This chapter describes the advantages and key features of the Oracle object-relational model. The chapter contains these topics:
Oracle object types are user-defined types that make it possible to model real-world entities, such as customers and purchase orders, as objects in the database.
New object types can be created from any built-in database types and any previously created object types, object references, and collection types. Object types can work with complex data, such as images, audio, and video. Oracle Database stores metadata for user-defined types in a schema that is available to SQL, PL/SQL, Java, and other languages.
Object types and related object-oriented features, such as varrays and nested tables, provide higher-level ways to organize and access data in the database. Underneath the object layer, data is still stored in columns and tables, but you can work with the data in terms of the real-world entities that make the data meaningful. Instead of thinking in terms of columns and tables when you query the database, you can simply select entities that you have created, such as customers and purchase orders.
You can begin to use object-oriented features while continuing to work with most of your data relationally, or you use to an object-oriented approach entirely.
In general, the object-type model is similar to the class mechanism found in C++ and Java. Like classes, the reusability of objects makes it possible to develop database applications faster and more efficiently. By natively supporting object types in the database, Oracle Database enables application developers to directly access the data structures used by their applications.
Objects offer other advantages over a purely relational approach, such as:
Database tables contain only data. Objects can include the ability to perform operations that are likely to be performed on that data. Thus, a purchase order object might include a method to calculate the cost of all the items purchased. Or a customer object might have methods to return the customer's buying history and payment pattern. An application can simply call the methods to retrieve the information.
Using object types allows for greater efficiency:
Object types and their methods are stored with the data in the database, so they are available for any application to use. Developers do not need to re-create similar structures and methods in every application. This also ensures that developers are using consistent standards.
You can fetch and manipulate a set of related objects as a single unit. A single request to fetch an object from the server can retrieve other objects that are connected to it. When you reference a column of a SQL object type, you retrieve the whole object.
Object types allow you to represent part-whole relationships. For example: in a relational table for stock items, a piston and an engine may have the same status. Using objects can reduce the need to represent pistons as parts of engines with complicated schemas of multiple tables with primary key-foreign key relationships. An object can have other objects as attributes, and the attribute objects can have their own object attributes too. An entire parts-list hierarchy can be built up in this way from interlocking object types.
Oracle Database implements the object-type model as an extension of the relational model, while continuing to support standard relational database functionality, such as queries, fast commits, backup and recovery, scalable connectivity, row-level locking, read consistency, and more.
SQL and various programmatic interfaces and languages, including PL/SQL, Java, Oracle Call Interface, Pro*C/C++, OO4O, and C# have been enhanced with extensions to support Oracle objects. The result is an object-relational model that offers the intuitiveness and economy of an object interface while preserving the high concurrency and throughput of a relational database.
This section contains these topics:
This section describes features and concepts of the object-relational model that are related to the database.
This section contains these topics:
An object type is a kind of data type. You can use it in the same ways that you use standard data types such as
VARCHAR2. For example, you can specify an object type as the data type of a column in a relational table, and you can declare variables of an object type. The value is a variable or an instance of that type. An object instance is also called an object.
Figure 1-1 shows an object type,
person_typ, and two instances of the object type.
Object types serve as blueprints or templates that define both structure and behavior. Object types are database schema objects, subject to the same kinds of administrative control as other schema objects. Application code can retrieve and manipulate these objects. See Chapter 7, "Managing Oracle Objects".
You use the
TYPE SQL statement to define object types.
Example 1-1 shows how to create an object type named
person_typ. In the example, an object specification and object body are defined. For information on the
TYPE SQL statement and on the
BODY SQL statement, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference.
HRsample schema. Comments at the beginning of most examples indicate if any previous example code is required.
Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself
CREATE TYPE person_typ AS OBJECT ( idno NUMBER, first_name VARCHAR2(20), last_name VARCHAR2(25), email VARCHAR2(25), phone VARCHAR2(20), MAP MEMBER FUNCTION get_idno RETURN NUMBER, MEMBER PROCEDURE display_details ( SELF IN OUT NOCOPY person_typ )); / CREATE TYPE BODY person_typ AS MAP MEMBER FUNCTION get_idno RETURN NUMBER IS BEGIN RETURN idno; END; MEMBER PROCEDURE display_details ( SELF IN OUT NOCOPY person_typ ) IS BEGIN -- use the PUT_LINE procedure of the DBMS_OUTPUT package to display details DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(TO_CHAR(idno) || ' ' || first_name || ' ' || last_name); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(email || ' ' || phone); END; END; /
Object types differ from the standard data types that are native to a relational database:
Oracle Database does not supply predefined object types. You define the object types you want by combining built-in types with user-defined ones as shown in Example 1-1.
Object types are composed of attributes and methods as illustrated in Figure 1-2.
Attributes hold the data about an object. Attributes have declared data types which can, in turn, be other object types.
Methods are procedures or functions that applications can use to perform operations on the attributes of the object type. Methods are optional. They define the behavior of objects of that type.
A variable of an object type is an instance of the type, or an object. An object has the attributes and methods defined for its type. Because an object instance is a concrete thing, you can assign values to its attributes and call its methods.
Defining an object type does not allocate any storage. After they are defined, object types can be used in SQL statements in most of the same places you use types such as
VARCHAR2. Storage is allocated once you create an instance of the object type.
-- requires existing person_typ fr. Ex 1-1 CREATE TABLE contacts ( contact person_typ, contact_date DATE ); INSERT INTO contacts VALUES ( person_typ (65, 'Verna', 'Mills', 'email@example.com', '1-650-555-0125'), '24 Jun 2003' );
contacts table is a relational table with an object type as the data type of its contact column. Objects that occupy columns of relational tables are called column objects. See "How Objects are Stored in Tables".
Object methods are functions or procedures that you can declare in an object type definition to implement behavior that you want objects of that type to perform.
The general kinds of methods that can be declared in a type definition are:
Using member methods, you can provide access to the data of an object, and otherwise define operations that an application performs on the data. To perform an operation, the application calls the appropriate method on the appropriate object.
Static methods compare object instances and perform operations that do not use the data of any particular object, but, instead, are global to an object type.
A default constructor method is implicitly defined for every object type, unless it is overwritten with a user-defined constructor. A constructor method is called on a type to construct or create an object instance of the type.
-- requires Ex 1-1 and Ex 1-2 SELECT c.contact.get_idno() FROM contacts c;
See Also:"Object Methods" for detailed information
Objects can be stored in two types of tables:
Object tables: store only objects
Relational tables: store objects with other table data
Objects that are stored as columns of a relational table, or are attributes of other objects, are called column objects. Example 1-2 shows the
contacts table which stores an instance of the
Objects that have meaning outside of the relational database in which they are contained, or objects that are shared among more than one relational database object, should be made referenceable as row objects. That is, such objects should be stored as a row object in an object table instead of in a column of a relational table.
See Also:"Storing Objects as Columns or Rows"
Example 1-4 shows a
TABLE statement that creates an object table for
-- requires Ex. 1-1 CREATE TABLE person_obj_table OF person_typ;
You can view this table in two ways:
As a single-column table, in which each row is a
person_typ object, allowing you to perform object-oriented operations.
As a multi-column table, in which each attribute of the object type
person_typ such as
last_name, and so on, occupies a column, allowing you to perform relational operations.
Example 1-5 illustrates several operations on an object table.
-- requires Ex. 1-1 and 1-4 INSERT INTO person_obj_table VALUES ( person_typ(101, 'John', 'Smith', 'firstname.lastname@example.org', '1-650-555-0135') ); SELECT VALUE(p) FROM person_obj_table p WHERE p.last_name = 'Smith'; DECLARE person person_typ; BEGIN -- PL/SQL block for selecting a person and displaying details SELECT VALUE(p) INTO person FROM person_obj_table p WHERE p.idno = 101; person.display_details(); END; /
INTO SQL statement in Example 1-5 inserts a
person_typ object into
person_obj_table as a multi-column table.
