This chapter shows how to bundle related PL/SQL code and data into a package. The package might include a set of procedures that forms an API, or a pool of type definitions and variable declarations. The package is compiled and stored in the database, where its contents can be shared by many applications.
This chapter contains these topics:
A package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types, variables, and subprograms. Packages usually have two parts, a specification (spec) and a body; sometimes the body is unnecessary. The specification is the interface to the package. It declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms that can be referenced from outside the package. The body defines the queries for the cursors and the code for the subprograms.
You can think of the spec as an interface and of the body as a black box. You can debug, enhance, or replace a package body without changing the package spec.
To create package specs, use the SQL statement
CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement defines the package body. For information on the
PACKAGE SQL statement, see Oracle Database SQL Reference. For information on the
BODY SQL statement, see Oracle Database SQL Reference.
The spec holds public declarations, which are visible to stored procedures and other code outside the package. You must declare subprograms at the end of the spec after all other items (except pragmas that name a specific function; such pragmas must follow the function spec).
The body holds implementation details and private declarations, which are hidden from code outside the package. Following the declarative part of the package body is the optional initialization part, which holds statements that initialize package variables and do any other one-time setup steps.
AUTHID clause determines whether all the packaged subprograms execute with the privileges of their definer (the default) or invoker, and whether their unqualified references to schema objects are resolved in the schema of the definer or invoker. For more information, see "Using Invoker's Rights Versus Definer's Rights (AUTHID Clause)".
A call spec lets you map a package subprogram to a Java method or external C function. The call spec maps the Java or C name, parameter types, and return type to their SQL counterparts. To learn how to write Java call specs, see Oracle Database Java Developer's Guide. To learn how to write C call specs, see Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals.
For information about PL/SQL packages provided with the Oracle database, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference.
Set methods for the package variables, if you want to avoid letting other procedures read and write them directly.
Cursor declarations with the text of SQL queries. Reusing exactly the same query text in multiple locations is faster than retyping the same query each time with slight differences. It is also easier to maintain if you need to change a query that is used in many places.
Declarations for exceptions. Typically, you need to be able to reference these from different procedures, so that you can handle exceptions within called subprograms.
Declarations for procedures and functions that call each other. You do not need to worry about compilation order for packaged procedures and functions, making them more convenient than standalone stored procedures and functions when they call back and forth to each other.
Declarations for overloaded procedures and functions. You can create multiple variations of a procedure or function, using the same names but different sets of parameters.
Variables that you want to remain available between procedure calls in the same session. You can treat variables in a package like global variables.
Type declarations for PL/SQL collection types. To pass a collection as a parameter between stored procedures or functions, you must declare the type in a package so that both the calling and called subprogram can refer to it.
For additional information, see "Package Declaration". For an examples of a PL/SQL packages, see Example 1-13, "Creating a Package and Package Body" and Example 9-3. Only the declarations in the package spec are visible and accessible to applications. Implementation details in the package body are hidden and inaccessible. You can change the body (implementation) without having to recompile calling programs.
Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, items, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. This aids application development.
Easier Application Design
When designing an application, all you need initially is the interface information in the package specs. You can code and compile a spec without its body. Then, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. You need not define the package bodies fully until you are ready to complete the application.
With packages, you can specify which types, items, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the implementation of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the implementation changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.
Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. They can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. They let you maintain data across transactions without storing it in the database.
When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Later calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.
Packages stop cascading dependencies and avoid unnecessary recompiling. For example, if you change the body of a packaged function, Oracle does not recompile other subprograms that call the function; these subprograms only depend on the parameters and return value that are declared in the spec, so they are only recompiled if the spec changes.
The package specification contains public declarations. The declared items are accessible from anywhere in the package and to any other subprograms in the same schema. Figure 9-1 illustrates the scoping.
The spec lists the package resources available to applications. All the information your application needs to use the resources is in the spec. For example, the following declaration shows that the function named
factorial takes one argument of type
INTEGER and returns a value of type
FUNCTION factorial (n INTEGER) RETURN INTEGER; -- returns n!
That is all the information you need to call the function. You need not consider its underlying implementation (whether it is iterative or recursive for example).
