converting SQL NULL Data
Result Set and Statement Extensions
Comparison of Oracle get and set Methods to Standard JDBC
Standard getObject() Method
Oracle getOracleObject() Method
Summary of getObject() and getOracleObject() Return Types
Other getXXX() Methods
Casting Your get Method Return Values
Standard setObject() and Oracle setOracleObject() Methods
Other setXXX() Methods
Limitations of the Oracle 8.0.x and 7.3.x JDBC Drivers
Using Result Set Meta Data Extensions

7 Working with LOBs and BFILEs

Oracle Extensions for LOBs and BFILEs
Working with BLOBs and CLOBs
Getting and Passing BLOB and CLOB Locators
Reading and Writing BLOB and CLOB Data
Creating and Populating a BLOB or CLOB Column
Accessing and Manipulating BLOB and CLOB Data
Additional BLOB and CLOB Features
Working With Temporary LOBs
Using Open and Close With LOBs
Working with BFILEs
Getting and Passing BFILE Locators
Reading BFILE Data
Creating and Populating a BFILE Column
Accessing and Manipulating BFILE Data
Additional BFILE Features

8 Working with Oracle Object Types

Mapping Oracle Objects
Using the Default STRUCT Class for Oracle Objects
STRUCT Class Functionality
Creating STRUCT Objects and Descriptors
Retrieving STRUCT Objects and Attributes
Binding STRUCT Objects into Statements
STRUCT Automatic Attribute Buffering
Creating and Using Custom Object Classes for Oracle Objects
Relative Advantages of ORAData versus SQLData
Understanding Type Maps for SQLData Implementations
Creating a Type Map Object and Defining Mappings for a SQLData Implementation
Understanding the SQLData Interface
Reading and Writing Data with a SQLData Implementation
Understanding the ORAData Interface
Reading and Writing Data with a ORAData Implementation
Additional Uses for ORAData
The Deprecated CustomDatum Interface
Object-Type Inheritance
Creating Subtypes
Implementing Customized Classes for Subtypes
Retrieving Subtype Objects
Creating Subtype Objects
Sending Subtype Objects
Accessing Subtype Data Fields
Inheritance Meta Data Methods
Using JPublisher to Create Custom Object Classes
JPublisher Functionality
JPublisher Type Mappings
Describing an Object Type
Functionality for Getting Object Meta Data
Steps for Retrieving Object Meta Data
SQLJ Object Types
Creating a SQLJ Object Type in SQL Representation
Inserting an Instance of a SQLJ Object Type
Retrieving Instances of a SQLJ Object Type
Meta Data Methods for SQLJ Object Types
SQLJ Object Types and Custom Object Types Compared

9 Working with Oracle Object References

Oracle Extensions for Object References
Overview of Object Reference Functionality
Object Reference Getter and Setter Methods
Key REF Class Methods
Retrieving and Passing an Object Reference
Retrieving an Object Reference from a Result Set
Retrieving an Object Reference from a Callable Statement
Passing an Object Reference to a Prepared Statement
Accessing and Updating Object Values through an Object Reference
Custom Reference Classes with JPublisher

10 Working with Oracle Collections

Oracle Extensions for Collections (Arrays)
Choices in Materializing Collections
Creating Collections
Creating Multi-Level Collection Types
Overview of Collection (Array) Functionality
Array Getter and Setter Methods
ARRAY Descriptors and ARRAY Class Functionality
ARRAY Performance Extension Methods
Accessing oracle.sql.ARRAY Elements as Arrays of Java Primitive Types
ARRAY Automatic Element Buffering
ARRAY Automatic Indexing
Creating and Using Arrays
Creating ARRAY Objects and Descriptors
Retrieving an Array and Its Elements
Passing Arrays to Statement Objects
Using a Type Map to Map Array Elements
Custom Collection Classes with JPublisher

