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14 Data Interface for Persistent LOBs

This chapter contains these topics:

Overview of the Data Interface for Persistent LOBs

The data interface for persistent LOBs includes a set of Java, PL/SQL, and OCI APIs that are extended to work with LOB datatypes. These APIs, originally designed for use with legacy datatypes such as LONG, LONG RAW, and VARCHAR2, can also be used with the corresponding LOB datatypes shown in Table 14-1 and Table 14-2. These tables show the legacy datatypes in the "bind or define type" column and the corresponding supported LOB datatype in the "LOB column type" column. You can use the data interface for LOBs to store and manipulate character data and binary data in a LOB column just as if it were stored in the corresponding legacy datatype.

Note:

The data interface works for LOB columns as well as LOBs which are attributes of objects. In this chapter "LOB columns" means LOB columns and LOB attributes.

You can use array bind and define interfaces to insert and select multiple rows in one round trip.

For simplicity, this chapter focuses on character datatypes; however, the same concepts apply to the full set of character and binary datatypes listed in Table 14-1 and Table 14-2. CLOB also means NCLOB in these tables.

Table 14-1 Corresponding LONG and LOB Datatypes in SQL and PL/SQL

Bind or Define Type LOB Column Type Used For Storing

CHAR

CLOB

Character data

LONG

CLOB

Character data

VARCHAR2

CLOB

Character data

LONG RAW

BLOB

Binary data

RAW

BLOB

Binary data


Table 14-2 Corresponding LONG and LOB Datatypes in OCI

Bind or Define Type LOB Column Type Used For Storing

SQLT_AFC(n)

CLOB

Character data

SQLT_CHR

CLOB

Character data

SQLT_LNG

CLOB

Character data

SQLT_VCS

CLOB

Character data

SQLT_BIN

BLOB

Binary data

SQLT_LBI

BLOB

Binary data

SQLT_LVB

BLOB

Binary data


Benefits of Using the Data Interface for Persistent LOBs

Using the data interface for persistent LOBs has the following benefits:

Using the Data Interface for Persistent LOBs in PL/SQL

The data interface enables you to use LONG and LOB datatypes listed in Table 14-1 to perform the following operations in PL/SQL:

Guidelines for Accessing LOB Columns Using the Data Interface in SQL and PL/SQL

This section describes techniques you use to access LOB columns or attributes using the data interface for persistent LOBs.

Data from CLOB and BLOB columns or attributes can be referenced by regular SQL statements, such as INSERT, UPDATE, and SELECT.

There is no piecewise INSERT, UPDATE, or fetch routine in PL/SQL. Therefore, the amount of data that can be accessed from a LOB column or attribute is limited by the maximum character buffer size. PL/SQL supports character buffer sizes up to 32KB - 1 (32767 bytes). For this reason, only LOBs less than 32K bytes in size can be accessed by PL/SQL applications using the data interface for persistent LOBs.

If you need to access more than 32KB -1 using the data interface, then you must make OCI calls from the PL/SQL code to use the APIs for piecewise insert and fetch.

Use he following are guidelines for using the data interface to access LOB columns or attributes:

  • INSERT operations

    You can INSERT into tables containing LOB columns or attributes using regular INSERT statements in the VALUES clause. The field of the LOB column can be a literal, a character datatype, a binary datatype, or a LOB locator.

  • UPDATE operations

    LOB columns or attributes can be updated as a whole by UPDATE... SET statements. In the SET clause, the new value can be a literal, a character datatype, a binary datatype, or a LOB locator.

  • 4000 byte limit on hexadecimal to raw and raw to hexadecimal conversions

    The database does not do implicit hexadecimal to RAW or RAW to hexadecimal conversions on data that is more than 4000 bytes in size. You cannot bind a buffer of character data to a binary datatype column, and you cannot bind a buffer of binary data to a character datatype column if the buffer is over 4000 bytes in size. Attempting to do so will result in your column data being truncated at 4000 bytes.

    For example, you cannot bind a VARCHAR2 buffer to a LONG RAW or a BLOB column if the buffer is more than 4000 bytes in size. Similarly, you cannot bind a RAW buffer to a LONG or a CLOB column if the buffer is more than 4000 bytes in size.

