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Table of Contents Image Oracle9i Database Concepts
Release 2 (9.2)

Part Number A96524-01
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Part I What Is Oracle?

1 Introduction to the Oracle Server

Database Structure and Space Management Overview
Logical Database Structures
Schemas and Schema Objects
Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments
Physical Database Structures
Redo Log Files
Control Files
Data Utilities
Data Dictionary Overview
Data Access Overview
SQL Overview
SQL Statements
Objects Overview
Advantages of Objects
PL/SQL Overview
PL/SQL Program Units
Java Overview
XML Overview
Transactions Overview
Commit and Roll Back Transactions
Data Consistency Using Transactions
Data Integrity Overview
Integrity Constraints
SQL*Plus Overview
Memory Structure and Processes Overview
An Oracle Instance
Real Application Clusters: Multiple Instance Systems
Memory Structures
System Global Area
Program Global Area
Process Architecture
User (Client) Processes
Oracle Processes
The Program Interface Mechanism
Communications Software and Oracle Net Services
An Example of How Oracle Works
Application Architecture Overview
Client/Server Architecture
The Client
The Server
Multitier Architecture: Application Servers
Distributed Databases Overview
Location Transparency
Site Autonomy
Distributed Data Manipulation
Two-Phase Commit
Replication Overview
Table Replication
Multitier Materialized Views
Streams Overview
Advanced Queuing Overview
Heterogeneous Services Overview
Data Concurrency and Consistency Overview
Read Consistency
Read Consistency, Undo Records, and Transactions
Read-Only Transactions
Locking Mechanisms
Automatic Locking
Manual Locking
Quiesce Database
Database Security Overview
Security Mechanisms
Database Users and Schemas
Storage Settings and Quotas
Profiles and Resource Limits
Selective Auditing of User Actions
Fine-Grained Auditing
Database Administration Overview
Enterprise Manager Overview
Database Backup and Recovery Overview
Why Recovery Is Important
Types of Failures
Structures Used for Recovery
Data Warehousing Overview
Differences Between Data Warehouse and OLTP Systems
Data Modifications
Schema Design
Typical Operations
Historical Data
Data Warehouse Architecture
Data Warehouse Architecture (Basic)
Data Warehouse Architecture (with a Staging Area)
Data Warehouse Architecture (with a Staging Area and Data Marts)
Materialized Views
OLAP Overview
Change Data Capture Overview
High Availability Overview
Transparent Application Failover
Elements Affected by Transparent Application Failover
Online Reorganization Architecture
Data Guard Overview
Data Guard Configurations
Data Guard Components
LogMiner Overview
Real Application Clusters
Real Application Clusters Guard
Content Management Overview
Oracle Internet File System Overview

Part II Database Structures

2 Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments

Introduction to Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments
Data Blocks Overview
Data Block Format
Header (Common and Variable)
Table Directory
Row Directory
Row Data
Free Space
Free Space Management
Availability and Compression of Free Space in a Data Block
Row Chaining and Migrating
PCTFREE, PCTUSED, and Row Chaining
Extents Overview
When Extents Are Allocated
Determine the Number and Size of Extents
How Extents Are Allocated
When Extents Are Deallocated
Extents in Nonclustered Tables
Extents in Clustered Tables
Extents in Materialized Views and Their Logs
Extents in Indexes
Extents in Temporary Segments
Extents in Rollback Segments
Segments Overview
Introduction to Data Segments
Introduction to Index Segments
Introduction to Temporary Segments
Operations that Require Temporary Segments
Segments in Temporary Tables and Their Indexes
How Temporary Segments Are Allocated
Automatic Undo Management
Undo Mode
Undo Quota
Undo Retention Control
External Views

3 Tablespaces, Datafiles, and Control Files

Introduction to Tablespaces, Datafiles, and Control Files
Oracle-Managed Files
Allocate More Space for a Database
Tablespaces Overview
The SYSTEM Tablespace
The Data Dictionary
PL/SQL Program Units Description
Undo Tablespaces
Creation of Undo Tablespaces
Assignment of Undo Tablespaces
Default Temporary Tablespace
How to Specify a Default Temporary Tablespace
Using Multiple Tablespaces
Managing Space in Tablespaces
Locally Managed Tablespaces
Segment Space Management in Locally Managed Tablespaces
Dictionary Managed Tablespaces
Multiple Block Sizes
Online and Offline Tablespaces
When a Tablespace Goes Offline
Use of Tablespaces for Special Procedures
Read-Only Tablespaces
Temporary Tablespaces for Sort Operations
Sort Segments
Creation of Temporary Tablespaces
Transport of Tablespaces Between Databases
How to Move or Copy a Tablespace to Another Database
Datafiles Overview
Datafile Contents
Size of Datafiles
Offline Datafiles
Temporary Datafiles
Control Files Overview
Control File Contents
Multiplexed Control Files

