|Oracle Internet Directory Administrator's Guide
Part Number A95192-01
This chapter explains how Oracle Internet Directory centrally stores security credentials for easy administration by end users and administrators.
This chapter contains these topics:
Oracle Internet Directory centrally stores security credentials as directory data to make their administration easy for both end users and administrators. When a user leaves a company or changes jobs, that user's privileges should change the same day to guard against misuse of old or unused accounts and privileges. In large enterprises, with user accounts and passwords distributed over multiple databases, an administrator may not be able make all the changes as quickly as good security requires without centralized password administration.
Oracle Internet Directory stores:
Users can store non-Oracle authentication credentials if the non-Oracle applications are directory enabled. These applications must create their own container under the Products entry.
Oracle Internet Directory stores a user's directory password in the
userPassword attribute. You can protect this password by storing it as a base 64 encoded string of a one-way hashed value using one of Oracle Internet Directory's supported hashing algorithms. Storing passwords as one-way hashed values--rather than as encrypted values--more fully secures them because a malicious user can neither read nor decrypt them.
During authentication to a directory server, clients supply a password to the directory server in clear text. The directory server hashes this password by using the hashing algorithm specified in the root directory-specific entry (DSE) attribute
orclCryptoScheme. It then verifies it against the hashed password stored in the binding entry's
userPassword attribute. If the hashed password values match, then the server authenticates the user. If they do not match, then the server sends the user an "Invalid Credentials" error message.
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to set the one-way hashing scheme for protecting users' passwords to the directory. It presents you with these options:
You must be a super user to do the following.
To change the type of password protection by using Oracle Directory Manager:
The following example changes the password hashing algorithm to SHA by using an LDIF file named
The LDIF file,
Oracle components store both passwords and password verifiers in Oracle Internet Directory. This section contains these topics:
Oracle components can store their password values in Oracle Internet Directory as password verifiers. A password verifier is a hashed version of a clear text password. This hashed version is then encoded as a BASE64 encoded string.
You can choose one of these hashing algorithms to derive a password verifier:
During Oracle application installation, the Oracle Universal Installer creates for that application a password verifier profile entry containing all the necessary password verification information. It places this entry as shown in Figure 17-1: immediately below the application entry, which resides under the products entry, which, in turn, resides under the subscriber-specific or default Oracle context.
This verifier profile entry is applicable only to users under the given subscriber. It does not apply to users under a different subscriber. The
orclcommonusersearchbase attribute in the common entry of the subscriber Oracle context must be set to the appropriate value for the verifier generation to be successful. This attribute must be set before verifier generation can take effect.
Unlike the directory, which stores user passwords in the
userPassword attribute, Oracle components store user password verifiers in one of two password attribute types--
orclPasswordVerifier--within the user entry. Each attribute type has
appID as an attribute subtype. The
appID attribute is a unique identifier representing an Oracle application server or authenticating identity. It is generated during application installation. For example, the appID can be the ORCLGUID of the application entry. This uniquely identifies a particular application.
A password for authenticating a user to an application. The password value is the same as that used for authenticating the user to the directory, and is synchronized with it. For example,
Several different applications can require the user to enter the same clear text password used for the directory, but each application may hash it with a different algorithm. In this case, the same clear text password can become the source of several different password verifiers.
This attribute is multivalued and can contain all the other verifiers that different applications use for this user's clear text password. If the
A password for authenticating a user to an application. However, unlike passwords stored in the
In Figure 17-2, various Oracle components store their password verifiers in Oracle Internet Directory. Oracle9iAS Single Sign-On uses the same password as that for the directory, and hence stores it in the
userPassword attribute.The other applications use different passwords and hence store their verifiers in
The following is an example of an Application-Verifier Profile:
dn: cn=IFSVerifierProfileEntry,cn=IFS,cn=Products,cn=OracleContext,o=Oracle,dc=com objectclass:top objectclass:orclpwdverifierprofile cn:IFSVerifierProfileEntry orclappid:8FF2DFD8203519C0E034080020C34C50 orclpwdverifierparams;authpassword: crypto:SASL/MDS $ realm:dc=com orclpwdverifierparams;orclpasswordverifier: crypto:ORCLLM
Figure 17-3 shows an example of password verification. In this example, the Oracle component stores its password verifiers in the directory.
If an application does not use the compare operation, then it simply retrieves from the directory the hashed value of clear text password as entered by the user. The application then compares that value with the hash value it computes. If the two values match, then the application authenticates the user.
You can use Oracle Directory Manager to view and modify password verifier profile entries.
To view an application's password verifiers:
Path to Password Verifier Entry
The full DN of this password verifier entry. Use this to locate a particular password verifier entry. You cannot modify this field.
Password Verifier Entry
RDN of this password verifier. You cannot modify this field.
The unique identifier of the Oracle application. It is generated during application installation. You cannot modify this field.
Oracle Password Parameters
Parameters containing information for generating this password verifier. Use this field to specify the hashing algorithm for this password verifier. The syntax is:
For example, if you are using the ORCLLM hashing algorithm, then you would enter:
If you are using SASL/MD5, for example, you can enter the following:
To view an application's password verifier, perform a search specifying the DN of the password verifier profile.
The following example changes the hashing algorithm in an application password verifier profile entry. This password verifier synchronizes with the user's directory password.