|Oracle® Application Server Administrator's Guide
10g Release 2 (10.1.2)
It contains the following topics:
Oracle realizes that the procedures you use to monitor and administer your application server components can vary, depending upon the size of your organization, the number of administrators you employ, and the types of components you manage. As a result, Oracle offers options for managing your Oracle Application Server installations.
These management options can be divided into the following categories:
The primary tool for managing Oracle Application Server—as well as your entire Oracle environment—is Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g.
With Enterprise Manager, you can use your Web browser to:
When used together, Application Server Control, Grid Control, and Database Control provide a complete set of efficient tools to reduce the cost and complexity of managing your enterprise.
Application Server Control is installed with every instance of Oracle Application Server. As a result, you can immediately begin managing your application server and its components from your Web browser.
Note:If you select the OracleAS Metadata Repository-only installation type, the Application Server Control is installed, but it is not configured or started automatically by the installation procedure. In fact, there is no need to start or use the Application Server Control Console for the Metadata Repository-only installation type.
From the Application Server Control Console, you can monitor and administer a single Oracle Application Server instance, an Oracle Application Server Farm of application server instances, or an Oracle Application Server Cluster.
The Application Server Control Console organizes a wide variety of performance data and administrative functions into distinct, Web-based home pages for each application server component. The Enterprise Manager home pages make it easy to locate the most important monitoring data and the most commonly used administrative functions—all from your Web browser.
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control is installed from a separate installation CD-ROM, that is part of the Oracle Application Server CD–ROM pack. The Grid Control Console provides a wider view of your enterprise so you can manage multiple Oracle Application Server instances. In addition, the Grid Control Console provides a feature set designed to help you manage all aspects of your enterprise, including your Oracle databases, hosts, listeners, and other components.
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Database Control is installed and configured when you install the OracleAS Metadata Repository. As a result, you can use Database Control Console to manage the OracleAS Metadata Repository database.
The Database Control Console is similar to the Application Server Control Console, but it is designed to help you manage your Oracle database. It provides a Web-based user interface for performing database management tasks. For example, you can monitor the performance of the database, schedule backups, and manage the tablespaces of the database.
If you use OracleAS Metadata Repository Creation Assistant to install the OracleAS Metadata Repository in an existing database, Database Control will also be available if the existing database is an Oracle Database 10g database and if the Database Control was configured when the database was created.
Note that if you use Grid Control to manage your OracleAS Metadata Repository database, there is no need to use Database Control. All the features of Database Control are available from the database management pages within the Grid Control Console.
Oracle Application Server also provides command-line interfaces to several key management technologies. After you become familiar with the architecture and components of your application server, command-line tools can help you automate your management procedures with scripts and custom utilities.
The most important administration command-line tools are:
Start and stop components, instances, and OracleAS Clusters
Create and remove OC4J instances and OracleAS Clusters
Deploy and undeploy OC4J applications
Archive and restore configuration information
Obtain configuration information
In addition to
dcmctl, Oracle Application Server provides many other command-line tools for performing specific tasks.
After you install and start Oracle Application Server, the application server automatically begins gathering a set of built-in performance metrics. These built-in performance metrics are measured continuously using performance instrumentation inserted into the implementations of Oracle Application Server components.
The Application Server Control Console presents a subset of these performance metrics in an organized fashion on the application server component home pages. For example, the Oracle HTTP Server metrics are presented as a series of charts on the Status Metrics page, which is available from the Oracle HTTP Server home page. You can also display all the metrics for a particular component by using the All Metrics page.
Alternatively, you may want to view the complete set of built-in performance metrics, or you may need to monitor a specific set of application server component metrics. Oracle Application Server provides a set of command-line and servlet-based tools to view the Oracle Application Server built-in performance metrics directly, outside of the Application Server Control Console.
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Application Server Control provides Web-based management capabilities designed specifically for Oracle Application Server. Using the Application Server Control Console, you can monitor, diagnose, and configure the components of your application server. You can deploy applications, manage security, and create and manage OracleAS Clusters.
Application Server Control consists of:
The Application Server Control Console and its Enterprise Manager home pages that you use to manage Oracle Application Server
These Web pages provide you with a high-level view of your Oracle Application Server environment. You can then drill down for more detailed performance and diagnostic information.