If a spec declares only types, constants, variables, exceptions, and call specs, the package body is unnecessary. Only subprograms and cursors have an underlying implementation. In Example 9-1, the package needs no body because it declares types, exceptions, and variables, but no subprograms or cursors. Such packages let you define global variables, usable by stored procedures and functions and triggers, that persist throughout a session.
CREATE PACKAGE trans_data AS -- bodiless package TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( minutes SMALLINT, hours SMALLINT); TYPE TransRec IS RECORD ( category VARCHAR2(10), account INT, amount REAL, time_of TimeRec); minimum_balance CONSTANT REAL := 10.00; number_processed INT; insufficient_funds EXCEPTION; END trans_data; /
You can reference package contents from database triggers, stored subprograms, 3GL application programs, and various Oracle tools. For example, you can call package procedures as shown in Example 1-14, "Calling a Procedure in a Package" or Example 9-3.
The following example calls the
hire_employee procedure from an anonymous block in a Pro*C program. The actual parameters
emp_fname are host variables.
EXEC SQL EXECUTE
The package body contains the implementation of every cursor and subprogram declared in the package spec. Subprograms defined in a package body are accessible outside the package only if their specs also appear in the package spec. If a subprogram spec is not included in the package spec, that subprogram can only be called by other subprograms in the same package. A package body must be in the same schema as the package spec.
To match subprogram specs and bodies, PL/SQL does a token-by-token comparison of their headers. Except for white space, the headers must match word for word. Otherwise, PL/SQL raises an exception, as Example 9-2 shows.
CREATE PACKAGE emp_bonus AS PROCEDURE calc_bonus (date_hired employees.hire_date%TYPE); END emp_bonus; / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_bonus AS -- the following parameter declaration raises an exception -- because 'DATE' does not match employees.hire_date%TYPE -- PROCEDURE calc_bonus (date_hired DATE) IS -- the following is correct because there is an exact match PROCEDURE calc_bonus (date_hired employees.hire_date%TYPE) IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employees hired on ' || date_hired || ' get bonus.'); END; END emp_bonus; /
The package body can also contain private declarations, which define types and items necessary for the internal workings of the package. The scope of these declarations is local to the package body. Therefore, the declared types and items are inaccessible except from within the package body. Unlike a package spec, the declarative part of a package body can contain subprogram bodies.
The initialization part of a package plays a minor role because, unlike subprograms, a package cannot be called or passed parameters. As a result, the initialization part of a package is run only once, the first time you reference the package.
Remember, if a package spec declares only types, constants, variables, exceptions, and call specs, the package body is unnecessary. However, the body can still be used to initialize items declared in the package spec.
After writing the package, you can develop applications that reference its types, call its subprograms, use its cursor, and raise its exception. When you create the package, it is stored in an Oracle database for use by any application that has execute privilege on the package.
-- create the audit table to track changes CREATE TABLE emp_audit(date_of_action DATE, user_id VARCHAR2(20), package_name VARCHAR2(30)); CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE emp_admin AS -- Declare externally visible types, cursor, exception TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD (emp_id NUMBER, sal NUMBER); CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp; invalid_salary EXCEPTION; -- Declare externally callable subprograms FUNCTION hire_employee (last_name VARCHAR2, first_name VARCHAR2, email VARCHAR2, phone_number VARCHAR2, job_id VARCHAR2, salary NUMBER, commission_pct NUMBER, manager_id NUMBER, department_id NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER; PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER); -- overloaded subprogram PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_email VARCHAR2); -- overloaded subprogram PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id NUMBER, amount NUMBER); FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n NUMBER) RETURN EmpRecTyp; END emp_admin; / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_admin AS number_hired NUMBER; -- visible only in this package -- Fully define cursor specified in package CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT employee_id, salary FROM employees ORDER BY salary