4 The Data Dictionary

Introduction to the Data Dictionary
Structure of the Data Dictionary
Base Tables
User-Accessible Views
SYS, Owner of the Data Dictionary
How the Data Dictionary Is Used
How Oracle Uses the Data Dictionary
Public Synonyms for Data Dictionary Views
Cache the Data Dictionary for Fast Access
Other Programs and the Data Dictionary
How to Use the Data Dictionary
Views with the Prefix USER
Views with the Prefix ALL
Views with the Prefix DBA
The DUAL Table
Dynamic Performance Tables
Database Object Metadata

Part III The Oracle Instance

5 Database and Instance Startup and Shutdown

Introduction to an Oracle Instance
The Instance and the Database
Connection with Administrator Privileges
Initialization Parameter Files
How Parameter Values Are Changed
Instance and Database Startup
How an Instance Is Started
Restricted Mode of Instance Startup
Forced Startup in Abnormal Situations
How a Database Is Mounted
How a Database Is Mounted with Real Application Clusters
How a Standby Database Is Mounted
How a Clone Database Is Mounted
What Happens When You Open a Database
Instance Recovery
Undo Space Acquisition and Management
Resolution of In-Doubt Distributed Transaction
Open a Database in Read-Only Mode
Database and Instance Shutdown
Close a Database
Close the Database by Terminating the Instance
Unmount a Database
Shut Down an Instance
Abnormal Instance Shutdown

6 Application Architecture

Client/Server Architecture
Multitier Architecture
Application Servers
Database Servers
Oracle Net Services
Internet Scalability
Internet Security
How Oracle Net Services Works
The Listener
Service Information Registration

7 Memory Architecture

Introduction to Oracle Memory Structures
System Global Area (SGA) Overview
Dynamic SGA
Dynamic SGA Granules
Database Buffer Cache
Organization of the Database Buffer Cache
The LRU Algorithm and Full Table Scans
Size of the Database Buffer Cache
Multiple Buffer Pools
Redo Log Buffer
Shared Pool
Library Cache
Shared SQL Areas and Private SQL Areas
PL/SQL Program Units and the Shared Pool
Dictionary Cache
Allocation and Reuse of Memory in the Shared Pool
Large Pool
Control of the SGA's Use of Memory
Other SGA Initialization Parameters
Physical Memory
SGA Starting Address
Extended Buffer Cache Mechanism
Program Global Areas (PGA) Overview
Content of the PGA
Private SQL Area
Session Memory
SQL Work Areas
PGA Memory Management for Dedicated Mode
Dedicated and Shared Servers
Software Code Areas

8 Process Architecture

Introduction to Processes
Multiple-Process Oracle Systems
Types of Processes
User Processes Overview
Connections and Sessions
Oracle Processes Overview
Server Processes
Background Processes
Database Writer Process (DBWn)
Log Writer Process (LGWR)
Checkpoint Process (CKPT)
System Monitor Process (SMON)
Process Monitor Process (PMON)
Recoverer Process (RECO)
Job Queue Processes
Archiver Processes (ARCn)
Lock Manager Server Process (LMS)
Queue Monitor Processes (QMNn)
Trace Files and the Alert Log
Shared Server Architecture
Dispatcher Request and Response Queues
Dispatcher Processes (Dnnn)
Shared Server Processes (Snnn)
Restricted Operations of the Shared Server
Dedicated Server Configuration
The Program Interface
Program Interface Structure
Program Interface Drivers
Communications Software for the Operating System