The underlying software technologies that keep track of your application server instances and components
These technologies automatically perform many of the management tasks as you select options and functions within the Application Server Control Console. For example, they discover the components of each application server instance, gather and process performance data, and provide access to application configuration information.
The following sections provide more information about Application Server Control:
Oracle Application Server provides a wide variety of software solutions designed to help you run all aspects of your business. As a result, you will want to manage Oracle Application Server from different levels of detail.
At times, you may want to manage a single application server instance; or, you may find it efficient to combine multiple instances into an OracleAS Cluster. At other times, you will want to manage a specific application server component.
To support these multiple levels of management, Oracle introduces the Oracle Enterprise Manager home pages. Each home page provides the information you need to monitor the performance and availability of Oracle Application Server from a particular level of management detail. Selected home pages also provide tools for configuring your Oracle Application Server components.
From each home page, you can obtain high-level information or you can drill down to get more specific information about an instance, component, or application.
Consider the following pages that are available when you use the Application Server Control Console:
Use the OracleAS Farm page to view a set of related application server instances on your network and to create OracleAS Clusters that speed up the configuration and deployment of your Web applications. See Section 2.3.4, "Using the Oracle Application Server Farm Page" for more information.
Use the Application Server Home page to manage all aspects of an individual application server instance. See Section 2.3.3, "Using the Application Server Home Page" for more information.
Drill down to a component home page to monitor or configure an individual component of the application server. For example, use the Oracle HTTP Server Home page to monitor the performance of your Web server, or use the Oracle Application Server Containers for J2EE (OC4J) home page to deploy a custom Web-based application. See Section 2.3.5, "Using an Oracle Application Server Component Home Page" for more information.
The Application Server Control Console relies on various technologies to discover, monitor, and administer the Oracle Application Server environment. Table 2-1 provides a summary of the underlying technologies leveraged by the Application Server Control Console.
Table 2-1 Summary of the Application Server Control Underlying Technologies
The Application Server Control Console uses DMS to gather performance data about your Oracle Application Server components.
For more information, see Oracle Application Server Performance Guide.
OPMN provides process control and monitoring for application server instances and their components. It gathers component status information, and distributes the status information to components that are interested in it. Application Server Control uses OPMN for such tasks as starting and stopping the components of your application server instance.
For more information, see Oracle Process Manager and Notification Server Administrator's Guide.
DCM manages configurations among application server instances that are associated with a common Metadata Repository. It enables Oracle Application Server cluster-wide deployment so you can deploy an application to one instance and have it automatically propagated to the entire cluster. You can also make a single host or instance configuration change to one instance and have it propagated across all instances in the cluster. Application Server Control uses DCM to make configuration changes and to propagate configuration changes and deployed applications across the cluster.
For more information, see Distributed Configuration Management Administrator's Guide.
A local version of the Oracle Management Agent designed specifically to monitor your application server components.
The Management Watchdog Process monitors the Management Agent and the Application Server Control Console to make sure both processes are running and available at all times.
For more information, see Oracle Enterprise Manager Advanced Configuration.
Previous versions of Oracle Application Server (specifically, Oracle9i Application Server 9.0.2 and 9.0.3) included the Oracle Enterprise Manager Web site, a Web-based tool that offers management capabilities similar to those provided by the Application Server Control Console.
In fact, you can still use the Enterprise Manager Web site to manage Oracle9i Application Server 9.0.2 and 9.0.3 after you begin deploying Oracle Application Server 10g (10.1.2 or 9.0.4) and its Application Server Control.
However, if you are familiar with the Enterprise Manager Web site and you plan to continue managing previous versions of Oracle Application Server, you should be aware of several differences between the Enterprise Manager Web site and the Application Server Control. In particular, you should note the following:
Oracle9i Application Server (9.0.2) and Oracle9i Application Server (9.0.3) used one Enterprise Manager Web site to manage all the application server instances on a host.
You could navigate to individual Enterprise Manager home pages for each application server, but only one instance of the Enterprise Manager Web site was running on the host and you managed all the application server instances from one Enterprise Manager Web site URL. This approach to application server management was convenient, but it required all application server instances to be installed and managed by the same operating system user.
