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Oracle9i Real Application Clusters Setup and Configuration
Release 2 (9.2)

Part Number A96600-02
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administrative context

A directory entry under which an Oracle Context (cn=OracleContext) resides. During directory access configuration, clients are configured with an administrative context in the directory configuration file,ldap.ora. The administrative context specifies the location of the Oracle Context in the directory whose entries a client expects to access.

automatic undo management

A feature that automatically manages the sizing of undo space in an Oracle database.

Cache Fusion

A diskless cache coherency mechanism in Real Application Clusters that provides copies of blocks directly from a holding instance's memory cache to a requesting instance's memory cache.

client load balancing

Load balancing, whereby if more than one listener services a single database, a client can randomly choose between the listeners for its connect requests. This randomization enables all listeners to share the burden of servicing incoming connect requests.


A set of nodes that provide hardware and operating system resource redundancy to applications and services that require high availability.

cluster database

The generic term for a Real Application Clusters database.

clustered database

See cluster database.


See cluster database.

Cluster Manager (CM)

An operating system-dependent component that discovers and tracks the membership state of each node by providing a common view of cluster membership across the cluster. The CM also monitors process status, specifically the status of the database instance.

connect descriptor

A specially formatted description of the destination for a network connection. A connect descriptor contains destination service and network route information.

connect identifier

A net service name or service alias name, that resolves to a connect descriptor.

connection load balancing

A feature that balances the number of active connections among various instances and shared server dispatchers for the same service.

connect-time failover

A client connect request is forwarded to a another listener if first listener is not responding. Connect-time failover is enabled by service registration, because the listener knows if an instance is up prior to attempting a connection.


The Oracle Enterprise Manager Console gives you a central point of control for the Oracle environment through an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) that provides powerful and robust system management.


The OUI Customized configuration type enables you to customize your Oracle software installation and configuration Select the Customized installation to create customized databases with the DBCA.

Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA)

A GUI tool for creating a database for a Transaction Processing, Data Warehouse, or General Purpose database environment. The DBCA creates a standard set of tablespaces for the type of database you select.

The DBCA also has administrative features such as instance and template management. Use the instance management feature to add or delete instances. Use the template management feature to manage and customize your database creation templates. You can also use template management to reverse engineer databases to preserve the attributes of existing databases for which you do not have creation scripts.

Database Upgrade Assistant (DUA)

A GUI tool for upgrading a database from one release of Oracle to a later release. The DBUA fully supports upgrades of Oracle cluster databases and multi-instance Oracle Parallel Server databases to Real Application Clusters databases.

Data Warehouse

The Database Configuration Assistant's preconfigured database template for a data warehouse environment. This template includes datafiles.

dedicated server

A server that requires a dedicated server process for each user process. There is one server process for each client connection request.


A process that enables many clients to connect to the same server without the need for a dedicated server process for each client. A dispatcher handles and directs multiple incoming network session requests to shared server processes. See also shared server.

Enterprise Manager Configuration Assistant (EMCA)

A tool for creating, deleting, and modifying Oracle Enterprise Manager configurations and settings.

extended partition

A type of partition on Windows NT and Windows 2000 that points to raw space on the disk. An extended partition can be assigned multiple logical drives to accommodate datafiles, control files, and redo log files.

external procedures

Functions or procedures written in a third-generation language (3GL) that can be called from PL/SQL code. Only C is supported for external procedures.

General Purpose

The Database Configuration Assistant's preconfigured database template for a hybrid database environment. This template includes datafiles.

global cache parameters

Initialization parameters determine the size of the collection of global resources that protect the database buffers on all instances. These parameters should be set in your parameter file.

Global Cache Service (GCS)

The process that implements Cache Fusion. It maintains the block mode for blocks in the global role. It is responsible for block transfers between instances. The Global Cache Service employs various background processes such as the Global Cache Service Processes (LMSn).

