CREATE PACKAGE BODY Statement

The CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement creates or replaces the body of a stored package, which is an encapsulated collection of related procedures, stored functions, and other program objects stored together in the database. The package body defines these objects. The package specification, defined in an earlier CREATE PACKAGE statement, declares these objects.

Packages are an alternative to creating procedures and functions as standalone schema objects.

Prerequisites

To create or replace a package in your own schema, you must have the CREATE PROCEDURE system privilege. To create or replace a package in another user's schema, you must have the CREATE ANY PROCEDURE system privilege. In both cases, the package body must be created in the same schema as the package.

To embed a CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement inside an the database precompiler program, you must terminate the statement with the keyword END-EXEC followed by the embedded SQL statement terminator for the specific language.

Syntax

create_package_body ::=

create_package_body
Description of the illustration create_package_body.gif

(declare_section ::=, body ::=)

Keyword and Parameter Descriptions

OR REPLACE

Specify OR REPLACE to re-create the package body if it already exists. Use this clause to change the body of an existing package without dropping, re-creating, and regranting object privileges previously granted on it. If you change a package body, then the database recompiles it.

Users who had previously been granted privileges on a redefined package can still access the package without being regranted the privileges.

schema

Specify the schema to contain the package. If you omit schema, then the database creates the package in your current schema.

package_name

Specify the name of the package to be created.

declare_section

Declares package objects.

body

Defines package objects.

Examples

Creating a Package Body: Example This statement creates the body of the emp_mgmt package created in Creating a Package: Example.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY emp_mgmt AS 
   tot_emps NUMBER; 
   tot_depts NUMBER; 
FUNCTION hire 
   (last_name VARCHAR2, job_id VARCHAR2, 
    manager_id NUMBER, salary NUMBER, 
    commission_pct NUMBER, department_id NUMBER) 
   RETURN NUMBER IS new_empno NUMBER; 
BEGIN 
   SELECT employees_seq.NEXTVAL 
      INTO new_empno 
      FROM DUAL; 
   INSERT INTO employees 
      VALUES (new_empno, 'First', 'Last','first.example@oracle.com', 
              '(415)555-0100','18-JUN-02','IT_PROG',90000000,00, 
              100,110); 
      tot_emps := tot_emps + 1; 
   RETURN(new_empno); 
END; 
FUNCTION create_dept(department_id NUMBER, location_id NUMBER) 
   RETURN NUMBER IS 
      new_deptno NUMBER; 
   BEGIN 
      SELECT departments_seq.NEXTVAL 
         INTO new_deptno 
         FROM dual; 
      INSERT INTO departments 
         VALUES (new_deptno, 'department name', 100, 1700); 
      tot_depts := tot_depts + 1; 
      RETURN(new_deptno); 
   END; 
PROCEDURE remove_emp (employee_id NUMBER) IS 
   BEGIN 
      DELETE FROM employees 
      WHERE employees.employee_id = remove_emp.employee_id; 
      tot_emps := tot_emps - 1; 
   END; 
PROCEDURE remove_dept(department_id NUMBER) IS 
   BEGIN 
      DELETE FROM departments 
      WHERE departments.department_id = remove_dept.department_id; 
      tot_depts := tot_depts - 1; 
      SELECT COUNT(*) INTO tot_emps FROM employees; 
   END; 
PROCEDURE increase_sal(employee_id NUMBER, salary_incr NUMBER) IS 
   curr_sal NUMBER; 
   BEGIN 
      SELECT salary INTO curr_sal FROM employees 
      WHERE employees.employee_id = increase_sal.employee_id; 
      IF curr_sal IS NULL 
         THEN RAISE no_sal; 
      ELSE 
         UPDATE employees 
         SET salary = salary + salary_incr 
         WHERE employee_id = employee_id; 
      END IF; 
   END; 
PROCEDURE increase_comm(employee_id NUMBER, comm_incr NUMBER) IS 
   curr_comm NUMBER; 
   BEGIN 
      SELECT commission_pct 
      INTO curr_comm 
      FROM employees 
      WHERE employees.employee_id = increase_comm.employee_id; 
      IF curr_comm IS NULL 
         THEN RAISE no_comm; 
      ELSE 
         UPDATE employees 
         SET commission_pct = commission_pct + comm_incr; 
      END IF; 
   END; 
END emp_mgmt; 
/ 

The package body defines the public program objects declared in the package specification:

  • The functions hire and create_dept

  • The procedures remove_emp, remove_dept, increase_sal, and increase_comm

These objects are declared in the package specification, so they can be called by application programs, procedures, and functions outside the package. For example, if you have access to the package, you can create a procedure increase_all_comms separate from the emp_mgmt package that calls the increase_comm procedure.

These objects are defined in the package body, so you can change their definitions without causing the database to invalidate dependent schema objects. For example, if you subsequently change the definition of hire, then the database need not recompile increase_all_comms before executing it.

The package body in this example also declares private program objects, the variables tot_emps and tot_depts. These objects are declared in the package body rather than the package specification, so they are accessible to other objects in the package, but they are not accessible outside the package. For example, you cannot develop an application that explicitly changes the value of the variable tot_depts. However, the function create_dept is part of the package, so create_dept can change the value of tot_depts.

Related Topics