The current version of Oracle Application Server provides one Application Server Control for each application server instance on a host.
For example, if you install two application server instances on a single host, and you want to manage both instances, two separate instances of the Application Server Control—one for each application server instance—must be started on the host.
As a result, each application server instance provides a unique URL (specifically, a unique HTTP Server listening port number) for accessing the Application Server Control Console.
If you have Oracle9i Application Server (9.0.2 or 9.0.3) and Oracle Application Server 10g (10.1.2 or 9.0.4) instances on the same host, and you have to deinstall a 9.0.2 or 9.0.3 instance, you must apply a patch to ensure Oracle Enterprise Manager continues to work after the change. Refer to the section on deinstallation of 9.0.2 or 9.0.3 Oracle homes after you upgrade to Oracle Application Server 10g (10.1.2) in the Oracle Application Server Upgrade and Compatibility Guide.
At any time while using the Application Server Control Console, you can click Help at the top of the page to get more information. In most cases, the Help window displays a help topic about the current page. Click Contents in the Help window to browse the list of help topics, or click Search to search for a particular word or phrase.
Use the following sections to get started with the Application Server Control Console and become familiar with the Enterprise Manager home pages within the Application Server Control Console:
The following sections describe how to display the Application Server Control Console and introduce you to the initial home pages you should see when you display the Application Server Control Console for the first time:
The URL for the Application Server Control Console, including the port number, is included in the text file that displays at the end of the Oracle Application Server installation procedure. This text file is saved in the following location after you install the application server:
(UNIX) ORACLE_HOME/install/setupinfo.txt (Windows) ORACLE_HOME\install\setupinfo.txt
The Application Server Control Console URL typically includes the name of the host computer and the port number assigned to the Application Server Control Console during the installation. For example:
Display the Oracle Application Server Welcome Page by entering the following URL in your Web browser:
Note:The default port for Oracle HTTP Server (and, as a result, the Welcome page) is provided at the end of the Oracle Application Server installation, as well as in the following text file in the
Enterprise Manager displays the administrator logon dialog box.
Enter the Oracle Application Server administrator user name and password and click OK.
When you first display the Application Server Control Console, the initial home page you see varies depending upon whether or not the instance belongs to an OracleAS Farm.
See Also:"What is a Farm?" in the Oracle Application Server Installation Guide for your platform
Table 2-2 describes the Enterprise Manager home pages that might be used as a starting point when you first browse to the Application Server Control Console.
Table 2-2 Enterprise Manager Home Pages for Managing Oracle Application Server
|Enterprise Manager Home Page||Description|
Use this home page to monitor and configure a single application server instance.
See Section 2.3.3, "Using the Application Server Home Page" for more information.
The Application Server home page is the first page you see if you have installed a single application server instance that is not using an OracleAS Metadata Repository.
Use this page to view a list of all the application server instances that use a common OracleAS Farm.
See Section 2.3.4, "Using the Oracle Application Server Farm Page" for more information.
The OracleAS Farm page is the first page you see if you have installed one or more application server instances that use a common set of OracleAS Infrastructure 10g—or more specifically, a common file-based or database-based OracleAS Metadata Repository.
From the Application Server Home page (Figure 2-1), you can start and stop the application server instance, monitor the overall performance of the server, and review the components of the server. You can also drill down and examine the performance of a particular component and configure the component.
Figure 2-1 Application Server Home Page
The Application Server Home page provides a table that lists the components of the application server. From this table, you can also get a snapshot of how each individual component is performing.
From the System Components table, you can display a home page for each component of the application server.
You can perform the following management functions from the Application Server Home page:
Click Logs at the top of the page to locate and search the various Oracle Application Server log files, as well as the Oracle Application Server Log Repository.
Click Topology to view the Topology Viewer, which provides a graphical view of the application server processes managed by OPMN.
Click J2EE Applications to display a list of the applications deployed across all the OC4J instances within this Oracle Application Server.
Click Ports to view a list of all the ports currently in use by the various Oracle Application Server components. You can also modify many of the port assignments when necessary.
Click Infrastructure to configure Identity Management, Grid Control Management, or OracleAS Farm Repository Management.