SELECT SQL statement selects from
person_obj_table as a single-column table, using the
VALUE function to return rows as object instances. See "VALUE" for information on the
The PL/SQL block selects a specific person and executes a member function of
person_typ to display details about the specified person. For more information about using PL/SQL with objects, see Chapter 3, "Using PL/SQL With Object Types".
Object identifiers (OIDs) uniquely identify row objects in object tables. You cannot directly access object identifiers, but you can make references (
REFs) to the object identifiers and directly access the
REFs, as discussed in "Using References to Row Objects".
There are two types of object identifiers.
System-Generated Object Identifiers (default)
Oracle automatically creates system-generated object identifiers for row objects in object tables unless you choose the primary-key based option.
Primary-Key Based Object Identifiers
You have the option to create primary-key based OIDs when you create the table using the
Note:Column objects are identified by the primary key of the row, and, therefore, do not need a specific object identifier.
REF is a logical pointer or reference to a row object that you can construct from an object identifier (OID). You can use the
REF to obtain, examine, or update the object. You can change a
REF so that it points to a different object of the same object type hierarchy or assign it a null value.
REFs are Oracle Database built-in data types.
REFs and collections of
REFs model associations among objects, particularly many-to-one relationships, thus reducing the need for foreign keys.
REFs provide an easy mechanism for navigating between objects.
Example 1-6 illustrates a simple use of a
CREATE TYPE emp_person_typ AS OBJECT ( name VARCHAR2(30), manager REF emp_person_typ ); / CREATE TABLE emp_person_obj_table OF emp_person_typ; INSERT INTO emp_person_obj_table VALUES ( emp_person_typ ('John Smith', NULL)); INSERT INTO emp_person_obj_table SELECT emp_person_typ ('Bob Jones', REF(e)) FROM emp_person_obj_table e WHERE e.name = 'John Smith';
This example first creates the
emp_person_typ John Smith, with
NULL value for a manager. Then it adds the
emp_person_typ Bob Jones as John Smith's supervisee.
The following query and its output show the effect:
COLUMN name FORMAT A10 COLUMN manager FORMAT A50 select * from emp_person_obj_table e;
Bob Jones 0000220208424E801067C2EABBE040578CE70A0707424E8010
Example 1-10 shows how to dereference the object, so that
Manager appears as a name rather than an object identifier.
You can constrain a column type, collection element, or object type attribute to reference a specified object table by using the SQL constraint subclause
IS when you declare the
REF types require less storage space and allow more efficient access than unscoped
Example 1-7 shows
contact_ref scoped to
person_obj_table which is an object table of type
-- requires Ex. 1-1, 1-4, and 1-5 CREATE TABLE contacts_ref ( contact_ref REF person_typ SCOPE IS person_obj_table, contact_date DATE );
To insert a row in the table, you could issue the following:
INSERT INTO contacts_ref SELECT REF(p), '26 Jun 2003' FROM person_obj_table p WHERE p.idno = 101;
REF can be scoped to an object table of the declared type (
person_typ in the example) or of any subtype of the declared type. If a
REF is scoped to an object table of a subtype, the
REF column is effectively constrained to hold only references to instances of the subtype (and its subtypes, if any) in the table. See "Inheritance in SQL Object Types".
It is possible for the object identified by a
REF to become unavailable if the object has been deleted or some necessary privilege has been deleted. This is a dangling
REF. You can use the Oracle Database SQL predicate
DANGLING to test
REFs for this condition.
REFs can be avoided by defining referential integrity constraints. See "Rules for REF Columns and Attributes".
Accessing the object that the
REF refers to is called dereferencing the
REF. Oracle Database provides the
DEREF operator to do this.
