Skip Headers

Pro*C/C++ Getting Started
Release 9.2 for Windows

Part Number A96111-03
Go to Documentation Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Go to Index
Go to Master Index
Master Index
Go to Feedback page

Go to previous page
Go to next page
View PDF

3 Sample Programs

This chapter describes how to build Oracle database applications with Pro*C/C++ using the sample programs that are included with this release.

This chapter contains these topics:

3.1 Sample Program Descriptions

When you install Pro*C/C++, Oracle Universal Installer copies a set of Pro*C/C++ sample programs to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\precomp\demo\proc directory. These sample programs are listed in Table 3-1, "Sample Programs" and described in the subsequent section.

When built, the sample programs that Oracle provides produce .exe executables.

For some sample programs, as indicated in the Notes column of the table, you must run the SQL scripts in the sample directory before you precompile and run the sample program. The SQL scripts set up the correct tables and data so that the sample programs run correctly. These SQL scripts are located in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\precomp\demo\sql directory.

Oracle Corporation recommends that you build and run these sample programs to verify that Pro*C/C++ has been installed successfully and operates correctly. You can delete the programs after you use them.

You can build the sample program using a batch file called pcmake.bat or using Visual C++ 6.0.

Table 3-1 Sample Programs

Sample Program Source Files Pro*C/C++ GUI Project File MSVC Compiler Project File Notes
ANSIDYN1 ansidyn1.pc ansidyn1.pre ansidyn1.dsp -
ANSIDYN2 ansidyn2.pc ansidyn2.pre ansidyn2.dsp -
COLDEMO1 coldemo1.h coldemo1.pc coldemo1.sql coldemo1.typ coldemo1.pre coldemo1.dsp Run coldemo1.sql and the Object Type Translator before building coldemo1.
CPDEMO1 cpdemo1.pc cpdemo1.pre cpdemo1.dsp -
CPDEMO2 cpdemo2.pc cpdemo2.pre cpdemo2.dsp -
CPPDEMO1 cppdemo1.pc cppdemo1.pre cppdemo1.dsp -
CPPDEMO2 cppdemo2.pc empclass.pc cppdemo2.sql empclass.h cppdemo2.pre cppdemo2.dsp Run cppdemo2.sql before building cppdemo2.
CPPDEMO3 cppdemo3.pc cppdemo3.pre cppdemo3.dsp -
CVDEMO cv_demo.pc cv_demo.sql cv_demo.pre cv_demo.dsp Run cv_demo.sql before building cv_demo.
EMPCLASS cppdemo2.pc empclass.pc cppdemo2.sql empclass.h empclass.pre empclass.dsp Run cppdemo2.sql before building empclass.
LOBDEMO1 lobdemo1.h lobdemo1.pc lobdemo1.sql lobdemo1.pre lobdemo1.dsp Run lobdemo1.sql before building lobdemo1.
MLTTHRD1 mltthrd1.pc mltthrd1.sql mltthrd1.pre mltthrd1.dsp Run mltthrd1.sql before building mltthrd1.
NAVDEMO1 navdemo1.h navdemo1.pc navdemo1.sql navdemo1.typ navdemo1.pre navdemo1.dsp Run navdemo1.sql and the Object Type Translator before building navdemo1.
OBJDEMO1 objdemo1.h objdemo1.pc objdemo1.sql objdemo1.typ objdemo1.pre objdemo1.dsp Run objdemo1.sql and the Object Type Translator before building objdemo1.
ORACA oraca.pc oracatst.sql oraca.pre oraca.dsp Run oracatst.sql before building oraca.
PLSSAM plssam.pc plssam.pre plssam.dsp -
SAMPLE sample.pc sample.pre sample.dsp -
SAMPLE1 sample1.pc sample1.pre sample1.dsp -
SAMPLE2 sample2.pc sample2.pre sample2.dsp -
SAMPLE3 sample3.pc sample3.pre sample3.dsp -
SAMPLE4 sample4.pc sample4.pre sample4.dsp -
SAMPLE5 sample5.pc exampbld.sql examplod.sql sample5.pre sample5.dsp Run exampbld.sql, then run examplod.sql, before building sample5.
SAMPLE6 sample6.pc sample6.pre sample6.dsp -
SAMPLE7 sample7.pc sample7.pre sample7.dsp -
SAMPLE8 sample8.pc sample8.pre sample8.dsp -
SAMPLE9 sample9.pc calldemo.sql sample9.pre sample9.dsp Run calldemo.sql before building sample9.
SAMPLE10 sample10.pc sample10.pre sample10.dsp -
SAMPLE11 sample11.pc sample11.sql sample11.pre sample11.dsp Run sample11.sql before building sample11.
SAMPLE12 sample12.pc sample12.pre sample12.dsp -
SCDEMO1 scdemo1.pc scdemo1.pre scdemo1.dsp -
SCDEMO2 scdemo2.pc scdemo2.pre scdemo2.dsp -
SQLVCP sqlvcp.pc sqlvcp.pre sqlvcp.dsp -
WINSAM resource.h winsam.h winsam.ico winsam.pc winsam.rc winsam.pre winsam.dsp -