  • SELECT operations

    LOB columns or attributes can be selected into character or binary buffers in PL/SQL. If the LOB column or attribute is longer than the buffer size, then an exception is raised without filling the buffer with any data. LOB columns or attributes can also be selected into LOB locators.

Implicit Assignment and Parameter Passing

Implicit assignment and parameter passing are supported for LOB columns. For the datatypes listed in Table 14-1 and Table 14-2, you can pass or assign: any character type to any other character type, or any binary type to any other binary type using the data interface for persistent LOBs.

Implicit assignment works for variables declared explicitly and for variables declared by referencing an existing column type using the %TYPE attribute as show in the following example. This example assumes that column long_col in table t has been migrated from a LONG to a CLOB column.

CREATE TABLE t (long_col LONG); -- Alter this table to change LONG column to LOB
DECLARE
   a VARCHAR2(100);
   b t.long_col%type; -- This variable changes from LONG to CLOB
BEGIN
   SELECT * INTO b FROM t;
   a := b;  -- This changes from "VARCHAR2 := LONG to VARCHAR2 := CLOB
   b := a;  -- This changes from "LONG := VARCHAR2 to CLOB := VARCHAR2 
END;

Implicit parameter passing is allowed between functions and procedures. For example, you can pass a CLOB to a function or procedure where the formal parameter is defined as a VARCHAR2.

Note:

The assigning a VARCHAR2 buffer to a LOB variable is somewhat less efficient than assigning a VARCHAR2 to a LONG variable because the former involves creating a temporary LOB. Therefore, PL/SQL users will see a slight deterioration in the performance of their applications.

Passing CLOBs to SQL and PL/SQL Built-In Functions

Implicit parameter passing is also supported for built-in PL/SQL functions that accept character data. For example, INSTR can accept a CLOB as well as other character data.

Any SQL or PL/SQL built-in function that accepts a VARCHAR2 can accept a CLOB as an argument. Similarly, a VARCHAR2 variable can be passed to any DBMS_LOB API for any parameter that takes a LOB locator.

Explicit Conversion Functions

In PL/SQL, the following explicit conversion functions convert other data types to CLOB and BLOB datatypes as follows:

  • TO_CLOB() converts LONG, VARCHAR2, and CHAR to CLOB

  • TO_BLOB() converts LONG RAW and RAW to BLOB

Also note that the conversion function TO_CHAR() can convert a CLOB to a CHAR type.

Calling PL/SQL and C Procedures from SQL

When a PL/SQL or C procedure is called from SQL, buffers with more than 4000 bytes of data are not allowed.

Calling PL/SQL and C Procedures from PL/SQL

You can call a PL/SQL or C procedure from PL/SQL. You can pass a CLOB as an actual parameter where CHR is the formal parameter, or vice versa. The same holds for BLOBs and RAWs.

One example of when these cases can arise is when either the formal or the actual parameter is an anchored type, that is, the variable is declared using the table_name.column_name%type syntax.

PL/SQL procedures or functions can accept a CLOB or a VARCHAR2 as a formal parameter. For example the PL/SQL procedure could be one of the following:

  • When the formal parameter is a CLOB:

    CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE get_lob(table_name IN VARCHAR2, lob INOUT
    CLOB) AS
       ...
    BEGIN
      ...
    END;
    /
    
  • When the formal parameter is a VARCHAR2:

    CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE get_lob(table_name IN VARCHAR2, lob INOUT
    VARCHAR2) AS
       ...
    BEGIN
      ...
    END;
    /
    

The calling function could be of any of the following types:

  • When the actual parameter is a CHR:

    create procedure ...
    declare 
    c VARCHAR2[200];
    BEGIN
      get_lob('table_name', c);
    END;
     
    
  • When the actual parameter is a CLOB:

    create procedure ...
    declare 
    c CLOB; 
    BEGIN
      get_lob('table_name', c);
    END;
    

Binds of All Sizes in INSERT and UPDATE Operations

Binds of all sizes are supported for INSERT and UPDATE operations on LOB columns. Multiple binds of any size are allowed in a single INSERT or UPDATE statement.

Note:

When you create a table, the length of the default value you specify for any LOB column is restricted to 4000 bytes.