Click Backup/Recovery to perform backup and recovery operations for the selected Oracle Application Server instance.
See Also:Part V, "Backup and Recovery" and the Enterprise Manager online help for more information about backup and recovery procedures.
Click Enable/Disable Components to control whether or not the selected components appears in the list of system components and whether or not the component is affected by server-wide actions, such as Start All or Restart All. When a component is disabled, it does not consume any system resources and you can always enable it later.
For more information, click Help after selecting an option on the Application Server Home page.
If your application server instance is part of an OracleAS Farm, your start page for the Application Server Control Console is the OracleAS Farm page (Figure 2-2).
See Also:"What is a Farm?" in the Oracle Application Server Installation Guide for your platform
The OracleAS Farm page displays a list of the standalone application server instances and OracleAS Clusters associated with your OracleAS Infrastructure 10g. Standalone instances are application server instances that are not part of an OracleAS Cluster.
You can configure your application server instance to use OracleAS Infrastructure 10g by clicking Infrastructure on the Application Server Home page. For more information, see the Enterprise Manager online help.
Using the Farm page, you can perform the following tasks:
View multiple application server instances on multiple hosts
Drill down to the Application Server Home page for each instance
Create and manage OracleAS Clusters
See Also:Oracle Application Server High Availability Guide for more information about using OracleAS Clusters
Figure 2-2 OracleAS Farm Home Page
Component home pages vary from one component to another because each component has different monitoring and configuration requirements. However, most of the component home pages have the following common elements:
A general information section that includes an icon to indicate the current state of the component and buttons for starting and stopping the component (if applicable)
Status information, including CPU and memory usage information, so you can get a snapshot of how the component is performing
Component-specific information, such as a virtual hosts tab on the HTTP Server home page or a list of deployed applications on the OC4J home page
Links to administrative functions where appropriate, so you can modify the configuration of selected components. In many cases, this means you can use a graphical user interface to modify configuration files.
The Application Server Control Console is designed to encourage a top-down approach to monitoring and diagnostic activities. For example, you can start by reviewing the basic characteristics of your application server and then drill down to examine the performance of individual components of the server.
The following sections provide an outline of this monitoring methodology:
Click Topology at the top of any page in Application Server Control Console to display the Topology Viewer (Figure 2-3). The Topology Viewer provides a graphical, real-time representation of application server processes managed by Oracle Process Manager and Notification Server (OPMN).
See Also:Section 2.2.2, "About the Underlying Technologies" for more information about OPMN and the other technologies used by Application Server Control
The Topology Viewer identifies each component of the application server with an icon. The position of each icon on the page and the connections between the icons represent the relationships between each component. Visual clues in the Topology Viewer help you quickly identify components that are down or performing poorly.
If you are managing multiple application servers as part of an OracleAS Farm, the viewer also shows the relationships between the application server instances, including any OracleAS Clusters you have created.
From the Topology Viewer, you can perform the following tasks:
View the status of components
Start, stop, or restart processes
Monitor performance across the application server environment
Drill down to component home pages for details
See Also:'About Topology Viewer" in the Enterprise Manager online help
Figure 2-3 Topology Viewer
The Application Server Home page provides general information about the status of your server, including the name, location, and application server availability. The home page also provides high-level information about CPU and memory usage. When reviewing the home page, review the CPU Usage and Memory Usage charts for excessive CPU or memory usage by the application server (Figure 2-4).
Figure 2-4 General Section of the Application Server Home Page
If you suspect that the application server is using too many resources, review the list of components to review the resource usage of each component (Figure 2-5).
Figure 2-5 System Components Table on the Application Server Home Page
Consider disabling any components that you are not currently using as part of this application server instance. Disabled components are not started when you start the application server and as a result do not consume system resources. You can always enable a disabled application server component at a later time.
See Also:'Disabling and Enabling Components" in the Enterprise Manager online help
Many performance or configuration issues are directly related to a lack of available resources on the host. Before you drill down to analyze the performance and resource usage of the individual application server components, review the resources and characteristics of the application server host.
Click the host name in the General section of the Application Server home page to display the Host home page. The Host home page provides a summary of the operating system, memory, and disk capacity. The Load section of the page provides a CPU chart that breaks down the CPU usage into categories of usage; the load metrics beneath the chart provide details about system memory usage (Figure 2-6).