-- requires Ex. 1-6 SELECT DEREF(e.manager) FROM emp_person_obj_table e;
EMP_PERSON_TYP('John Smith', NULL)
Example 1-9 shows that dereferencing a dangling
REF returns a null object.
--requires Ex. 1-1, 1-4, 1-5, and 1-7 -- DELETE command needed to cause dangling refDELETE from person_obj_table WHERE idno = 101;/ SELECT DEREF(c.contact_ref), c.contact_date FROM contacts_ref c;
Oracle Database also provides implicit dereferencing of
REFs. For example, to access the manager's name for an employee, you can use a
Example 1-10 follows the pointer from the person's name and retrieves the manager's name
-- requires Ex. 1-6 SELECT e.name, e.manager.name FROM emp_person_obj_table e WHERE e.name = 'Bob Jones';
REF in this manner is allowed in SQL, but PL/SQL requires the
DEREF keyword as in Example 1-8.
You can obtain a
REF to a row object by selecting the object from its object table and applying the
Example 1-11 shows how to obtain a
REF to the person with an
idno equal to
-- requires Ex. 1-1, 1-4, and 1-5 DECLARE person_ref REF person_typ; person person_typ; BEGIN SELECT REF(p) INTO person_ref FROM person_obj_table p WHERE p.idno = 101; select deref(person_ref) into person from dual; person.display_details(); END; /
The query returns exactly one row. See "Storage Size of REFs".
For modeling multi-valued attributes and many-to-many relationships, Oracle Database supports two collection data types: varrays and nested tables. You can use collection types anywhere other data types are used. You can have object attributes of a collection type in addition to columns of a collection type. For example, a purchase order object type might contain a nested table attribute that holds the collection of line items for the purchase order.
To define a collection type, use the
Example 1-12 shows
TYPE statements that define a collection and an object type.
-- requires Ex. 1-1 CREATE TYPE people_typ AS TABLE OF person_typ; / CREATE TYPE dept_persons_typ AS OBJECT ( dept_no CHAR(5), dept_name CHAR(20), dept_mgr person_typ, dept_emps people_typ); /
Note the following about this example:
The collection type,
people_typ, is specifically a nested table type.
dept_persons_typ object type has an attribute
people_typ. Each row in the
dept.emps nested table is an object of type
person_typ which was defined in Example 1-1.
See Also:"Collection Data Types"
An object view is a way to access relational data using object-relational features. It lets you develop object-oriented applications without changing the underlying relational schema.
You can access objects that belong to an object view in the same way that you access row objects in an object table. Oracle Database also supports materialized view objects of user-defined types from data stored in relational schemas and tables.
Object views let you exploit the polymorphism that a type hierarchy makes possible. A polymorphic expression takes a value of the expression's declared type or any of that type's subtypes. If you construct a hierarchy of object views that mirrors some or all of the structure of a type hierarchy, you can query any view in the hierarchy to access data at just the level of specialization you are interested in. If you query an object view that has subviews, you can get back polymorphic data—rows for both the type of the view and for its subtypes. See Chapter 6, "Applying an Object Model to Relational Data".
Type inheritance enables you to create type hierarchies. A type hierarchy is a set of successive levels of increasingly specialized subtypes that derive from a common ancestor object type, which is called a supertype. Derived subtypes inherit the features of the parent object type and can extend the parent type definition. The specialized types can add new attributes or methods, or redefine methods inherited from the parent. The resulting type hierarchy provides a higher level of abstraction for managing the complexity of an application model. For example, specialized types of persons, such as a student type or a part-time student type with additional attributes or methods, might be derived from a general person object type.
See Also:"Inheritance in SQL Object Types"
Figure 1-3 illustrates two subtypes,
Employee_t, created under
Person_t, and the
PartTimeStudent_t, a subtype under
Type evolution enables you to modify, or evolve, an existing object type, even those already used in tables. Type evolution works through the
TYPE statement, enabling you to propagate changes through all instances of the object type.