DESC; -- Fully define subprograms specified in package FUNCTION hire_employee (last_name VARCHAR2, first_name VARCHAR2, email VARCHAR2, phone_number VARCHAR2, job_id VARCHAR2, salary NUMBER, commission_pct NUMBER, manager_id NUMBER, department_id NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER IS new_emp_id NUMBER; BEGIN SELECT employees_seq.NEXTVAL INTO new_emp_id FROM dual; INSERT INTO employees VALUES (new_emp_id, last_name, first_name, email, phone_number, SYSDATE, job_id, salary, commission_pct, manager_id, department_id); number_hired := number_hired + 1; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The number of employees hired is ' || TO_CHAR(number_hired) ); RETURN new_emp_id; END hire_employee; PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM employees WHERE employee_id = emp_id; END fire_employee; PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_email VARCHAR2) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM employees WHERE email = emp_email; END fire_employee; -- Define local function, available only inside package FUNCTION sal_ok (jobid VARCHAR2, sal NUMBER) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal NUMBER; max_sal NUMBER; BEGIN SELECT MIN(salary), MAX(salary) INTO min_sal, max_sal FROM employees WHERE job_id = jobid; RETURN (sal >= min_sal) AND (sal <= max_sal); END sal_ok; PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id NUMBER, amount NUMBER) IS sal NUMBER(8,2); jobid VARCHAR2(10); BEGIN SELECT job_id, salary INTO jobid, sal FROM employees WHERE employee_id = emp_id; IF sal_ok(jobid, sal + amount) THEN UPDATE employees SET salary = salary + amount WHERE employee_id = emp_id; ELSE RAISE invalid_salary; END IF; EXCEPTION -- exception-handling part starts here WHEN invalid_salary THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The salary is out of the specified range.'); END raise_salary; FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n NUMBER) RETURN EmpRecTyp IS emp_rec EmpRecTyp; BEGIN OPEN desc_salary; FOR i IN 1..n LOOP FETCH desc_salary INTO emp_rec; END LOOP; CLOSE desc_salary; RETURN emp_rec; END nth_highest_salary; BEGIN -- initialization part starts here INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (SYSDATE, USER, 'EMP_ADMIN'); number_hired := 0; END emp_admin; / -- calling the package procedures DECLARE new_emp_id NUMBER(6); BEGIN new_emp_id := emp_admin.hire_employee('Belden', 'Enrique', 'EBELDEN', '555.111.2222', 'ST_CLERK', 2500, .1, 101, 110); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The new employee id is ' || TO_CHAR(new_emp_id) ); EMP_ADMIN.raise_salary(new_emp_id, 100); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The 10th highest salary is '|| TO_CHAR(emp_admin.nth_highest_salary(10).sal) || ', belonging to employee: ' || TO_CHAR(emp_admin.nth_highest_salary(10).emp_id) ); emp_admin.fire_employee(new_emp_id); -- you could also delete the newly added employee as follows: -- emp_admin.fire_employee('EBELDEN'); END; /
Remember, the initialization part of a package is run just once, the first time you reference the package. In the last example, only one row is inserted into the database table
emp_audit, and the variable
number_hired is initialized only once.
Every time the procedure
hire_employee is called, the variable
number_hired is updated. However, the count kept by
number_hired is session specific. That is, the count reflects the number of new employees processed by one user, not the number processed by all users.
PL/SQL allows two or more packaged subprograms to have the same name. This option is useful when you want a subprogram to accept similar sets of parameters that have different datatypes. For example, the
emp_admin package in Example 9-3 defines two procedures named
fire_employee. The first procedure accepts a number, while the second procedure accepts string. Each procedure handles the data appropriately. For the rules that apply to overloaded subprograms, see "Overloading Subprogram Names".
In the package
emp_admin, the package body declares a variable named
number_hired, which is initialized to zero. Items declared in the body are restricted to use within the package. PL/SQL code outside the package cannot reference the variable
number_hired. Such items are called private.
Items declared in the spec of
emp_admin, such as the exception
invalid_salary, are visible outside the package. Any PL/SQL code can reference the exception
invalid_salary. Such items are called public.
To maintain items throughout a session or across transactions, place them in the declarative part of the package body. For example, the value of
number_hired is kept between calls to
hire_employee within the same session. The value is lost when the session ends.
To make the items public, place them in the package specification. For example,
emp_rec declared in the spec of the package is available for general use.