See Also:"About Memory Usage" in the Enterprise Manager online help for information about how Enterprise Manager calculates the memory usage for your application server.
Figure 2-6 General Information and Load Statistics on the Host Home Page
Scroll to the bottom of the page to view a set of links to real-time performance metrics. If you are concerned about the CPU and memory usage on the system, click Top Processes to display tables listing the processes that are using the most resources on the host.
Click Filesystems to display a bar chart that reveals the amount of disk space available on the application server host (Figure 2-7).
Figure 2-7 Disk Space Usage Chart Available from the Host Home Page
After you review the high-level performance metrics and the resources available on the application server host computer, you can then begin to look for potential issues within the individual application server components.
To diagnose problems with individual application server components, click the component name in the System Components table on the Application Server home page. This technique of "drilling down" to obtain more detail can help you isolate problems in a particular component or area of the application server.
The Application Server Control Console provides you with selected performance metrics that you can use to determine the overall performance of your application server. In some cases, the metrics are shown as performance charts; in other cases, you can monitor the real-time value of the metrics in numeric format.
For a comprehensive list of the metrics that are monitored by Enterprise Manager, you can view the All Metrics page. The All Metrics page is available from the Application Server Home page and from each of the component Home pages.
For example, to view All Metrics page for an application server instance:
Navigate to the Application Server Home page.
Click All Metrics in the Related Links section of the page.
Enterprise Manager displays the All Metrics page for the application server.
Click Expand All to see all the application server metrics in each of the metric categories.
Figure 2-8 shows the Application Server All Metrics page after you have expanded all the metric categories.
Click the name of metric to display the Metric detail page.
Click Help to display information about the metric.
Figure 2-8 Application Server All Metrics Page
To view the All Metrics page for a component, such as Oracle HTTP Server:
Navigate to the component Home page.
Click All Metrics in the Related Links section of the page.
Enterprise Manager displays the All Metrics page for the selected component.
The J2EE applications you deploy and maintain with Oracle Application Server represent the most important aspects of your application server deployments. As a result, Enterprise Manager also provides a shortcut you can use to review the performance of your J2EE applications. Simply click J2EE Applications on the Application Server home page to display a list of the applications deployed from this application server instance (Figure 2-9).
Figure 2-9 List of Applications on the J2EE Applications Page
From this list of J2EE applications, you can navigate quickly to the OC4J instance or application page for information on the performance and availability of each application you have deployed.
For more complete information about monitoring Oracle Application Server, refer to the Application Server Control Console online help and the Oracle Application Server Performance Guide.
Many features of Oracle Application Server depend upon the OracleAS Metadata Repository, which uses an Oracle database to contain the OracleAS Metadata Repository. When you install the OracleAS Metadata Repository, you can choose to install a preconfigured instance of Oracle Database 10g for the OracleAS Metadata Repository.
See Also:Oracle Application Server Installation Guide for your platform
If you have installed and deployed Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control, you can also use the Grid Control Console to manage the OracleAS Metadata Repository.
However, if you are not centrally managing your environment with Grid Control, the database that is installed to host the OracleAS Metadata Repository comes with its own management tools.
Use a Web browser to access the Database Control URL:
In this example:
hostname is the name of the computer on which you installed Oracle Database.
domain is the domain of your computer.
port is the port number reserved for the Database Control during installation.
If you do not know the correct port number to use, look for the following line in the
portlist.ini file, which is stored in the
install directory of your OracleAS Metadata Repository Oracle home:
Enterprise Manager Console HTTP Port (db_name) = 5500
The installation reserves the first available port from the range 5500 to 5519. For example, if you installed Oracle Database on host
mgmt42, and the Database Control uses port 5500, enter the following URL:
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Database Control login page.
Use the password that you specified for the SYS account during the installation.
Enterprise Manager displays the Database Home page (Figure 2-10).
From the Database Home page, you can review the current state of your database and access a wide range of monitoring and administration features.
See Also:Oracle 2 Day DBA in the Oracle Database 10g documentation library for an introduction to database management with the Database Control Console
Figure 2-10 Database Home Page in the Database Control Console
Application Server Control provides all the tools you need to manage your application server instances, farms, clusters, and system components. However, if you have an environment that includes other Oracle products and applications in addition to Oracle Application Server, consider using Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control.