The following subsections describe the functionality of the sample programs.


Demonstrates using ANSI dynamic SQL to process SQL statements that are not known until runtime. This program is intended to demonstrate the simplest (though not the most efficient) approach to using ANSI dynamic SQL.


Demonstrates using ANSI dynamic SQL to process SQL statements that are not known until runtime. This program uses the Oracle extensions for batch processing and reference semantics.


Fetches census information for California counties. This program demonstrates various ways to navigate through collection-typed database columns.


Demonstrates how the connection pool feature can be used. It also shows how different connection pool options can be used to optimize performance.


Demonstrates connection pool feature with relatively complex set of SQL statements and shows how performance gain depends on the kind of SQL statements used by the program.


Prompts the user for an employee number, then queries the emp table for the employee's name, salary, and commission. This program uses indicator variables (in an indicator struct) to determine whether the commission is NULL.


Retrieves the names of all employees in a given department from the emp table (dynamic SQL Method 3).


Finds all salespeople and prints their names and total earnings (including commissions). This program is an example of C++ inheritance.


Declares and opens a ref cursor.


The EMPCLASS and CPPDEMO2 files were written to provide an example of how to write Pro*C/C++ programs within a C++ framework. EMPCLASS encapsulates a specific query on the emp table and is implemented using a cursor variable. EMPCLASS instantiates an instance of that query and provides cursor variable functionality (that is: open, fetch, close) through C++ member functions that belong to the emp class. The empclass.pc file is not a standalone demo program. It was written to be used by the cppdemo2 demo program. To use the emp class, you have to write a driver (cppdemo2.pc) which declares an instance of the emp class and issues calls to the member functions of that class.


Fetches and adds crime records to the database based on the person's Social Security number. This program demonstrates the mechanisms for accessing and storing large objects (LOBs) to tables and manipulating LOBs through the stored procedures available through the DBMS_LOB package.


Shows how to use threading in conjunction with precompilers. The program creates as many sessions as there are threads.


Demonstrates navigational access to objects in the object cache.


Demonstrates the use of objects. This program manipulates the object types person and address.


Demonstrates how to use ORACA to determine various performance parameters at runtime.


Demonstrates the use of embedded PL/SQL blocks. This program prompts you for an employee name that already resides in a database. It then executes a PL/SQL block, which returns the results of four SELECT statements.


Adds new employee records to the personnel database and checks database integrity. The employee numbers in the database are automatically selected using the current maximum employee number +10.


Logs on to an Oracle database, prompts the user for an employee number, queries the database for the employee's name, salary, and commission, and displays the result. The program continues until the user enters 0 as the employee number.


Logs on to an Oracle database, declares and opens a cursor, fetches the names, salaries, and commissions of all salespeople, displays the results, and closes the cursor.


Logs on to an Oracle database, declares and opens a cursor, fetches in batches using arrays, and prints the results using the print_rows() function.


Demonstrates the use of type equivalencies using the LONG VARRAW external datatype.


Prompts the user for an account number and a debit amount. The program verifies that the account number is valid and that there are sufficient funds to cover the withdrawal before it debits the account. This program shows the use of embedded SQL.


Creates a table, inserts a row, commits the insert, and drops the table (dynamic SQL Method 1).


Inserts two rows into the emp table and deletes them (dynamic SQL Method 2).


