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Oracle® Database PL/SQL Language Reference
11g Release 1 (11.1)

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The RESTRICT REFERENCES pragma is deprecated. Oracle recommends using DETERMINISTIC and PARALLEL_ENABLE (described in Function Declaration and Definition) instead of RESTRICT REFERENCES.

The RESTRICT REFERENCES pragma asserts that a user-defined subprogram does not read or write database tables or package variables.

Subprograms that read or write database tables or package variables are difficult to optimize, because any call to the subprogram might produce different results or encounter errors.


restrict_references_pragma ::=

Description of the illustration restrict_references_pragma.gif

Keyword and Parameter Descriptions


Signifies that the statement is a pragma (compiler directive). Pragmas are processed at compile time, not at run time. They pass information to the compiler.


The name of a user-defined subprogram, usually a function.

If subprogram_name is overloaded, the pragma applies only to the most recent subprogram declaration.


Specifies that the pragma applies to all subprograms in the package specification or object type specification (including the system-defined constructor for object types).

You can still declare the pragma for individual subprograms, overriding the DEFAULT pragma.


Asserts that the subprogram reads no database state (does not query database tables).


Asserts that the subprogram writes no database state (does not modify tables).


Asserts that the subprogram reads no package state (does not reference the values of packaged variables)

You cannot specify RNPS if the subprogram invokes the SQLCODE or SQLERRM function.


Asserts that the subprogram writes no package state (does not change the values of packaged variables).

You cannot specify WNPS if the subprogram invokes the SQLCODE or SQLERRM function.


Asserts that the subprogram can be trusted not to violate one or more rules.

When you specify TRUST, the subprogram body is not checked for violations of the constraints listed in the pragma. The subprogram is trusted not to violate them. Skipping these checks can improve performance. TRUST is needed for functions written in C or Java that are invoked from PL/SQL, since PL/SQL cannot verify them at run time.

Usage Notes

A RESTRICT_REFERENCES pragma can appear only in a package specification or object type specification. Typically, this pragma is specified for functions. If a function calls procedures, specify the pragma for those procedures also.

To invoke a subprogram from parallel queries, you must specify all four constraints—RNDS, WNDS, RNPS, and WNPS. No constraint implies another.


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