Grid Control, when used with Application Server Control, provides a wider view of your Oracle environment beyond the application server. From a central location, you can use the Grid Control Console to manage databases, application servers, and Oracle applications across your entire network.
The Grid Control Console offers advanced management features, such as a notification system to notify administrators of changes in your environment and a Job system to automate standard and repetitive tasks, such as executing a SQL script or executing an operating system command.
The following sections provide more information about Grid Control:
The Grid Control Console provides a Web-based graphical interface you can use to manage all aspects of your enterprise.
Note that the Management Repository is a separate repository from the OracleAS Metadata Repository. The Management Repository is designed specifically for Enterprise Manager.
See Also:Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts for more information about the Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g components and architecture
You install Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control from a separate CD-ROM.
To centrally manage your enterprise, you typically perform the following steps:
Install the Management Service and the Management Repository on a host computer.
Install the Oracle Management Agent on each of the computers that you want to manage from the Grid Control Console.
Note:You install the Oracle Management Agent into its own Oracle home directory on each managed hosts.
On each host, the Management Agent gathers information about the various targets on the host. A target is a software component (such as Oracle Application Server), a host computer, and or other service that you manage with Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g.
Specifically, information about the targets on a host are discovered by the Management Agent during the Management Agent installation. When a target is discovered, information about the target is added to the Management Repository and the target displayed in the list of managed targets in the Grid Control Console.
If you later install additional application servers on a managed host, you can add them to the Grid Control Console later. To add additional application server targets, click Add on the Application Servers page in the Grid Control Console, or use the Grid Control Management section of the Infrastructure page in the Application Server Control Console.
See Also:Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic Configuration for complete instructions about installing Grid Control and starting and stopping the Grid Control components
Oracle Enterprise Manager Advanced Configuration for information about common configurations when installing the Grid Control components
"Configuring Your Application Server for Grid Control Management" in the Application Server Control Console online help
After you have configured and started Oracle Management Service, you can log in to the Grid Control Console by entering the following URL in your Web browser:
If you are uncertain about the port number, you can refer to one of the following files in the
install directory of the Management Service Oracle home after you install the Management Service:
setupinfo.txt, which includes information displayed by the Oracle Universal Installer at the end of the Grid Control install
portlist.ini, which describes the ports assigned during the Management Service installation
After you log in, Enterprise Manager displays the Grid Control Console Home page (Figure 2-11).
Figure 2-11 Grid Control Console Home Page
From the Grid Control Console home page, click the Targets tab and then click Application Servers in the horizontal navigation bar. Enterprise Manager displays the Application Servers page (Figure 2-12), which lists all the application servers currently being monitored by Oracle Management Agents in your enterprise.
Figure 2-12 List of Application Servers in the Grid Control Console
This list provides you with a snapshot of the availability, number of alerts, and the CPU and memory usage of each application server target.
After you have installed the Management Agent on the Oracle Application Server hosts and have identified your application server targets in the Grid Control Console, you can perform a variety of monitoring tasks. For example, you can:
Set and adjust a set of default metric thresholds for the application servers that you monitor. You can then configure Enterprise Manager so you are notified automatically when a particular application server metric reaches its threshold.
Organize your application server targets into groups so you can monitor them as a single unit; groups also allow you to compare the performance of the application servers you monitor and to perform administration tasks, such as blackouts, on the group.
Review historical data and analyze trends in the performance of your application server components and J2EE applications. For example, you can:
Emulate and monitor the client experience from remote locations.
Measure real end-user performance against a Web application.
Trace Web site transactions through the application stack, Oracle HTTP Server, OC4J, and the back-end Oracle database.
Correlate application performance across components to rapidly isolate problems.
Use Application Service Level Management to measure the performance and availability of your J2EE Web applications.
Perform configuration management tasks, such as software and hardware inventory tracking, cloning, and patching.
For information about starting, configuring, and using Grid Control, see the following documentation:
The Grid Control Console also provides extensive online help. To display the Grid Control Console online help, click Help at the top of any of the Grid Control Console pages.