Global Cache Service Processes (LMSn)

The processes that handle remote Global Cache Service (GCS) messages. Real Application Clusters provides for up to 10 Global Cache Service Processes. The number of LMSn varies depending on the amount of messaging traffic for each node in the cluster.

global database name

The full name of the database that uniquely identifies the database from any other database. The global database name is of the form database_name.database_domain, for example,

Global Services Daemon (GSD)

A process that receives requests from the SRVCTL Utility to execute administrative tasks, such as startup or shutdown of cluster databases and their instances. The command is executed locally on each node and the results are returned to SRVCTL. The GSD is installed on all nodes.


A database that has both online transaction and data warehouse processing characteristics.

initialization parameter file

Files that contains information to initialize the database (initdbname.ora) and instances (initsid.ora).


An instance initialization parameter file that contains parameters unique for an instance and that points to initdbname.ora for database parameters.


An initialization parameter file that contains global parameters that apply to an entire cluster database.


The combination of the System Global Area (SGA) and each process for the Oracle database. The memory and processes of an instance manage the associated database's data and serve the database users. Each instance has a unique Oracle system identifier (SID), INSTANCE_NAME, INSTANCE_NUMBER, undo tablespaces, and thread number.


Represents the name of the instance and is used to uniquely identify a specific instance when clusters share common services names. The instance name is identified by the INSTANCE_NAME parameter in the instance initialization file, initsid.ora. The instance name is the same as the Oracle system identifier (SID) by default.


A number that associates extents of data blocks with particular instances. The instance number enables you to start up an instance and ensure that it uses the extents allocated to it for inserts and updates. This will ensure that it does not use space allocated for other instances.

Inter-process Communication (IPC)

An operating system-dependent component that transfers of messages and consistent-read versions of data blocks between instances on different nodes.


A process that resides on the server to listen for incoming client connection requests and manage the traffic to the server. When a client requests a network session with a server a listener receives the request. If the client connection information matches the service registered with the listener, then the listener grants a connection to the service provided by the database server.


A listener configuration file that identifies the protocol addresses on which the listener is accepting connection requests.


See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)

A protocol for accessing on-line directory services.

Lock Manager Servers (LMSn)

See Global Cache Service Processes (LMSn).

LMD process

A process that handles remote resource requests. Remote requests are requests that originate from another instance.


See Global Cache Service (GCS).

Management Server

The Oracle Enterprise Manager Management Server provides centralized intelligence and distributed control between the Console and the managed nodes. It also processes system management tasks sent by the Console and administers the distribution of these tasks across the enterprise. The Management Server stores all system data, application data, and information about the state of managed nodes in a repository, which is a set of tables stored in a database.

multiple Oracle homes

The capability of having more than one Oracle home directory on a machine.

naming method

The method that client applications use to resolve a net service name to a connect descriptor.

net service name

A simple name for a service that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users initiate a connect request by passing a user name and password with a net service name in a connect string for the service to which they wish to connect.

New Database

The Database Configuration Assistant's template that does not include datafiles. This template is fully customizable.


A machine on which an instance resides.

Object Link Manager (OLM)

A component of the Cluster Setup Wizard for creating persistent symbolic links to the logical drives that are required by Oracle Real Application Clusters if you do not use Oracle CFS for Windows. The Object Link Manager is associated with the Oracle Object Service.

operating system-dependent (OSD) clusterware

Software clusterware tailored for various operating systems. OSD clusterware provides communication links between the operating system and the Real Application Clusters software.

Oracle9i Enterprise Edition

Oracle9i Enterprise Edition is an Object-Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS). It provides the applications and files to manage a database. All other Oracle9i Real Application Clusters components are layered on top of Oracle9i Enterprise Edition.

Oracle Object Service

This service updates all nodes when symbolic links are modified. When installed, this service is set to autostart, so that it starts whenever you restart your system.

optimal flexible architecture (OFA)

A set of file naming and placement guidelines for Oracle software and databases.

Oracle Context

An entry in a LDAP-compliant directory of cn=OracleContext, under which all Oracle software relevant information is kept.

Oracle Data Gatherer

The Oracle Data Gatherer collects performance statistics for the Oracle Performance Manager. The Oracle Data Gatherer must be installed on each managed node of the cluster.