11 Result Set Enhancements

Result Set Functionality and Result Set Categories Supported in JDBC 2.0
Oracle JDBC Implementation Overview for Result Set Enhancements
Creating Scrollable or Updatable Result Sets
Specifying Result Set Scrollability and Updatability
Result Set Limitations and Downgrade Rules
Positioning and Processing in Scrollable Result Sets
Positioning in a Scrollable Result Set
Processing a Scrollable Result Set
Updating Result Sets
Performing a DELETE Operation in a Result Set
Performing an UPDATE Operation in a Result Set
Performing an INSERT Operation in a Result Set
Update Conflicts
Fetch Size
Setting the Fetch Size
Use of Standard Fetch Size versus Oracle Row-Prefetch Setting
Refetching Rows
Seeing Database Changes Made Internally and Externally
Seeing Internal Changes
Seeing External Changes
Visibility versus Detection of External Changes
Summary of Visibility of Internal and External Changes
Oracle Implementation of Scroll-Sensitive Result Sets
Summary of New Methods for Result Set Enhancements
Modified Connection Methods
New Result Set Methods
New Statement Methods
New Database Meta Data Methods

12 Performance Extensions

Update Batching
Overview of Update Batching Models
Oracle Update Batching
Standard Update Batching
Premature Batch Flush
Additional Oracle Performance Extensions
Oracle Row Prefetching
Defining Column Types
DatabaseMetaData TABLE_REMARKS Reporting

13 Statement Caching

About Statement Caching
Basics of Statement Caching
Implicit Statement Caching
Explicit Statement Caching
Comparing Implicit and Explicit Statement Caching
Using Statement Caching
Enabling and Disabling Statement Caching
Checking for Statement Creation Status
Physically Closing a Cached Statement
Using Implicit Statement Caching
Using Explicit Statement Caching

14 Connection Pooling and Caching

Data Sources
A Brief Overview of Oracle Data Source Support for JNDI
Data Source Features and Properties
Creating a Data Source Instance and Connecting (without JNDI)
Creating a Data Source Instance, Registering with JNDI, and Connecting
Logging and Tracing
Connection Pooling
Connection Pooling Concepts
Connection Pool Data Source Interface and Oracle Implementation
Pooled Connection Interface and Oracle Implementation
Creating a Connection Pool Data Source and Connecting
Connection Caching
Overview of Connection Caching
Typical Steps in Using a Connection Cache
Oracle Connection Cache Specification: OracleConnectionCache Interface
Oracle Connection Cache Implementation: OracleConnectionCacheImpl Class
Oracle Connection Event Listener: OracleConnectionEventListener Class

15 Distributed Transactions

Distributed Transaction Components and Scenarios
Distributed Transaction Concepts
Oracle XA Packages
XA Components
XA Data Source Interface and Oracle Implementation
XA Connection Interface and Oracle Implementation
XA Resource Interface and Oracle Implementation
XA Resource Method Functionality and Input Parameters
XA ID Interface and Oracle Implementation
Error Handling and Optimizations
XA Exception Classes and Methods
Mapping between Oracle Errors and XA Errors
XA Error Handling
Oracle XA Optimizations
Implementing a Distributed Transaction
Summary of Imports for Oracle XA
Oracle XA Code Sample

16 JDBC OCI Extensions

OCI Driver Connection Pooling
OCI Driver Connection Pooling: Background
OCI Driver Connection Pooling and MTS Compared
Stateless Sessions Compared to Stateful Sessions
Defining an OCI Connection Pool
Connecting to an OCI Connection Pool
Statement Handling and Caching
JNDI and the OCI Connection Pool
Middle-Tier Authentication Through Proxy Connections
OCI Driver Transparent Application Failover
Failover Type Events
TAF Callbacks
Java TAF Callback Interface
Configuration and Installation
Exception Handling
HeteroRM XA Code Example
Accessing PL/SQL Index-by Tables
Binding IN Parameters
Receiving OUT Parameters

17 Java Transaction API

Transaction Overview
Global and Local Transactions
Demarcating Transactions
Enlisting Resources
Two-Phase Commit
JTA Limitations
JTA Summary
Environment Initialization
Methods for Enlisting Database Resources
Summary of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Commit
Binding Transactional Objects in the Namespace
JTA Client-Side Demarcation
JTA Server-Side Database Enlistment
Configuring Two-Phase Commit Engine
Creating DataSource Objects Dynamically
JDBC Restrictions

