Skip Headers

Oracle9i Database Migration
Release 2 (9.2)

Part Number A96530-02
Go to Documentation Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Go to Index
Go to Master Index
Master Index
Go to Feedback page

Go to previous page Go to next page
View PDF


This manual guides you through the process of planning and executing database migrations on the Oracle database server. In addition, this manual provides information about compatibility, about upgrading applications to the current release of Oracle, and about important changes in the current release, such as initialization parameter changes and data dictionary changes.

Oracle9i Database Migration contains information that describes the features and functionality of the Oracle9i (also known as the standard edition) and the Oracle9i Enterprise Edition products. Oracle9i and the Oracle9i Enterprise Edition have the same basic features. However, several advanced features are available only with the Enterprise Edition, and some of these are optional. For example, to use application failover, you must have the Enterprise Edition with the Oracle9i Real Application Clusters option.

See Also:

Oracle9i Database New Features for information about the differences between Oracle9i and the Oracle9i Enterprise Edition and the features and options that are available to you.

This preface contains these topics:


Oracle9i Database Migration is intended for database administrators (DBAs), application developers, security administrators, system operators, and anyone who plans or executes Oracle database migrations.

To use this document, you need to be familiar with the following:


This document contains:

Chapter 1, "Introduction"

This chapter includes an overview of database migration as well as information about running multiple releases of Oracle. This chapter also provides information on changing the word size of your database during an upgrade or downgrade.

Chapter 2, "Preparing to Upgrade"

This chapter describes the steps to complete before upgrading a production database.

Chapter 3, "Upgrading a Database to the New Oracle9i Release"

This chapter guides you through the process of upgrading a database to the new Oracle9i release.

Chapter 4, "After Upgrading a Database"

This chapter describes the actions to complete after upgrading a database to the new Oracle9i release. This chapter also describes how to change the word size of your database (switching between 32-bit and 64-bit software).

Chapter 5, "Compatibility and Interoperability"

This chapter contains information about compatibility and interoperability between different releases of Oracle, including detailed information about the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter. This chapter also lists features of Oracle along with their required compatibility level and discusses specific issues relating to compatibility and interoperability.

Chapter 6, "Upgrading Your Applications"

This chapter provides general information about upgrading your applications and tools for use with the new Oracle9i release.

Chapter 7, "Downgrading a Database Back to the Previous Oracle Release"

This chapter guides you through the process of downgrading a database back to the previous Oracle release.

Chapter 8, "Database Migration Using Export/Import"

This chapter guides you through the process of using the Export and Import utilities to migrate data between Oracle databases.

Appendix A, "Changes to Initialization Parameters and the Data Dictionary"

This appendix lists changes to initialization parameters and the data dictionary across different releases of Oracle. This appendix also discusses compatibility issues with certain initialization parameters.

Appendix B, "Upgrade Considerations for Oracle Net Services"

This appendix describes coexistence and upgrade issues for Oracle Net Services.

Appendix C, "Migrating from Server Manager to SQL*Plus"

This appendix guides you through the process of modifying your Server Manager line mode scripts for use with SQL*Plus.

Appendix D, "Upgrading an Oracle7 Database Using the MIG Utility"

This appendix describes how to use the MIG utility to manually upgrade an Oracle7 database to the new Oracle9i release.

Appendix E, "Database Migration and Compatibility for Replication Environments"

This appendix provides step-by-step instructions for upgrading an Oracle Replication system on an Oracle7 database to Oracle9i. This appendix also discusses compatibility issues between different releases of Oracle Replication.

Related Documentation

For more information, see these Oracle resources:

Many of the examples in this book use the sample schemas of the seed database, which is installed by default when you install Oracle. Refer to Oracle9i Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.

In North America, printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at

Customers in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) can purchase documentation from

Other customers can contact their Oracle representative to purchase printed documentation.

To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register online before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at

If you already have a username and password for OTN, then you can go directly to the documentation section of the OTN Web site at

To access the database documentation search engine directly, please visit


This section describes the conventions used in the text and code examples of this documentation set. It describes:

Conventions in Text

We use various conventions in text to help you more quickly identify special terms. The following table describes those conventions and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example


Bold typeface indicates terms that are defined in the text or terms that appear in a glossary, or both.

When you specify this clause, you create an index-organized table.


Italic typeface indicates book titles or emphasis.

Oracle9i Database Concepts

Ensure that the recovery catalog and target database do not reside on the same disk.

UPPERCASE monospace (fixed-width font)

Uppercase monospace typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. Such elements include parameters, privileges, datatypes, RMAN keywords, SQL keywords, SQL*Plus or utility commands, packages and methods, as well as system-supplied column names, database objects and structures, usernames, and roles.

You can specify this clause only for a NUMBER column.

You can back up the database by using the BACKUP command.

Query the TABLE_NAME column in the USER_TABLES data dictionary view.


lowercase monospace (fixed-width font)

Lowercase monospace typeface indicates executables, filenames, directory names, and sample user-supplied elements. Such elements include computer and database names, net service names, and connect identifiers, as well as user-supplied database objects and structures, column names, packages and classes, usernames and roles, program units, and parameter values.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

Enter sqlplus to open SQL*Plus.