9 Database Resource Management

Introduction to the Database Resource Manager
Database Resource Manager Overview
Example of a Simple Resource Plan
How the Database Resource Manager Works
Resource Control
Example of Resource Control
Effectiveness of the Database Resource Manager
Database Integration
Performance Overhead
Resource Plans and Resource Consumer Groups
Activation of a Resource Plan
Groups of Resource Plans
Resource Allocation Methods and Resource Plan Directives
Resource Plan Directives
CPU Method
Active Session Pool with Queuing
Degree of Parallelism Limit
Automatic Consumer Group Switching
Execution Time Limit
Undo Pool
CPU Resource Allocation
CPU Allocation Rules
Levels and Priorities
Interaction with Operating-System Resource Control
Dynamic Reconfiguration

Part IV Data

10 Schema Objects

Introduction to Schema Objects
How Table Data Is Stored
Row Format and Size
Rowids of Row Pieces
Column Order
Nulls Indicate Absence of Value
Default Values for Columns
Default Value Insertion and Integrity Constraint Checking
Partitioned Tables
Nested Tables
Temporary Tables
Segment Allocation
Parent and Child Transactions
External Tables
The Access Driver
Data Loading with External Tables
Parallel Access to External Tables
How Views are Stored
How Views Are Used
Mechanics of Views
Globalization Support Parameters in Views
Use of Indexes Against Views
Dependencies and Views
Updatable Join Views
Object Views
Inline Views
Materialized Views
Define Constraints on Views
Refresh Materialized Views
Materialized View Logs
The Sequence Generator
Unique and Nonunique Indexes
Composite Indexes
Indexes and Keys
Indexes and Nulls
Function-Based Indexes
Uses of Function-Based Indexes
Optimization with Function-Based Indexes
Dependencies of Function-Based Indexes
How Indexes Are Stored
Format of Index Blocks
The Internal Structure of Indexes
Index Properties
Advantages of B-tree Structure
How Indexes Are Searched
Index Unique Scan
Index Range Scan
Index Range Scan Descending
Key Compression
Prefix and Suffix Entries
Performance and Storage Considerations
Uses of Key Compression
Reverse Key Indexes
Bitmap Indexes
Benefits for Data Warehousing Applications
Bitmap Index Example
Bitmap Indexes and Nulls
Bitmap Indexes on Partitioned Tables
Bitmap Join Indexes
Four Join Models
Creation of a Bitmap Join Index
Index-Organized Tables
Benefits of Index-Organized Tables
Index-Organized Tables with Row Overflow Area
Secondary Indexes on Index-Organized Tables
Bitmap Indexes on Index-Organized Tables
Mapping Table
Partitioned Index-Organized Tables
B-tree Indexes on UROWID Columns for Heap- and Index-Organized Tables
Index-Organized Table Applications
Application Domain Indexes
Hash Clusters

11 Partitioned Tables and Indexes

Introduction to Partitioning
Partition Key
Partitioned Tables
Partitioned Index-Organized Tables
Partitioning Methods
Range Partitioning
Range Partitioning Example
List Partitioning
List Partitioning Example
Hash Partitioning
Hash Partitioning Example
Composite Partitioning
Composite Partitioning Range-Hash Example
Composite Partitioning Range-List Example
When to Partition a Table
Partitioned Indexes
Local Partitioned Indexes
Global Partitioned Indexes
Maintenance of Global Partitioned Indexes
Global Nonpartitioned Indexes
Partitioned Index Examples
Example of Index Creation: Starting Table Used for Examples
Example of a Local Index Creation
Example of a Global Index Creation
Example of a Global Partitioned Index Creation
Example of a Partitioned Index-Organized Table Creation
Miscellaneous Information about Creating Indexes on Partitioned Tables
Using Partitioned Indexes in OLTP Applications
Using Partitioned Indexes in Data Warehousing and DSS Applications
Partitioned Indexes on Composite Partitions
Partitioning to Improve Performance
Partition Pruning
Partition Pruning Example
Partition-wise Joins
Parallel DML

