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10g Release 2 (10.2) for Linux x86

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Oracle® Database

Quick Installation Guide

10g Release 2 (10.2) for Linux x86


February 2006

This guide describes how to quickly install Oracle Database 10g on Linux x86 systems. It includes information about the following:

1 Reviewing Information About This Guide

This guide describes how to install Oracle Database by using the default installation options.

Tasks Described in This Guide

The procedures in this guide describe how to:

Results of a Successful Installation

After you successfully install Oracle Database:

Tasks Not Described in This Guide

This guide covers the Basic Installation scenario and does not describe how to complete the following tasks:

Where to Get Additional Installation Information

For more information about installing Oracle Database, including information about the tasks not described in this guide, refer to one of the following guides:

Both these guides are available on the product disc. To access them, use a Web browser to open the welcome.htm file located in the top-level directory of the installation media, and then select the Documentation tab.

2 Logging In to the System as root

Before you install Oracle Database, you must complete several tasks as the root user. To log in as the root user, complete one of the following procedures:


You must install the software from an X Window System workstation, an X terminal, or a PC or other system with X server software installed.

3 Checking the Hardware Requirements

The system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

To ensure that the system meets these requirements, follow these steps:

  1. To determine the physical RAM size, enter the following command:

    # grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo

    If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

  2. To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo

    If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

  3. To determine the amount of free disk space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    # df -k /tmp

    If there is less than 400 MB of free disk space available in the /tmp directory, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory.

    • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment (described later).

    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If required, contact your system administrator for information about extending file systems.

  4. To determine the amount of free disk space available on the system, enter the following command:

    # df -k
  5. To determine whether the system architecture can run the software, enter the following command:

    # grep "model name" /proc/cpuinfo

    This command displays the processor type. Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release that you want to install. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

4 Checking the Software Requirements

The system must meet the following minimum software requirements, depending on the distribution and version of your operating system:


Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on your system to verify that it meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle Universal Installer.
Item Requirement
Operating system One of the following operating system versions:
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS/ES 3.0 (Update 4 or later)

  • Red Hat Linux 4.0

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9.0 with SP2 or later

  • Asianux 1.0

  • Asianux 2.0

Kernel version The system must be running the following kernel version (or a later version):

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 and Asianux 1.0:


Note: This is the default kernel version.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0 and Asianux 2.0:


SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9.0:


Packages The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 and Asianux 1.0:


Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0 and Asianux 2.0:


SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9:

Oracle Messaging Gateway Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with the following software:
  • IBM WebSphere MQ V5.3, client and server, with corrective service diskette 5 (CSD05) or later:

  • TIBCO Rendezvous 7.2

PL/SQL native compilation, Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK) The version of GNU C and C++ compilers listed earlier for your distribution is supported for use with these products.

Notes: Intel C++ Compiler v7.1.0.28 or later is also supported. However, it is not required for installation. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, OCCI is supported with both version 2.96-128 and version 3.2 of the GNU C++ compiler. However, version 3.2 is the default compiler version. OCCI is also supported with Intel Compiler v8.0 with gcc 3.2.3 standard template libraries. Intel C++ Compiler v7 does not support OCCI.

Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers You can use the following optional JDK version with the Oracle JDBC/OCI drivers, however it is not required for the installation:

Sun JDK 1.4.2 with the JNDI extension

Oracle ODBC Drivers You should install ODBC Driver Manager for UNIX. You can download and install the Driver Manager from the following URL:

To ensure that the system meets these requirements:

  1. To determine which version of the operating system is installed, enter the following command:

    # cat /etc/issue


    Only the distributions and versions listed earlier in this section are supported. Do not install the software on other versions of Linux.
  2. To determine whether the required kernel is installed, enter the following command:

    # uname -r

    On a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 system, the output may be as follows:


    In this example, the output shows the kernel version (2.4.21) and errata level (27.EL). If the errata level is less than 27, then install the latest kernel update. Kernel updates are available from the Red Hat Network.

    On a SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 system, the output may be as follows:


    In this example, the output shows the kernel version on the system. If the kernel version is less than 2.6.5-7.97, then contact SUSE for information about obtaining and installing the kernel updates.

  3. To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar to the following:

    # rpm -q package_name

    If a package is not installed, or if the version is lower than the required version, then install it from your Linux distribution media or download the required package from your Linux vendor's Web site.

