SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference
Release 9.0.1

Part Number A88827-02
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Database Administration, 3 of 5


Introduction to Database Startup and Shutdown

An Oracle database may not always be available to all users. To open or close a database, or to start up or shut down an instance, you must have dba privileges or be connected as SYSOPER or SYSDBA. Other users cannot change the current status of an Oracle database.

You cannot use STARTUP or SHUTDOWN to start or stop Oracle instances on Oracle7 servers.

Database Startup

Starting a database involves three steps:

  1. Starting an instance

    An instance controls the background processes and the allocation of memory area to access an Oracle database.

  2. Mounting the database

    Mounting the database associates it with a previously started instance.

  3. Opening the database

    Opening the database makes it available for normal database operations.

For more information about database startup, see the Oracle9i Concepts guide. For information about the STARTUP command, see Chapter 8.

Example 5-1 Starting an Instance

To start an Oracle instance, without mounting the database, enter

Keyboard icon
STARTUP NOMOUNT

Example 5-2 Mounting the Database

To start an instance, mount the database, but leave the database closed, enter

Keyboard icon
STARTUP MOUNT

Example 5-3 Opening the Database

To start an instance using the Oracle9i Server parameter file INITSALE.ORA, mount and open the database named SALES in exclusive mode, and restrict access to administrative personnel, enter

Keyboard icon
STARTUP OPEN sales PFILE=INITSALE.ORA EXCLUSIVE RESTRICT

where SALES is the database name specified in the DB_NAME parameter in the INITSALE.ORA parameter file.

Database Shutdown

Shutting down a database involves three steps:

  1. Closing the database

    When a database is closed, all database and recovery data in the SGA are written to the datafiles and redo log files, and closes all online datafiles.

  2. Dismounting the database

    Dismounting the database disassociates the database from an instance and closes the control files of the database.

  3. Shutting down the instance

    Shutting down an instance reclaims the SGA from memory and terminates the background Oracle processes that constitute an Oracle instance.

For more information about database shutdown, see the Oracle9i Concepts guide. For information about the SHUTDOWN command, see the "Command Reference" in Chapter 8.

Example 5-4 Shutting Down the Database

To shut down the database normally after it has been opened and mounted, enter

Keyboard icon
SHUTDOWN
Screen icon
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

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