|Oracle9i Database Getting Started
Release 1 (9.0.1) for Windows
Part Number A90163-01
This chapter lists the major differences between Oracle9i on Windows and UNIX. For Oracle developers and database administrators moving from a UNIX platform to Windows, this information can be helpful in understanding the Windows features that are relevant to Oracle9i.
This chapter contains these topics:
On UNIX, several files and scripts in different directories are used to start an instance automatically. Other scripts are run on computer shutdown, allowing applications such as Oracle to shut down cleanly.
For automatic startup on Windows, set the registry parameter
true using an Oracle tool such as ORADIM. Enter the following with parameters at the MS-DOS command prompt:
For automatic shutdown on Windows, set the registry parameters
_SHUTDOWN to stop the relevant
SID and shut down. Set the registry parameter
_SHUTDOWNTYPE to control the shutdown mode (the default is
UNIX provides sophisticated control mechanisms for background processing and batch jobs.
For similar functionality on Windows, use the AT command or a GUI version in the Microsoft Resource Kit.
On UNIX, utilities such as
vmstat are used to monitor Oracle background and shadow processes. These utilities are not integrated with Oracle.
Performance utilities available on Windows include Oracle Performance Monitor, Task Manager, Control Panel, Event Viewer, User Manager, and Microsoft Management Console (included only with Windows 2000).
Oracle is integrated with several of these tools. For example:
ps -efcommand or OpenVMS
SHOW SYSTEM. But Task Manager is easier to interpret and the columns can be customized.
On both UNIX and Windows platforms, bypassing the file system buffer cache ensures the data is written to disk.
On UNIX, Oracle uses the
O_SYNC flag to bypass the file system buffer cache. The flag name depends on the UNIX port.
On Windows, Oracle bypasses the file system buffer cache completely.
Shared libraries on UNIX are similar to the shared DLLs on Windows. Object files and archive libraries are linked to generate the Oracle executables. Relinking is necessary after certain operations, such as installation of a patch.
On Windows, Oracle DLLs form part of the executable at run time and are therefore smaller. DLLs can be shared between multiple executables. Relinking by the user is not supported, but executable images can be modified using the ORASTACK utility.
Modifying executable images on Windows reduces the chances of running out of virtual memory when using a large SGA or when supporting thousands of connections. However, Oracle Corporation recommends doing this only under the guidance of Oracle Support Services.
The backup strategy on UNIX is as follows: put the tablespace into backup mode, copy the files to the backup location, and bring the tablespace out of backup mode.
Windows supports the same backup strategy, but you cannot copy files in use with normal Windows utilities. Use the Oracle utility OCOPY to copy open database files to another disk location. Then use a utility to copy the files to tape.
On UNIX, you can specify more than one database writer process with the initialization parameter
DB_WRITERS. Multiple database writers can help, for example, when a UNIX port does not support asynchronous I/O.
DB_WRITERS is supported but typically unnecessary on Windows, which has its own asynchronous I/O capabilities.
"Oracle9i Database Specifications for Windows" in Oracle9i Database Administrator's Guide for Windows
UNIX uses the concept of a DBA group. The root account cannot be used to install Oracle. A separate Oracle account must be created manually.
On Windows, Oracle must be installed by a Windows username in the Administrators group. The username is automatically added to the Windows local group
ORA_DBA, which receives the SYSDBA privilege. This allows the user to log into the database using
AS SYSDBA and not be prompted for a password.
Password files are located in the
\database directory and are named
SID identifies the Oracle9i database instance.
"Administering a Database" in Oracle9i Database Administrator's Guide for Windows
The following manual setup tasks, all required on UNIX, are not required on Windows:
The resources provided by the UNIX default kernels are often inadequate for a medium or large Oracle database. The maximum size of a shared memory segment (
SHMMAX) and maximum number of semaphores available (
SEMMNS) may be too low for Oracle recommendations.
On Windows, fewer resources are needed for interprocess communication (IPC), because the Oracle relational database management system is thread-based and not process-based. These resources, including shared memory and semaphores, are not adjustable by the user.
UNIX does not support Microsoft Transaction Server.
Windows supports Microsoft Transaction Server beginning with Oracle version 8. Using Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server, you can develop and deploy applications based on COM/COM+. Microsoft Transaction Server coordinates application transactions for an Oracle database.
The goal of OFA is to place all Oracle software under one ORACLE_BASE directory and to spread database files across different physical drives as databases increase in size. OFA is implemented on Windows NT and UNIX in the same way, and the main subdirectory and filenames are the same on both operating systems. Windows NT and Unix differ, however, in their OFA directory tree top-level names and in the way variables are set.
ORACLE_BASE is associated with a user's environment. ORACLE_HOME and
ORACLE_SID must be set in system or user login scripts. Symbolic links are supported. Although everything seems to be in one directory on the same hard drive, files may be on different hard drives if they are symbolically linked or have that directory as a mount point.
ORACLE_BASE is defined in the registry (for example, in
ORACLE_SID are variables defined in the registry. Symbolic links like those on UNIX are not supported, although Microsoft has announced the intention to support them in a future release.
On UNIX, Oracle uses a process to implement each of such background tasks as database writer (
DBW0), log writer (
LGWR), shared server process dispatchers, and shared servers. Each dedicated connection made to the database causes another operating system process to be spawned on behalf of that session.
On Windows, each background process is implemented as a thread inside a single, large process. For each Oracle database instance or system identifier, there is one corresponding process for the Oracle9i database. For example, 100 Oracle processes for a database instance on UNIX are handled by 100 threads inside one process on Windows.
All Oracle background, dedicated server, and client processes are threads of the master ORACLE Windows process, and all the threads of the ORACLE process share resources. This multithreaded architecture is highly efficient, allowing fast context switches with low overhead.
To view processes or end individual threads, use the Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Configuration and Migration Tools > Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows. Right-click the
SID and choose Process Information.
The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is started when the Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT is started on Windows NT 4.0. Oracle Corporation has integrated several database administration snap-ins into the MMC.
Datafiles for tablespaces may be stored on a file system or on raw partitions. A raw partition is a portion of a physical disk that is accessed at the lowest possible level.
UNIX supports raw partitions (logical drives). There is no limitation on the number of disk drives.
Windows is limited to using drive letters A-Z, but creating raw partitions lets you bypass the disk drive limitation and divide the disks into smaller sections.
Use the Windows NT Disk Administrator application to create an extended partition on a physical drive. An extended partition points to raw space on the disk that can be assigned multiple logical partitions for the database files.
An extended partition avoids the four-partition limit on Windows by allowing you to define large numbers of logical partitions to accommodate applications using the Oracle9i database. Logical partitions can then be given symbolic link names to free up drive letters.
Chapter 3, "Using Oracle9i on Windows 2000" in this manual
Windows services are similar to UNIX daemons.
Oracle registers a database instance as a service (
SID). Services start background processes.
To connect to and use an Oracle instance, an Oracle service is created during the database creation process and associated with the Oracle database. Once a service is created with the Oracle database, the service can run even while no user is logged on.
By default, services run under the SYSTEM account. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel > Services to access the Services dialog box.
"Administering a Database" in Oracle9i Database Administrator's Guide for Windows