18 Advanced Topics

JDBC and Globalization Support
How JDBC Drivers Perform Globalization Support Conversions
Globalization Support and Object Types
CHAR and VARCHAR2 Data Size Restrictions with the Thin Driver
JDBC Client-Side Security Features
JDBC Support for Oracle Advanced Security
JDBC Support for Login Authentication
JDBC Support for Data Encryption and Integrity
JDBC in Applets
Connecting to the Database through the Applet
Connecting to a Database on a Different Host Than the Web Server
Using Applets with Firewalls
Packaging Applets
Specifying an Applet in an HTML Page
JDBC in the Server: the Server-Side Internal Driver
Connecting to the Database with the Server-Side Internal Driver
Exception-Handling Extensions for the Server-Side Internal Driver
Session and Transaction Context for the Server-Side Internal Driver
Testing JDBC on the Server
Loading an Application into the Server
Server-Side Character Set Conversion of oracle.sql.CHAR Data

19 Coding Tips and Troubleshooting

JDBC and Multithreading
Performance Optimization
Disabling Auto-Commit Mode
Standard Fetch Size and Oracle Row Prefetching
Standard and Oracle Update Batching
Common Problems
Space Padding for CHAR Columns Defined as OUT or IN/OUT Variables
Memory Leaks and Running Out of Cursors
Boolean Parameters in PL/SQL Stored Procedures
Opening More Than 16 OCI Connections for a Process
Basic Debugging Procedures
Oracle Net Tracing to Trap Network Events
Third Party Debugging Tools
Transaction Isolation Levels and Access Modes

20 Sample Applications

Basic Samples
Listing Names from the EMP
Inserting Names into the EMP
Samples of PL/SQL in JDBC
Calling PL/SQL Stored
Executing Procedures in PL/SQL
Accessing a PL/SQL Index-by Table from
Intermediate Samples
Samples for JDBC 2.0 Types
BLOBs and
Weakly Typed
Weakly Typed Object
Weakly Typed
Samples for Oracle Type Extensions
Samples for Custom Object Classes
JDBC 2.0 Result Set Enhancement Samples
Positioning in a Result
Inserting and Deleting Rows in a Result
Updating Rows in a Result
Scroll-Sensitive Result
Refetching Rows in a Result
Performance Enhancement Samples
Standard Update
Oracle Update Batching with Implicit
Oracle Update Batching with Explicit
Oracle Row Prefetching Specified in
Oracle Row Prefetching Specified in
Oracle Column Type
Implicit Statement
Explicit Statement
Samples for Connection Pooling and Distributed Transactions
Data Source without
Data Source with
OCI Connection
JDBC OCI Application Failover
Oracle Connection Cache (dynamic)
Oracle Connection Cache ("fixed with no wait")
XA with Suspend and
XA with Two-Phase Commit
Sample Applet
HTML Page--JdbcApplet.htm
JDBC versus SQLJ Sample Code
SQL Program to Create Tables and Objects
JDBC Version of the Sample Code
SQLJ Version of the Sample Code

21 Reference Information

Valid SQL-JDBC Datatype Mappings
Supported SQL and PL/SQL Datatypes
Embedded SQL92 Syntax
Time and Date Literals
Scalar Functions
LIKE Escape Characters
Outer Joins
Function Call Syntax
SQL92 to SQL Syntax Example
Oracle JDBC Notes and Limitations
SQL92 Outer Join Escapes
IEEE 754 Floating Point Compliance
Catalog Arguments to DatabaseMetaData Calls
SQLWarning Class
Bind by Name
Related Information
Oracle JDBC Drivers and SQLJ
Java Technology

A Row Set

Row Set Setup and Configuration
Runtime Properties for Row Set
Row Set Listener
Traversing Through the Rows
Cached Row Set
CachedRowSet Constraints
JDBC Row Set

B JDBC Error Messages

General Structure of JDBC Error Messages
General JDBC Messages
JDBC Messages Sorted by ORA Number
JDBC Messages Sorted Alphabetically
HeteroRM XA Messages
HeteroRM XA Messages Sorted by ORA Number
HeteroRM XA Messages Sorted Alphabetically
TTC Messages
TTC Messages Sorted by ORA Number
TTC Messages Sorted Alphabetically

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