Oracle Enterprise Manager

A system management tool that provides an integrated solution for centrally managing your heterogeneous environment. Oracle Enterprise Manager combines a graphical Console, Management Server, Oracle Intelligent Agent, repository database, and tools to provide an integrated, comprehensive systems management platform for managing Oracle products.

Oracle Intelligent Agent

A process that runs on each of the nodes. It functions as the executor of jobs and events sent by the console by way of the Management Server. High availability is ensured since the agent can function regardless of the status of the Console or network connections.

Oracle Net

A software component that enables connectivity. It includes a core communication layer called the Oracle Net foundation layer and network protocol support. Oracle Net enables services and their applications to reside on different computers and communicate as peer applications.

Oracle Net Manager

A graphical user interface tool that combines configuration abilities with component control to provide an integrated environment for configuring and managing Oracle Net. It can be used on either the client or server.

Oracle Net Configuration Assistant

A post-installation tool that configures basic network components after installation, such as the listener names, protocol addresses, and naming methods the client will use to resolve each connect identifier.

Oracle Managed Files

An automated file system that controls the use of files within Oracle. Oracle Managed Files requires a clustered file system in Real Application Clusters environments.

Oracle Performance Manager

Part of Oracle Enterprise Manager that offers tabular and graphic performance statistics charts for single-instance Oracle databases and Real Application Clusters databases.

Oracle Real Application Clusters

Oracle Real Application Clusters is a breakthough architecture that enables clusters to access a shared database. Real Application Clusters includes the software component that provides the necessary Real Application Clusters scripts, initialization files, and datafiles to make the Oracle9i Enterprise Edition an Oracle9i Real Application Clusters database.

Oracle services

Oracle services are created and associated with Oracle products, such as the database or listener.

Oracle system identifier (SID)

A name that identifies a specific instance of a running pre-release 8.1 Oracle database. For an Oracle9i Real Application Clusters database, each node within the cluster has an instance referencing the database. The database name, specified by the DB_NAME parameter in the initdb_name.ora file, and unique thread number make up each instance's sid. The thread ID starts at 1 for the first instance in the cluster database, and is incremented by 1 for the next instance, and so on.

Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)

A graphical user interface tool that facilitates the installation of the Oracle database software and its related components.

parallel execution

Divides the work of processing certain types of SQL statements among multiple parallel execution server processes. Commonly used in Data Warehouse applications.

Performance Manager

See Oracle Performance Manager.

preferred credentials

Each Oracle Enterprise Manager administrator can set up specific user names, passwords, and roles for nodes, listeners, databases, and other services that you administer in the network.

quorum disk

See voting disk.

raw device

A disk or partition on a disk drive that does not have a file system set up on it.

raw partition

The raw, unformatted devices on shared disk arrays as used in Windows NT and Windows 2000 platforms.

Real Application Clusters

See Oracle Real Application Clusters.

repository database

A set of tables in an Oracle database that stores data required by Oracle Enterprise Manager for managing other Oracle databases. This database is separate from the database on the nodes.

RMAN (Recovery Manager)

An Oracle tool that backs up, copies, restores, and recovers datafiles, control files, and archived redo logs.

seed database

A preconfigured, ready-to-use database that requires minimal user input to create.

server clustering

See Real Application Clusters.

Server Management (SRVM)

A comprehensive and integrated system management solution for Real Application Clusters. Use Server Management to manage cluster databases running in heterogeneous environments through an open client/server architecture through Oracle Enterprise Manager.

Server Management Configuration file

A shared file in a cluster file system, or a shared raw device, that stores configuration information about Real Application Clusters databases and their instance-to-node mappings. There is one server management configuration file for each cluster database. On Windows platforms, this file resides on the same partition as the voting disk.

server parameter file

A binary parameter file that resides on the Oracle Server. This file contains parameter settings that are both global and instance-specific. These parameter settings are persistent across instance shutdown and instance startup events.

service discovery

When you execute the Discover Node command from the Console, the Management Server contacts the Oracle Intelligent Agent installed on that node to discover the Oracle services installed on the node. The Management Server then places the new information in the repository and updates the hierarchical tree in the Navigator window of the Console, displaying a big-picture view of all nodes and their respective services.