Retrieves the names of all employees in a given department from the emp table (dynamic SQL Method 3).


Connects to an Oracle database using the scott/tiger account. The program declares several host arrays and calls a PL/SQL stored procedure (GET_EMPLOYEES in the CALLDEMO package). The PL/SQL procedure returns up to ASIZE values. The program keeps calling GET_EMPLOYEES, getting ASIZE arrays each time, and printing the values, until all rows have been retrieved.


Connects to an Oracle database using your username and password and prompts for a SQL statement. You can enter any legal SQL statement, but you must use regular SQL syntax, not embedded SQL. Your statement is processed. If the statement is a query, the rows fetched are displayed (dynamic SQL Method 4).


Fetches from the emp table, using a cursor variable. The cursor is opened in the stored PL/SQL procedure open_cur, in the EMP_DEMO_PKG package.


Demonstrates how to do array fetches using dynamic SQL Method 4.


Demonstrates how the scrollable cursor can be used with Oracle dynamic SQL Method 4. Scrollable cursor can also be used with ANSI dynamic SQL Method 4.


Demonstrates the use of scrollable cursor with host arrays.


Demonstrates how you can use the sqlvcp() function to determine the actual size of a VARCHAR struct. The size is then used as an offset to increment a pointer that steps through an array of VARCHARs.

This program also demonstrates how to use the SQLStmtGetText() function to retrieve the text of the last SQL statement that was executed.


Adds new employee records to the personnel database and checks database integrity. You can enter as many employee names as you want and perform the SQL commands by selecting the appropriate buttons in the Employee Record dialog box. This is a GUI version of the sample program.

3.2 Building the Demonstration Tables

To run the sample programs, you must have a database account with the username scott and the password tiger. Also, you must have a database with the sample tables emp and dept. This account is included in the starter database for your Oracle9i server. If the account does not exist on your database, create the account before running the sample programs. If your database does not contain emp and dept tables, you can use the demobld.sql script to create them.

To build the sample tables:

  1. Start SQL*Plus

  2. Connect as username scott with the password tiger.

  3. Run the demobld.sql script:

    SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\sqlplus\demo\demobld.sql;

3.3 Building the Sample Programs

You can build the sample programs in two ways:

3.3.1 Using pcmake.bat

The pcmake.bat file for compiling Pro*C/C++ demos is found in the following location:


This batch file is designed to illustrate how Pro*C/C++ applications can be built at the command prompt.

In order to use this batch file, Microsoft Visual Studio must be installed. The environment variable MSVCDir must be set. Pro*C/C++ command line options and linker options vary depending on your application.

You can use this file to build a demo, to build sample1 for example:

  1. Navigate to the location of the demo file and enter the following at the command prompt:

    C:\> CD ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\precomp\demo\proc\sample1
  2. Enter the following:

    % pcmake sample1

3.4 Using Microsoft Visual C++

Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 project files have an extension of.dsp. The.dsp files in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\precomp\demo\proc directory guide and control the steps necessary to precompile, compile, and link the sample programs.

Pro*C/C++, SQL*Plus, and the Object Type Translator have been integrated into the Microsoft Visual C++ sample project files. You do not have to run Pro*C/C++, SQL*Plus, and the Object Type Translator separately before compilation.

To build a sample program:

  1. Open a Visual C++ project file, such as sample1.dsp.

  2. Check the paths in the project file to ensure that they correspond to the configuration of your system. If they do not, change the paths accordingly. Your system may produce error messages if the paths to all components are not correct.


    All of the sample programs were created with C:\oracle\ora92 as the default drive.

  1. Choose Build > Rebuild All. Visual C++ creates the executable.

3.5 Setting the Path for the Sample .pre Files

By default the sample .pre files search for their corresponding .pc files in the C:\oracle\ora92 directory where C:\ is the drive that you are using, and oracle\ora92 represents the location of the Oracle home. If the Oracle base and Oracle home directories are different on your computer, you must change the directory path to the correct path.

To change the directory path for a sample .pre file:

  1. In Pro*C/C++, open the .pre file.

  2. Double-click the filename in the Input File area to display the Input File dialog box.

  3. Change the directory path to the correct path.

  4. Click Open.