12 Native Datatypes

Introduction to Oracle Datatypes
Character Datatypes
CHAR Datatype
VARCHAR2 and VARCHAR Datatypes
VARCHAR Datatype
Length Semantics for Character Datatypes
NCHAR and NVARCHAR2 Datatypes
Use of Unicode Data in an Oracle Database
Implicit Type Conversion
LOB Character Datatypes
LONG Datatype
NUMBER Datatype
Internal Numeric Format
DATE Datatype
Use of Julian Dates
Date Arithmetic
Centuries and the Year 2000
Daylight Savings Support
Time Zones
LOB Datatypes
BLOB Datatype
CLOB and NCLOB Datatypes
BFILE Datatype
RAW and LONG RAW Datatypes
ROWID and UROWID Datatypes
The ROWID Pseudocolumn
Physical Rowids
Extended Rowids
Restricted Rowids
Examples of Rowid Use
How Rowids Are Used
Logical Rowids
Comparison of Logical Rowids with Physical Rowids
Guesses in Logical Rowids
Rowids in Non-Oracle Databases
ANSI, DB2, and SQL/DS Datatypes
XML Datatypes
XMLType Datatype
URI Datatypes
Data Conversion

13 Object Datatypes and Object Views

Introduction to Object Datatypes
Complex Data Models
Complex Data Model Example
Multimedia Datatypes
Object Datatype Categories
Object Types
Purchase Order Example
Types of Methods
Object Tables
Object Identifiers
Object Views Description
Collection Types
Nested Tables Description
Type Inheritance
Example of Creating a NOT FINAL Object Type
NOT INSTANTIABLE Types and Methods
User-Defined Aggregate Functions
Why Have User-Defined Aggregate Functions?
Creation and Use of UDAGs
How Do Aggregate Functions Work?
Application Interfaces
Dynamic Creation and Access of Type Descriptions
SQLJ Object Types
Datatype Evolution
Introduction to Object Views
Advantages of Object Views
How Object Views Are Defined
Use of Object Views
Updates of Object Views
Updates of Nested Table Columns in Views
View Hierarchies

Part V Data Access

14 SQL, PL/SQL, and Java

SQL Overview
SQL Statements
Data Manipulation Language Statements
Data Definition Language Statements
Transaction Control Statements
Session Control Statements
System Control Statements
Embedded SQL Statements
Identification of Nonstandard SQL
Recursive SQL
Scrollable Cursors
Shared SQL
SQL Processing
SQL Statement Execution
DML Statement Processing
DDL Statement Processing
Control of Transactions
The Optimizer Overview
Execution Plans
PL/SQL Overview
How PL/SQL Runs
Native Execution
Interpreted Execution
Language Constructs for PL/SQL
Variables and Constants
Dynamic SQL in PL/SQL
PL/SQL Program Units
Stored Procedures and Functions
PL/SQL Packages
PL/SQL Collections and Records
PL/SQL Server Pages
Java Overview
Java and Object-Oriented Programming Terminology
Class Hierarchy
The Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
Why Use Java in Oracle?
Automated Storage Management
Dynamic Class Loading
Oracle's Java Application Strategy
Java Stored Procedures
PL/SQL Integration and Oracle RDBMS Functionality

15 Dependencies Among Schema Objects

Introduction to Dependency Issues
Resolution of Schema Object Dependencies
Compilation of Views and PL/SQL Program Units
Views and Base Tables
Program Units and Referenced Objects
Data Warehousing Considerations
Session State and Referenced Packages
Security Authorizations
Function-Based Index Dependencies
Privileges on the Defining Function
Resolve Dependencies of Function-Based Indexes
Object Name Resolution
Shared SQL Dependency Management
Local and Remote Dependency Management
Management of Local Dependencies
Management of Remote Dependencies
Dependencies Among Local and Remote Database Procedures
Dependencies Among Other Remote Schema Objects
Dependencies of Applications

16 Transaction Management

Introduction to Transactions
Statement Execution and Transaction Control
Statement-Level Rollback
Resumable Space Allocation
Transaction Management Overview
Commit Transactions
Rollback of Transactions
Savepoints In Transactions
Transaction Naming
How Transactions Are Named
Commit Comment
The Two-Phase Commit Mechanism
Discrete Transaction Management
Autonomous Transactions
Autonomous PL/SQL Blocks
Transaction Control Statements in Autonomous Blocks

