|SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference
Part Number A88827-02
Database Administration, 3 of 5
An Oracle database may not always be available to all users. To open or close a database, or to start up or shut down an instance, you must have dba privileges or be connected as SYSOPER or SYSDBA. Other users cannot change the current status of an Oracle database.
You cannot use STARTUP or SHUTDOWN to start or stop Oracle instances on Oracle7 servers.
Starting a database involves three steps:
An instance controls the background processes and the allocation of memory area to access an Oracle database.
Mounting the database associates it with a previously started instance.
Opening the database makes it available for normal database operations.
To start an Oracle instance, without mounting the database, enter
To start an instance, mount the database, but leave the database closed, enter
To start an instance using the Oracle9i Server parameter file INITSALE.ORA, mount and open the database named SALES in exclusive mode, and restrict access to administrative personnel, enter
where SALES is the database name specified in the DB_NAME parameter in the INITSALE.ORA parameter file.
Shutting down a database involves three steps:
When a database is closed, all database and recovery data in the SGA are written to the datafiles and redo log files, and closes all online datafiles.
Dismounting the database disassociates the database from an instance and closes the control files of the database.
Shutting down an instance reclaims the SGA from memory and terminates the background Oracle processes that constitute an Oracle instance.
To shut down the database normally after it has been opened and mounted, enter