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Oracle® Spatial User's Guide and Reference
Release 9.2
Part No. A96630-01
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The Oracle Spatial User's Guide and Reference provides usage and reference information for indexing and storing spatial data and for developing spatial applications using Oracle Spatial and Oracle Locator.

Oracle Spatial requires Oracle9i Enterprise Edition and is a priced option. It is a foundation for the deployment of enterprise-wide spatial information systems, and Web-based and wireless location-based applications requiring complex spatial data management. Oracle Locator is a feature of Oracle9i Standard and Enterprise Editions. It offers a subset of Oracle Spatial capabilities (see Appendix C for a list of Locator features) typically required to support Internet and wireless service applications and partner-based GIS solutions.

Oracle9i and Oracle9i Enterprise Edition have the same basic features. However, several advanced features, such as extended data types, are available only with the Enterprise Edition, and some of these features are optional. For example, to use Oracle9i table partitioning, you must have the Enterprise Edition and the Partitioning Option.

For information about the differences between Oracle9i Standard Edition and Oracle9i Enterprise Edition and the features and options that are available to you, see Oracle9i Database New Features.


The relational geometry model of Oracle Spatial is no longer supported, effective with this release. Only the object-relational model is supported.

This preface contains these topics:


This guide is intended for anyone who needs to store spatial data in an Oracle database.

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Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

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This guide has two main parts (conceptual and usage information, and reference information) and several appendixes with supplementary information. The first part is organized for efficient learning about Oracle Spatial; it covers basic concepts and techniques first, and proceeds to more advanced material (such as coordinate systems, the linear referencing system, geocoding, and extending spatial indexing).This guide has the following elements.

Part 1, "Conceptual and Usage Information "

Contains chapters with conceptual and usage information.

Chapter 1, " Spatial Concepts"

Introduces spatial data concepts.

Chapter 2, " Spatial Data Types and Metadata"

Explains the object-relational schema.

Chapter 3, " Loading Spatial Data"

Explains how to load spatial data.

Chapter 4, " Indexing and Querying Spatial Data"

Explains how to index and query spatial data.

Chapter 5, " Coordinate Systems (Spatial Reference Systems)"

Provides conceptual and usage information about coordinate system (spatial reference system) support.

Chapter 6, " Linear Referencing System"

Provides conceptual and usage information about the Oracle Spatial linear referencing system (LRS).

Chapter 7, " Extending Spatial Indexing Capabilities"

Explains how to extend the capabilities of Oracle Spatial indexing.

Part 2, "Reference Information "

Contains chapters with reference information.

Chapter 8, " SQL Statements for Indexing Spatial Data"

Provides the syntax and semantics for SQL indexing statements.

Chapter 9, " SDO_GEOMETRY Object Type Methods"

Provides the syntax and semantics for methods used with the spatial object data type.

Chapter 10, " Spatial Operators "

Provides the syntax and semantics for operators used with the spatial object data type.

Chapter 11, " Geometry Functions"

Provides the syntax and semantics for the geometric functions and procedures.

Chapter 12, " Spatial Aggregate Functions"

Provides the syntax and semantics for the spatial aggregate functions.

Chapter 13, " Coordinate System Transformation Functions "

Provides the syntax and semantics for the coordinate system transformation functions.

Chapter 14, " Linear Referencing Functions "

Provides the syntax and semantics for the linear referencing (LRS) functions.

Chapter 15, " Migration Procedures "

Provides the syntax and semantics for the migration functions.

Chapter 16, " Tuning Functions and Procedures"

Provides the syntax and semantics for the tuning functions and procedures.

Chapter 17, " Utility Functions"

Provides the syntax and semantics for the utility functions and procedures.

Other: Supplementary Information

Contains appendixes with supplementary Information, and a glossary.

Appendix A, " Installation, Compatibility, and Migration"

Describes installation, compatibility, and migration issues.

Appendix B, " Hybrid Indexing"

Describes hybrid indexing.

Appendix C, " Locator"

Describes Oracle Locator.


Defines important terms.

Technologies Released Separately

Technologies of interest to spatial application developers, but not officially part of Oracle Spatial, are sometimes made available through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). To access the OTN, go to

Related Documentation

For more information, see the following documents:

In North America, printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at

Customers in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) can purchase documentation from

Other customers can contact their Oracle representative to purchase printed documentation.

To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other collateral, go to the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register online before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at

If you already have a username and password for OTN, then you can go directly to the documentation section of the OTN Web site at

To access the database documentation search engine directly, go to


In examples, an implied carriage return occurs at the end of each line, unless otherwise noted. You must press the Return key at the end of a line of input.

The following conventions are used in this guide:

Convention Meaning
Vertical ellipsis points in an example mean that information not directly related to the example has been omitted.
. . . Horizontal ellipsis points in statements or commands mean that parts of the statement or command not directly related to the example have been omitted
boldface text Boldface text indicates a term defined in the text, the glossary, or in both locations.
< > Angle brackets enclose user-supplied names.
[ ] Brackets enclose optional clauses from which you can choose one or none.
% The percent sign represents the system prompt on a UNIX system.

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