5 Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users

The following local operating system groups and users are required if you are installing Oracle Database:

To determine whether these groups and users already exist, and if necessary, to create them, follow these steps:

  1. To determine whether the oinstall group exists, enter the following command:

    # more /etc/oraInst.loc

    If the output of this command shows the oinstall group name, then the group already exists.

    If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:


    The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group, oinstall.

  2. To determine whether the dba group exists, enter the following command:

    # grep dba /etc/group

    If the output from this commands shows the dba group name, then the group already exists.

  3. If necessary, enter the following commands to create the oinstall and dba groups:

    # /usr/sbin/groupadd oinstall
    # /usr/sbin/groupadd dba
  4. To determine whether the oracle user exists and belongs to the correct groups, enter the following command:

    # id oracle

    If the oracle user exists, then this command displays information about the groups to which the user belongs. The output should be similar to the following, indicating that oinstall is the primary group and dba is a secondary group:

    uid=440(oracle) gid=200(oinstall) groups=201(dba),202(oper)
  5. If necessary, complete one of the following actions:

    • If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall or it is not a member of the dba group, then enter the following command:

      # /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba oracle
    • If the oracle user does not exist, enter the following command to create it:

      # /usr/sbin/useradd -g oinstall -G dba oracle

      This command creates the oracle user and specifies oinstall as the primary group and dba as the secondary group.

  6. Enter the following command to set the password of the oracle user:

    # passwd oracle
  7. To determine whether the nobody user exists, enter the following command:

    # id nobody

    If this command displays information about the nobody user, then you do not have to create the user.

    If the nobody user does not exist, then enter the following command to create it:

    # /usr/sbin/useradd nobody

6 Configuring Kernel Parameters

Verify that the kernel parameters shown in the following table are set to values greater than or equal to the recommended value shown. The procedure following the table describes how to verify and set the values.

Parameter Value File








shmall 2097152 /proc/sys/kernel/shmall
shmmax Half the size of physical memory (in bytes) /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
shmmni 4096 /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
file-max 65536 /proc/sys/fs/file-max
ip_local_port_range Minimum: 1024

Maximum: 65000

rmem_default 1048576 /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default
rmem_max 1048576 /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max
wmem_default 262144 /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default
wmem_max 262144 /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max


If the current value of any parameter is higher than the value listed in this table, then do not change the value of that parameter.

To view the current value specified for these kernel parameters, and to change them if necessary:

  1. Enter commands similar to the following to view the current values of the kernel parameters:


    Make a note of the current values and identify any values that you must change.
    Parameter Command
    semmsl, semmns, semopm, and semmni # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem

    This command displays the value of the semaphore parameters in the order listed.

    shmall, shmmax, and shmmni # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm
    file-max # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max
    ip_local_port_range # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range
    rmem_default # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_default
    rmem_max # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_max
    wmem_default # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_default
    wmem_max # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_max

  2. If the value of any kernel parameter is different from the recommended value, then complete the following steps:

    Using any text editor, create or edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, and add or edit lines similar to the following:


    Include lines only for the kernel parameter values that you want to change. For the semaphore parameters (kernel.sem), you must specify all four values. However, if any of the current values are larger than the recommended value, then specify the larger value.
    kernel.shmall = 2097152
    kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
    kernel.shmmni = 4096
    kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
    fs.file-max = 65536
    net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
    net.core.rmem_default = 1048576
    net.core.rmem_max = 1048576
    net.core.wmem_default = 262144
    net.core.wmem_max = 262144

    By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, they persist when you restart the system.

    On SUSE systems only, enter the following command to ensure that the system reads the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:

    # /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on

Setting Shell Limits for the oracle User

To improve the performance of the software, you must increase the following shell limits for the oracle user:

Shell Limit Item in limits.conf Hard Limit
Maximum number of open file descriptors nofile 65536
Maximum number of processes available to a single user nproc 16384

To increase the shell limits:

  1. Add the following lines in the /etc/security/limits.conf file:

    oracle           soft    nproc   2047
    oracle           hard    nproc   16384
    oracle           soft    nofile  1024
    oracle           hard    nofile  65536
  2. Add the following line to the /etc/pam.d/login file, if it does not already exist:

    session    required     /lib/security/
    session    required
  3. Depending on the oracle user's default shell, make the following changes to the default shell startup file:

    • For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the following lines in the /etc/profile file (or the /etc/profile.local file on SUSE systems):

      if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
              if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
                    ulimit -p 16384
                    ulimit -n 65536
                    ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
    • For the C shell, add the following lines in the /etc/csh.login file (or the /etc/csh.login.local file on SUSE systems):

      if ( $USER == "oracle" ) then
              limit maxproc 16384
              limit descriptors 65536

7 Creating Required Directories

Create directories with names similar to the following, and specify the correct owner, group, and permissions for them:

The Oracle base directory must have 3 GB of free disk space, or 4 GB of free disk space if you choose not to create a separate Oracle data file directory.


If you do not want to create a separate Oracle data file directory, then you can install the data files in a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory. However, this is not recommended for production databases.

To create the Oracle base directory:

  1. Enter the following command to display information about all mounted file systems:

    # df -h

    This command displays information about all the file systems mounted on the system, including:

    • The physical device name

    • The total amount, used amount, and available amount of disk space

    • The mount point directory for that file system

  2. From the display, identify either one or two file systems that meet the disk space requirements mentioned earlier in this section.

  3. Note the name of the mount point directory for each file system that you identified.

  4. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    # mkdir -p /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner

    For example, if the mount point you identify is /u01 and oracle is the user name of the Oracle software owner, then the recommended Oracle base directory path is as follows:


8 Configuring the oracle User's Environment

You run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle account. However, before you start Oracle Universal Installer, you must configure the environment of the oracle user. To configure the environment, you must:

To set the oracle user's environment:

  1. Start a new terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).

  2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on this system:

    $ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
  3. Complete one of the following steps:

    • If the terminal session is not connected to the system where you want to install the software, then log in to that system as the oracle user.

    • If the terminal session is connected to the system where you want to install the software, then switch user to oracle:

      $ su - oracle
  4. To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:

    $ echo $SHELL
  5. Open the oracle user's shell startup file in any text editor:

    • Bash shell (bash) on SUSE:

      $ vi .profile
    • Bourne shell (sh), Bash shell on Red Hat (bash), or Korn shell (ksh):

      $ vi .bash_profile
    • C shell (csh or tcsh):

      % vi .login
  6. Enter or edit the following line in the shell startup file, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode creation mask:

    umask 022
  7. If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set in the file, then remove the corresponding lines from the file.

  8. Save the file, and exit from the editor.

  9. To run the shell startup script, enter the following command:

    • Bash shell on Red Hat:

      $ . ./.bash_profile
    • Bourne shell, Bash shell on SUSE, or Korn shell:

      $ . ./.profile
    • C shell:

      % source ./.login
  10. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter a command similar to the following to direct X applications to display on the local system:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ DISPLAY=local_host:0.0 ; export DISPLAY
    • C shell:

      % setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0

    In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system that you want to use to display Oracle Universal Installer (your workstation or PC).

  11. If you determined that the /tmp directory had insufficient free disk space when checking the hardware requirements, then identify a file system with the required amount of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables as follows:

    1. Use the df -h command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free space.

    2. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate permissions on the directory:

      $ su - root
      # mkdir /mount_point/tmp
      # chmod a+wr /mount_point/tmp
      # exit
    3. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables:

      Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
      $ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
      $ export TMP TMPDIR

      C shell:

      % setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
      % setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
  12. Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME and TNS_ADMIN environment variables are not set:

    Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

    $ unset ORACLE_HOME
    $ unset TNS_ADMIN

    C shell:

    % unsetenv ORACLE_HOME
    % unsetenv TNS_ADMIN
  13. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following commands:

    $ umask
    $ env | more

    Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and the environment variables that you set in this section have the correct values.

9 Mounting the Product Disc

On most Linux systems, the product disc mounts automatically when you insert it into the drive. If the disc does not mount automatically, then follow these steps to mount it:

  1. Switch user to root:

    $ su - root
  2. If necessary, enter a command similar to the following to eject the currently mounted disc, then remove it from the drive:

    • Red Hat:

      # eject /mnt/dvd
    • SUSE:

      # eject /media/dvd

    In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories for the disc drive.