17 Triggers

Introduction to Triggers
How Triggers Are Used
Some Cautionary Notes about Triggers
Triggers Compared with Declarative Integrity Constraints
Parts of a Trigger
The Triggering Event or Statement
Trigger Restriction
Trigger Action
Types of Triggers
Row Triggers and Statement Triggers
Row Triggers
Statement Triggers
BEFORE and AFTER Triggers
BEFORE Triggers
AFTER Triggers
Trigger Type Combinations
Modify Views
Views That Are Not Modifiable
INSTEAD OF Triggers on Nested Tables
Triggers on System Events and User Events
Event Publication
Event Attributes
System Events
User Events
Trigger Execution
The Execution Model for Triggers and Integrity Constraint Checking
Data Access for Triggers
Storage of PL/SQL Triggers
Execution of Triggers
Dependency Maintenance for Triggers

Part VI Parallel SQL and Direct-Load INSERT

18 Parallel Execution of SQL Statements

Introduction to Parallel Execution
When to Implement Parallel Execution
When Not to Implement Parallel Execution
How Parallel Execution Works
Parallelized SQL Statements
Parallelism Between Operations
Degree of Parallelism
Parallel Query Intra- and Inter-Operation Example
SQL Operations That Can Be Parallelized
Parallel Query
Parallel DDL
DDL Statements that can be Parallelized
Parallel DML
How to Make a Statement Run in Parallel
Parallel Query
Parallel DDL
Parallel DML

19 Direct-Path INSERT

Introduction to Direct-Path INSERT
Advantages of Direct-Path INSERT
Serial and Parallel Direct-Path INSERT
Direct-Path INSERT Into Partitioned and Nonpartitioned Tables
Serial Direct-Path INSERT into Partitioned and Nonpartitioned Tables
Parallel Direct-Path INSERT into Partitioned Tables
Parallel Direct-Path INSERT into Nonpartitioned Tables
Direct-Path INSERT and Logging Mode
Direct-Path INSERT with Logging
Direct-Path INSERT without Logging
Additional Considerations for Direct-Path INSERT
Index Maintenance with Direct-Path INSERT
Space Considerations with Direct-Path INSERT
Locking Considerations with Direct-Path INSERT

Part VII Data Protection

20 Data Concurrency and Consistency

Introduction to Data Concurrency and Consistency in a Multiuser Environment
Preventable Phenomena and Transaction Isolation Levels
Overview of Locking Mechanisms
How Oracle Manages Data Concurrency and Consistency
Multiversion Concurrency Control
Statement-Level Read Consistency
Transaction-Level Read Consistency
Read Consistency with Real Application Clusters
Oracle Isolation Levels
Set the Isolation Level
Read Committed Isolation
Serializable Isolation
Comparison of Read Committed and Serializable Isolation
Transaction Set Consistency
Row-Level Locking
Referential Integrity
Distributed Transactions
Choice of Isolation Level
Read Committed Isolation
Serializable Isolation
Quiesce Database
How Oracle Locks Data
Transactions and Data Concurrency
Modes of Locking
Lock Duration
Data Lock Conversion Versus Lock Escalation
Deadlock Detection
Avoid Deadlocks
Types of Locks
DML Locks
Row Locks (TX)
Table Locks (TM)
DML Locks Automatically Acquired for DML Statements
DDL Locks
Exclusive DDL Locks
Share DDL Locks
Breakable Parse Locks
Duration of DDL Locks
DDL Locks and Clusters
Latches and Internal Locks
Internal Locks
Explicit (Manual) Data Locking
Examples of Concurrency under Explicit Locking
Oracle Lock Management Services
Flashback Query
Flashback Query Benefits
Some Uses of Flashback Query
Self-Service Repair
E-Mail or Voice Mail Applications
Account Balances
Packaged Applications

21 Data Integrity

Introduction to Data Integrity
Types of Data Integrity
Null Rule
Unique Column Values
Primary Key Values
Referential Integrity Rules
Complex Integrity Checking
How Oracle Enforces Data Integrity
Integrity Constraints Description
Database Triggers
Introduction to Integrity Constraints
Advantages of Integrity Constraints
Declarative Ease
Centralized Rules
Maximum Application Development Productivity
Immediate User Feedback
Superior Performance
Flexibility for Data Loads and Identification of Integrity Violations
The Performance Cost of Integrity Constraints
Types of Integrity Constraints
NOT NULL Integrity Constraints
UNIQUE Key Integrity Constraints
Unique Keys
UNIQUE Key Constraints and Indexes
Combine UNIQUE Key and NOT NULL Integrity Constraints
PRIMARY KEY Integrity Constraints
Primary Keys
PRIMARY KEY Constraints and Indexes
Referential Integrity Constraints
Self-Referential Integrity Constraints
Nulls and Foreign Keys
Actions Defined by Referential Integrity Constraints
Concurrency Control, Indexes, and Foreign Keys
CHECK Integrity Constraints
The Check Condition
Multiple CHECK Constraints
The Mechanisms of Constraint Checking
Default Column Values and Integrity Constraint Checking
Deferred Constraint Checking
Constraint Attributes
Unique Constraints and Indexes
Constraint States
Constraint State Modification