The password is specified in the orapwd file.

Back up the datafiles and control files in the /disk1/oracle/dbs directory.

The department_id, department_name, and location_id columns are in the hr.departments table.

Set the QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED initialization parameter to true.

Connect as oe user.

The JRepUtil class implements these methods.

lowercase monospace (fixed-width font) italic

Lowercase monospace italic font represents placeholders or variables.

You can specify the parallel_clause.

Run Uold_release.SQL where old_release refers to the release you installed prior to upgrading.

Conventions in Code Examples

Code examples illustrate SQL, PL/SQL, SQL*Plus, or other command-line statements. They are displayed in a monospace (fixed-width) font and separated from normal text as shown in this example:

SELECT username FROM dba_users WHERE username = 'MIGRATE';

The following table describes typographic conventions used in code examples and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
[ ]

Brackets enclose one or more optional items. Do not enter the brackets.

DECIMAL (digits [ , precision ])
{ }

Braces enclose two or more items, one of which is required. Do not enter the braces.


A vertical bar represents a choice of two or more options within brackets or braces. Enter one of the options. Do not enter the vertical bar.


Horizontal ellipsis points indicate either:

  • That we have omitted parts of the code that are not directly related to the example
  • That you can repeat a portion of the code

CREATE TABLE ... AS subquery;

SELECT col1, col2, ... , coln FROM 

Vertical ellipsis points indicate that we have omitted several lines of code not directly related to the example.

9 rows selected.

Other notation

You must enter symbols other than brackets, braces, vertical bars, and ellipsis points as shown.

acctbal NUMBER(11,2);
acct    CONSTANT NUMBER(4) := 3;

Italicized text indicates placeholders or variables for which you must supply particular values.

CONNECT SYSTEM/system_password
DB_NAME = database_name


Uppercase typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. We show these terms in uppercase in order to distinguish them from terms you define. Unless terms appear in brackets, enter them in the order and with the spelling shown. However, because these terms are not case sensitive, you can enter them in lowercase.

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM 
DROP TABLE hr.employees;

Lowercase typeface indicates programmatic elements that you supply. For example, lowercase indicates names of tables, columns, or files.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM 
sqlplus hr/hr

Conventions for Microsoft Windows Operating Systems

The following table describes conventions for Microsoft Windows operating systems and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example

Choose Start >

How to start a program.

To start the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Configuration and Migration Tools > Database Configuration Assistant.

File and directory names

File and directory names are not case sensitive. The following special characters are not allowed: left angle bracket (<), right angle bracket (>), colon (:), double quotation marks ("), slash (/), pipe (|), and dash (-). The special character backslash (\) is treated as an element separator, even when it appears in quotes. If the file name begins with \\, then Windows assumes it uses the Universal Naming Convention.

c:\winnt"\"system32 is the same as C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32


Represents the Windows command prompt of the current hard disk drive. The escape character in a command prompt is the caret (^). Your prompt reflects the subdirectory in which you are working. Referred to as the command prompt in this manual.


The backslash (\) special character is sometimes required as an escape character for the double quotation mark (") special character at the Windows command prompt. Parentheses and the single quotation mark (') do not require an escape character. Refer to your Windows operating system documentation for more information on escape and special characters.

C:\>exp scott/tiger TABLES=emp QUERY=\"WHERE job='SALESMAN' and sal<1600\"

C:\>imp SYSTEM/password FROMUSER=scott TABLES=(emp, dept)


Represents the Oracle home name. The home name can be up to 16 alphanumeric characters. The only special character allowed in the home name is the underscore.

C:\> net start OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener


In releases prior to Oracle8i release 8.1.3, when you installed Oracle components, all subdirectories were located under a top level ORACLE_HOME directory that by default used one of the following names:

  • C:\orant for Windows NT
  • C:\orawin98 for Windows 98

This release complies with Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. All subdirectories are not under a top level ORACLE_HOME directory. There is a top level directory called ORACLE_BASE that by default is C:\oracle. If you install Oracle9i release 1 (9.0.1) on a computer with no other Oracle software installed, then the default setting for the first Oracle home directory is C:\oracle\ora90. The Oracle home directory is located directly under ORACLE_BASE.

All directory path examples in this guide follow OFA conventions.

Refer to Oracle9i Database Getting Started for Windows for additional information about OFA compliances and for information about installing Oracle products in non-OFA compliant directories.

Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\rdbms\admin directory.

Documentation Accessibility

Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to facilitate access by the disabled community. Standards will continue to evolve over time, and Oracle Corporation is actively engaged with other market-leading technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be accessible to all of our customers. For additional information, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program Web site at

Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

JAWS, a Windows screen reader, may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, JAWS may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace.

Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation

This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or organizations that Oracle Corporation does not own or control. Oracle Corporation neither evaluates nor makes any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.