service name

A logical representation of a database, which is the way a database is presented to clients. A database can be presented as multiple services and a service can be implemented as multiple database instances. The service name is a string that is the global database name, a name comprised of the database name (DB_NAME) and domain name (DB_DOMAIN), entered during installation or database creation.

service registration

A feature by which the PMON process automatically registers information with a listener. Because this information is registered with the listener, the listener.ora file does not need to be configured with this static information.

shared server

A server that is configured to allow many user processes to share very few server processes. This increases the number of users that can be supported. With shared server configurations, many user processes connect to a dispatcher. Contrast this with dedicated server.


A sid is an abbreviation for Oracle system identifier (SID).

Software Only

The Oracle Universal Installer's database configuration type that only copies the software onto your hard drive. This configuration type does not perform configuration tasks such as configuring SRVM, listeners, or the database.


The binary parameter file that resides on the Oracle Server.


A configuration file for the client or server that specifies the client domain to append to unqualified service names or net service names, the order of naming methods the client should use when resolving a name, the logging and tracing features to use, and other network information.

SRVCTL Utility

A utility for administering instances and databases. SRVCTL gathers information about all the instances for Oracle Enterprise Manager. SRVCTL serves as a single point of control between the Oracle Intelligent Agent and the nodes. Only one node's Oracle Intelligent Agent is used to communicate to SRVCTL. SRVCTL on that node then communicates to the other nodes through Java RMI.

starter database

A preconfigured, ready-to-use database that requires minimal user input to create.

startup (START)

An operating system-dependent component that provides one-time configuration to startup functionality.

symbolic link name

A name for a Windows NT and Windows 2000 logical partition.


A database administration role that contains all system privileges with the ADMIN OPTION and the SYSOPER system privileges. SYSDBA also permits CREATE DATABASE and time-based recovery.


A database administration role that enables a database administrator to perform STARTUP, SHUTDOWN, ALTER DATABASE OPEN/MOUNT, ALTER DATABASE BACKUP, ARCHIVE LOG, and RECOVER, and includes the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege.

thread number

The number of the redo thread to be used by an instance as specified by the THREAD initialization parameter or the THREAD clause in the ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE statement. You can use any available redo thread number but an instance cannot use the same thread number as another instance.


A configuration file that contains net service names mapped to connect descriptors. The tnsnames.ora file typically resides in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin on UNIX platforms and %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin on Windows NT and Windows 2000 platforms. This file is needed on clients, server nodes, the Console, and on the Oracle Performance Manager machine.

Transaction Processing

The Database Configuration Assistant's preconfigured database template for a transaction processing environment. This template includes datafiles.

transparent application failover (TAF)

A runtime failover for high-availability environments, such as Real Application Clusters and Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard, that refers to the failover and re-establishment of application-to-service connections. It enables client applications to automatically reconnect to the database if the connection fails, and optionally resume a SELECT statement that was in progress. This reconnect happens automatically from within the Oracle Call Interface (OCI) library.

Transmission Control Protocol/Interconnect Protocol (TCP/IP)

A set of protocols that govern how information is packaged and transferred across the internet to guarantee reliable service.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

A transport layer protocol defined by the US Department of Defense (DoD) for use with the IP network layer. It provides a best-effort datagram service to an End System. The service provided by UDP is an unreliable service because it does not have a delivery guarantee or protection from duplication.

Virtual Interface Architecture (VIA)

An industry-standard architecture for inter-cluster communications. VIA's rapid server-to-server communications enhances an application's scalability and performance. VIA does this by allowing a single application to run efficiently across dozens of clustered nodes and by accelerating the data exchange among distributed application modules running on different application servers.

voting disk

Real Application Clusters uses a voting disk to improve cluster availability. Oracle stores cluster status information on the partition reserved for the voting disk.

warming the library cache

The process of transferring the most important information about parsed SQL statements and compiled PL/SQL units from the library cache on the primary instance to the library cache on the secondary instance. Warming the cache improves performance after failover because the library cache is already populated.