22 Controlling Database Access

Introduction to Database Security
Schemas, Database Users, and Security Domains
User Authentication
Authentication by the Operating System
Authentication by the Network
Third Party-Based Authentication Technologies
Public Key Infrastructure-Based Authentication
Remote Authentication
Authentication by the Oracle Database
Password Encryption While Connecting
Account Locking
Password Lifetime and Expiration
Password History
Password Complexity Verification
Multitier Authentication and Authorization
Clients, Application Servers, and Database Servers
Security Issues for Middle-Tier Applications
Identity Issues in a Multitier Environment
Restricted Privileges in a Multitier Environment
Authentication by the Secure Socket Layer Protocol
Authentication of Database Administrators
Oracle Internet Directory
User Tablespace Settings and Quotas
Default Tablespace Option
Temporary Tablespace Option
Tablespace Access and Quotas
The User Group PUBLIC
User Resource Limits and Profiles
Types of System Resources and Limits
CPU Time
Logical Reads
Other Resources
When to Use Profiles
Determine Values for Resource Limits of a Profile

23 Privileges, Roles, and Security Policies

Introduction to Privileges
System Privileges
Grant and Revoke System Privileges
Who Can Grant or Revoke System Privileges?
Schema Object Privileges
Grant and Revoke Schema Object Privileges
Who Can Grant Schema Object Privileges?
Table Security
Data Manipulation Language Operations
Data Definition Language Operations
View Security
Privileges Required to Create Views
Increase Table Security with Views
Procedure Security
Procedure Execution and Security Domains
System Privileges Needed to Create or Alter a Procedure
Packages and Package Objects
Type Security
System Privileges for Named Types
Object Privileges
Method Execution Model
Privileges Required to Create Types and Tables Using Types
Privileges Required to Create Types and Tables Using Types Example
Privileges on Type Access and Object Access
Type Dependencies
Introduction to Roles
Common Uses for Roles
Application Roles
User Roles
The Mechanisms of Roles
Grant and Revoke Roles
Who Can Grant or Revoke Roles?
Role Names
Security Domains of Roles and Users
PL/SQL Blocks and Roles
Named Blocks with Definer Rights
Anonymous Blocks with Invoker Rights
Data Definition Language Statements and Roles
Predefined Roles
The Operating System and Roles
Roles in a Distributed Environment
Fine-Grained Access Control
Dynamic Predicates
Application Context
Secure Application Roles
Creation of Secure Application Roles

24 Auditing

Introduction to Auditing
Features of Auditing
Types of Auditing
Focus of Auditing
Audit Records and the Audit Trail
Mechanisms for Auditing
When Are Audit Records Generated?
Events Always Audited to the Operating System Audit Trail
When Do Audit Options Take Effect?
Audit in a Distributed Database
Audit to the Operating System Audit Trail
Statement Auditing
Privilege Auditing
Schema Object Auditing
Schema Object Audit Options for Views and Procedures
Fine-Grained Auditing
Focus Statement, Privilege, and Schema Object Auditing
Successful and Unsuccessful Statement Executions Auditing
BY SESSION and BY ACCESS Clauses of Audit Statement
Defaults and Excluded Operations
Audit By User
Audit in a Multitier Environment

A Operating System Specific Information

B Information on Deprecated Features

Allocating Extents in Dictionary Managed Tablespaces
Introduction to Rollback Segments
Contents of a Rollback Segment
How Rollback Entries Are Logged
When Rollback Information Is Required
Transactions and Rollback Segments
How Extents Are Deallocated from a Rollback Segment
The Rollback Segment SYSTEM
Oracle Instances and Types of Rollback Segments
Rollback Segment States
Deferred Rollback Segments
High Water Mark
PCTFREE, PCTUSED, and Row Chaining



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