A package named
STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. The package spec globally declares types, exceptions, and subprograms, which are available automatically to PL/SQL programs. For example, package
STANDARD declares function
ABS, which returns the absolute value of its argument, as follows:
FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER;
The contents of package
STANDARD are directly visible to applications. You do not need to qualify references to its contents by prefixing the package name. For example, you might call
ABS from a database trigger, stored subprogram, Oracle tool, or 3GL application, as follows:
abs_diff := ABS(x - y);
If you declare your own version of
ABS, your local declaration overrides the global declaration. You can still call the built-in function by specifying its full name:
abs_diff := STANDARD.ABS(x - y);
Most built-in functions are overloaded. For example, package
STANDARD contains the following declarations:
FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2;
FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2;
FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE, right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2;
FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER, right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2;
PL/SQL resolves a call to
TO_CHAR by matching the number and datatypes of the formal and actual parameters.
Oracle and various Oracle tools are supplied with product-specific packages that define application programming interfaces (APIs) you can call from PL/SQL, SQL, Java, or other programming environments. Here we mention a few of the more widely used ones. For more information, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference.
DBMS_ALERT lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is, they operate independently of any timing mechanism). For example, a company might use this package to update the value of its investment portfolio as new stock and bond quotes arrive.
DBMS_OUTPUT enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks, subprograms, packages, and triggers. The package is especially useful for displaying PL/SQL debugging information. The procedure
PUT_LINE outputs information to a buffer that can be read by another trigger, procedure, or package. You display the information by calling the procedure
GET_LINE or by setting
ON in SQL*Plus. Example 9-4 shows how to display output from a PL/SQL block.
REM set server output to ON to display output from DBMS_OUTPUT SET SERVEROUTPUT ON BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('These are the tables that ' || USER || ' owns:'); FOR item IN (SELECT table_name FROM user_tables) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(item.table_name); END LOOP; END; /
DBMS_PIPE allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures
SEND_MESSAGE to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance or to a waiting application such as a UNIX program.
At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures
UNPACK_MESSAGE to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write a C program to collect data, then send it through pipes to stored procedures in an Oracle database.
When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function
FOPEN, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure
PUT_LINE writes a text string and line terminator to an open file, and the procedure
GET_LINE reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.
UTL_HTTP allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. It can retrieve data from the Internet or call Oracle Web Server cartridges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (uniform resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.
When writing packages, keep them general so they can be reused in future applications. Become familiar with the Oracle-supplied packages, and avoid writing packages that duplicate features already provided by Oracle.
Design and define package specs before the package bodies. Place in a spec only those things that must be visible to calling programs. That way, other developers cannot build unsafe dependencies on your implementation details.
To reduce the need for recompiling when code is changed, place as few items as possible in a package spec. Changes to a package body do not require recompiling calling procedures. Changes to a package spec require Oracle to recompile every stored subprogram that references the package.
You can separate a cursor specification (spec for short) from its body for placement in a package. That way, you can change the cursor body without having to change the cursor spec. For information on the cursor syntax, see "Cursor Declaration".
In Example 9-5, you use the
%ROWTYPE attribute to provide a record type that represents a row in the database table
CREATE PACKAGE emp_stuff AS CURSOR c1 RETURN employees%ROWTYPE; -- declare cursor spec END emp_stuff; / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_stuff AS CURSOR c1 RETURN employees%ROWTYPE IS SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary > 2500; -- define cursor body END emp_stuff; /
The cursor spec has no
SELECT statement because the
RETURN clause specifies the datatype of the return value. However, the cursor body must have a
SELECT statement and the same
RETURN clause as the cursor spec. Also, the number and datatypes of items in the
SELECT list and the
RETURN clause must match.
Packaged cursors increase flexibility. For example, you can change the cursor body in the last example, without having to change the cursor spec.
From a PL/SQL block or subprogram, you use dot notation to reference a packaged cursor, as the following example shows:
DECLARE emp_rec employees%ROWTYPE;BEGIN OPEN emp_stuff.c1; LOOP FETCH emp_stuff.c1 INTO emp_rec; -- do processing here ... EXIT WHEN emp_stuff.c1%NOTFOUND; END LOOP; CLOSE emp_stuff.c1; END; /
The scope of a packaged cursor is not limited to a PL/SQL block. When you open a packaged cursor, it remains open until you close it or you disconnect from the session.