  3. Insert the disc into the disc drive.

  4. To verify that the disc mounted automatically, enter a command similar to the following:

    • Red Hat:

      $ ls /mnt/dvd
    • SUSE:

      $ ls /media/dvd
  5. If this command fails to display the contents of the disc, then enter a command similar to the following:

    • Red Hat:

      # mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /mnt/dvd
    • SUSE:

      # mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /media/dvd

    In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories for the disc drive.

10 Installing Oracle Database

After configuring the oracle user's environment, start Oracle Universal Installer and install Oracle Database as follows:

  1. To start Oracle Universal Installer, enter the following command:

    $ /mount_point/db/runInstaller

    If Oracle Universal Installer does not start, then refer to Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux x86 for information about how to troubleshoot X Window display problems.

  2. The following table describes the recommended action for each Oracle Universal Installer screen. Use the following guidelines to complete the installation:

    • If you need more assistance, or if you want to choose an option that is not a default, then click Help for additional information.

    • If you encounter errors while installing or linking the software, then refer to Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux x86 for information about troubleshooting.


    If you have completed the tasks listed previously, then you can complete the installation by choosing the default values on most screens.
    Screen Recommended Action
    Select Installation Method The Basic Installation option is selected by default.

    Specify the directory path of the Oracle home. Ensure that the oinstall group is selected. If you want to create a starter database, then specify a name and password for it. Then, click Next.

    Specify Inventory Directory and Credentials This screen is displayed only during the first installation of Oracle products on a system.

    Specify the full path of the Oracle Inventory directory. Ensure that the operating system group selected is oinstall. Then, click Next.

    Product-Specific Prerequisite Checks Verify that all of the prerequisite checks succeed, and then click Next.

    Oracle Universal Installer checks the system to verify that it is configured correctly to run Oracle software. If you have completed all of the preinstallation steps in this guide, all of the checks should pass.

    If a check fails, then review the cause of the failure listed for that check on the screen. If possible, rectify the problem and rerun the check. Alternatively, if you are satisfied that your system meets the requirements, then you can select the check box for the failed check to manually verify the requirement.

    Summary Review the information displayed on this screen, and then click Install.
    Install This screen displays status information while the product is installed.
    Configuration Assistants This screen displays status information for the configuration assistants that configure the software and create a database. When the message is displayed at the end of this process, click OK to continue.
    Execute Configuration Scripts When prompted, read the instructions and then run the scripts mentioned on this screen. Click OK to continue.
    End of Installation The configuration assistants configure several Web-based applications, including Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. This screen displays the URLs configured for these applications. Make a note of the URLs used. The port numbers used in these URLs are also recorded in the following file:

    To exit from Oracle Universal Installer, click Exit and then click Yes.

11 Installing Products from the Oracle Database 10g Companion CD

The Oracle Database 10g Companion CD contains additional products that you can install. Whether you need to install these products depends on which Oracle Database products or features you plan to use. If you plan to use the following products or features, then you must complete the Oracle Database 10g Products installation from the Companion CD:

For information about installing software from the Companion CD, refer to Oracle Database Companion CD Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86.

12 What to Do Next?

To become familiar with this release of Oracle Database, it is recommended that you complete the following tasks:

13 Additional Information

This section contains information about the following:

Product Licenses

You are welcome to install and evaluate the products included in this media pack for 30 days under the terms of the Trial License Agreement. However, you must purchase a program license if you want to continue using any product after the 30 day evaluation period. See the following section for information about purchasing program licenses.

Purchasing Licenses, Version Updates, and Documentation

You can purchase program licenses, updated versions of Oracle products, and printed versions of Oracle documentation from the Oracle Store Web site:

Contacting Oracle Support Services

If you have purchased Oracle Product Support, you can call Oracle Support Services for assistance 24 hours a day, seven days a week. For information about purchasing Oracle Product Support or contacting Oracle Support Services, go to the Oracle Support Services Web site:

Locating Product Documentation

Documentation for Oracle products is available in both HTML and Adobe portable document format (PDF) formats from several locations:

To view PDF documents, download the free Adobe Acrobat Reader from the Adobe Web site, if necessary:

14 Documentation Accessibility

Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program Web site at

Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace.

Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation

This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.

TTY Access to Oracle Support Services

Oracle provides dedicated Text Telephone (TTY) access to Oracle Support Services within the United States of America 24 hours a day, seven days a week. For TTY support, call 800.446.2398.

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