Skip Headers

Oracle® Database Application Developer's Guide - Object-Relational Features
10g Release 1 (10.1)

Part Number B10799-01
Go to Documentation Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Go to Index
Go to Master Index
Master Index
Go to Feedback page

Go to previous page
Go to next page
View PDF


Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Object-Relational Features describes how to use the object-relational features of the Oracle Server, 10g Release 1 (10.1). Information in this guide applies to versions of the Oracle Server that run on all platforms, and does not include system-specific information.

This preface contains these topics:


Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Object-Relational Features is intended for programmers developing new applications or converting existing applications to run in the Oracle environment. The object-relational features are often used in content management, data warehousing, data/information integration, and similar applications that deal with complex structured data. The object views feature can be valuable when writing new C++, Java, or XML applications on top of an existing relational schema.

This guide assumes that you have a working knowledge of application programming and that you are familiar with the use of Structured Query Language (SQL) to access information in relational database systems.


This document contains:

Chapter 1, " Introduction to Oracle Objects "

Introduces the key features and explains the advantages of the object-relational model.

Chapter 2, " Basic Components of Oracle Objects"

Explains the basic concepts and terminology that you need to work with Oracle Objects.

Chapter 3, " Support for Collection Datatypes"

Discusses collection datatypes and operations on collection datatypes.

Chapter 4, " Object Support in Oracle Programming Environments "

Summarizes the object-relational features in SQL and PL/SQL; Oracle Call Interface (OCI); Pro*C/C++; Oracle Objects For OLE; and Java, JDBC, and Oracle SQLJ. The information in this chapter is high-level, for education and planning. The following chapters explain how to use the object-relational features in greater detail.

Chapter 5, " Applying an Object Model to Relational Data"

Explains object views, which allow you to develop object-oriented applications without changing the underlying relational schema.

Chapter 6, " Managing Oracle Objects "

Explains how to perform essential operations with objects and object types.

Chapter 7, " Advanced Topics for Oracle Objects "

Discusses features that you might need to manage storage and performance as you scale up an object-oriented application.

Chapter 8, " Design Considerations for Oracle Objects "

Explains the implementation and performance characteristics of the Oracle object-relational model.

Chapter 9, " A Sample Application Using Object-Relational Features "

Demonstrates how a relational program can be rewritten as an object-oriented one, schema and all.

Related Documentation

For more information, see these Oracle resources:

Many of the books in the documentation set use the sample schemas of the seed database, which is installed by default when you install Oracle. Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.

Printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at

To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register online before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at

If you already have a username and password for OTN, then you can go directly to the documentation section of the OTN Web site at


This section describes the conventions used in the text and code examples of this documentation set. It describes:

Conventions in Text

We use various conventions in text to help you more quickly identify special terms. The following table describes those conventions and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
Bold Bold typeface indicates terms that are defined in the text or terms that appear in a glossary, or both. When you specify this clause, you create an index-organized table.
Italics Italic typeface indicates book titles or emphasis. Oracle Database Concepts

Ensure that the recovery catalog and target database do not reside on the same disk.

UPPERCASE monospace (fixed-width) font Uppercase monospace typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. Such elements include parameters, privileges, datatypes, RMAN keywords, SQL keywords, SQL*Plus or utility commands, packages and methods, as well as system-supplied column names, database objects and structures, usernames, and roles. You can specify this clause only for a NUMBER column.

You can back up the database by using the BACKUP command.

Query the TABLE_NAME column in the USER_TABLES data dictionary view.


lowercase monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase monospace typeface indicates executables, filenames, directory names, and sample user-supplied elements. Such elements include computer and database names, net service names, and connect identifiers, as well as user-supplied database objects and structures, column names, packages and classes, usernames and roles, program units, and parameter values.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

Enter sqlplus to open SQL*Plus.

The password is specified in the orapwd file.

Back up the datafiles and control files in the /disk1/oracle/dbs directory.

The department_id, department_name, and location_id columns are in the hr.departments table.

Set the QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED initialization parameter to true.

Connect as oe user.

The JRepUtil class implements these methods.

lowercase italic monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase italic monospace font represents placeholders or variables. You can specify the parallel_clause.

Run Uold_release.SQL where old_release refers to the release you installed prior to upgrading.

Conventions in Code Examples

Code examples illustrate SQL, PL/SQL, SQL*Plus, or other command-line statements. They are displayed in a monospace (fixed-width) font and separated from normal text as shown in this example:


The following table describes typographic conventions used in code examples and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
[ ] 
Brackets enclose one or more optional items. Do not enter the brackets.
DECIMAL (digits [ , precision ]) 
{ } 
Braces enclose two or more items, one of which is required. Do not enter the braces.
A vertical bar represents a choice of two or more options within brackets or braces. Enter one of the options. Do not enter the vertical bar.
Horizontal ellipsis points indicate either:
  • That we have omitted parts of the code that are not directly related to the example

  • That you can repeat a portion of the code

CREATE TABLE ... AS subquery; 

SELECT col1, col2, ... , coln FROM employees; 
Vertical ellipsis points indicate that we have omitted several lines of code not directly related to the example.
9 rows selected. 
Other notation You must enter symbols other than brackets, braces, vertical bars, and ellipsis points as shown.
acctbal NUMBER(11,2);  
acct    CONSTANT NUMBER(4) := 3; 
Italics Italicized text indicates placeholders or variables for which you must supply particular values.
CONNECT SYSTEM/system_password 

DB_NAME = database_name 
UPPERCASE Uppercase typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. We show these terms in uppercase in order to distinguish them from terms you define. Unless terms appear in brackets, enter them in the order and with the spelling shown. However, because these terms are not case sensitive, you can enter them in lowercase.
SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees; 


DROP TABLE hr.employees; 
lowercase Lowercase typeface indicates programmatic elements that you supply. For example, lowercase indicates names of tables, columns, or files.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees; 

sqlplus hr/hr 


Documentation Accessibility

Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to facilitate access by the disabled community. Standards will continue to evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be accessible to all of our customers. For additional information, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program Web site at

Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

JAWS, a Windows screen reader, may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, JAWS may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace.

Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation

This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.