TYPE statement checks for dependencies of the type to be altered, using essentially the same validations as a
TYPE statement. If a type or any of its dependent types fails the type validations, the
TYPE statement rolls back.
Metadata for all tables and columns that use an altered type are updated for the new type definition so that data can be stored in the new format. Existing data can be converted to the new format either all at once or piecemeal, as it is updated. In either case, data is always presented in the new type definition even if it is still stored in the format of the older one.
This section lists the key features of the object-relational model that are related to languages and application programming interfaces (APIs).
To support object-related features, Oracle Database provides SQL extensions, including DDL, to create, alter, or drop object types; to store object types in tables; and to create, alter, or drop object views. There are DML and query extensions to support object types, references, and collections. See "SQL and Object Types".
PL/SQL can operate on object types seamlessly. Thus, application developers can use PL/SQL to implement logic and operations on user-defined types that execute in the database server. See Chapter 3, "Using PL/SQL With Object Types".
Oracle Java VM is tightly integrated with Oracle Database and supports access to Oracle Objects through object extensions to Java Database Connectivity (JDBC). This provides dynamic SQL, and SQLJ, which provides static SQL. Thus, application developers can use Java to implement logic and operations on object types that execute in the database. You can map SQL types to existing Java classes to provide persistent storage for Java objects. See "Java Object Storage".
You can implement database functions, procedures, or member methods of an object type in PL/SQL, Java, C, or .NET as external procedures. External procedures are best suited for tasks that are more quickly or easily done in a low-level language such as C. External procedures are always run in a safe mode outside the address space of the database. Generic external procedures can be written that declare one or more parameters to be of a system-defined generic type. Thus, an external procedure can use the system-defined generic type to work with data of any built-in or user-defined type.
Object Type Translator (OTT) and Oracle JPublisher provide client-side mappings to object type schemas by using schema information from the Oracle data dictionary to generate header files containing Java classes and C structures and indicators. You can use these generated header files in host-language applications for transparent access to database objects.
Oracle Database provides an object cache for efficient access to persistent objects stored in the database. Copies of objects can be brought into the object cache. Once the data has been cached in the client, the application can traverse through these at memory speed. Any changes made to objects in the cache can be committed to the database by using the object extensions to Oracle Call Interface programmatic interfaces.
Oracle Call Interface (OCI) and Oracle C++ Call Interface provide a comprehensive application programming interface for application and tool developers. Oracle Call Interface provides a run-time environment with functions to connect to an Oracle Database, and control transactions that access objects in the database. It allows application developers to access and manipulate objects and their attributes in the client-side object cache either navigationally, by traversing a graph of inter-connected objects, or associatively by specifying the nature of the data through declarative SQL DML. Oracle Call Interface provides a number of functions to access metadata about object types defined in the database at run-time. See "Oracle Call Interface (OCI)" and "Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI)".
The Oracle Pro*C/C++ precompiler provides an embedded SQL application programming interface and offers a higher level of abstraction than Oracle Call Interface. Like Oracle Call Interface, the Pro*C/C++ precompiler allows application developers to use the Oracle client-side object cache and the Object Type Translator Utility. Pro*C/C++ supports the use of C bind variables for Oracle object types. Pro*C/C++ also provides simplified syntax to allocate and free objects of SQL types and access them using SQL DML or the navigational interface. See "Oracle Call Interface (OCI)".
Oracle Developer Tools for Visual Studio (ODT) and Oracle Data Provider for .NET (ODP.NET) support .NET custom objects that map to Oracle object-relational data types, collections, and REFs. ODT is a set of tools incorporated into a Visual Studio integrated development environment, which allow managing these data types inside the Oracle database. Through the ODT Custom Class Wizard, Oracle objects can be automatically mapped to .NET custom types to ease data sharing between Oracle databases and .NET applications. Data access to these .NET custom types occur through ODP.NET.
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