4000 Byte Limit on Results of a SQL Operator

If you bind more than 4000 bytes of data to a BLOB or a CLOB, and the data consists of a SQL operator, then Oracle Database limits the size of the result to at most 4000 bytes.

The following statement inserts only 4000 bytes because the result of LPAD is limited to 4000 bytes:

INSERT INTO print_media (ad_sourcetext) VALUES (lpad('a', 5000, 'a'));

The following statement inserts only 2000 bytes because the result of LPAD is limited to 4000 bytes, and the implicit hexadecimal to raw conversion converts it to 2000 bytes of RAW data:

INSERT INTO print_media (ad_photo) VALUES (lpad('a', 5000, 'a'));  

Example of 4000 Byte Result Limit of a SQL Operator

The following example illustrates how the result for SQL operators is limited to 4000 bytes.

/* The following command inserts only 4000 bytes because the result of
 * LPAD is limited to 4000 bytes */
INSERT INTO print_media(product_id, ad_id, ad_sourcetext)
  VALUES (2004, 5, lpad('a', 5000, 'a'));
SELECT LENGTH(ad_sourcetext) FROM print_media 
  WHERE product_id=2004 AND ad_id=5;
ROLLBACK;

/* The following command inserts only 2000 bytes because the result of
 * LPAD is limited to 4000 bytes, and the implicit hex to raw conversion
 * converts it to 2000 bytes of RAW data. */
INSERT INTO print_media(product_id, ad_id, ad_composite)
  VALUES (2004, 5, lpad('a', 5000, 'a'));
SELECT LENGTH(ad_composite) from print_media 
  WHERE product_id=2004 AND ad_id=5;
ROLLBAACK;

Restrictions on Binds of More Than 4000 Bytes

The following lists the restrictions for binds of more than 4000 bytes:

  • If a table has both LONG and LOB columns, then you can bind more than 4000 bytes of data to either the LONG or LOB columns, but not both in the same statement.

  • In an INSERT AS SELECT operation, binding of any length data to LOB columns is not allowed.

Parallel DML Support for LOBs

Parallel execution of the following DML operations on tables with LOB columns is supported. These operations run in parallel execution mode only when performed on a partitioned table. DML statements on non-partitioned tables with LOB columns continue to execute in serial execution mode.

  • INSERT AS SELECT

  • CREATE TABLE AS SELECT

  • DELETE

  • UPDATE

  • MERGE (conditional UPDATE and INSERT)

  • Multi-table INSERT

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide section "Managing Processes for Parallel SQL Execution"

Example: PL/SQL - Using Binds of More Than 4000 Bytes in INSERT and UPDATE

DECLARE
  bigtext VARCHAR2(32767);
  smalltext VARCHAR2(2000);
  bigraw RAW (32767);
BEGIN
  bigtext := LPAD('a', 32767, 'a');
  smalltext := LPAD('a', 2000, 'a');
  bigraw := utl_raw.cast_to_raw (bigtext);

  /* Multiple long binds for LOB columns are allowed for INSERT: */
  INSERT INTO print_media(product_id, ad_id, ad_sourcetext, ad_composite)
    VALUES (2004, 1, bigtext, bigraw);

  /* Single long bind for LOB columns is allowed for INSERT: */
  INSERT INTO print_media (product_id, ad_id, ad_sourcetext)
    VALUES (2005, 2, smalltext);  

  bigtext := LPAD('b', 32767, 'b');
  smalltext := LPAD('b', 20, 'a');
  bigraw := utl_raw.cast_to_raw (bigtext);

  /* Multiple long binds for LOB columns are allowed for UPDATE: */
  UPDATE print_media SET ad_sourcetext = bigtext, ad_composite = bigraw,
    ad_finaltext = smalltext;

  /* Single long bind for LOB columns is allowed for UPDATE: */
  UPDATE print_media SET ad_sourcetext = smalltext, ad_finaltext = bigtext;

  /* The following is NOT allowed because we are trying to insert more than
     4000 bytes of data in a LONG and a LOB column: */
  INSERT INTO print_media(product_id, ad_id, ad_sourcetext, press_release)
    VALUES (2030, 3, bigtext, bigtext);
  
  /* Insert of data into LOB attribute is allowed */
  INSERT INTO print_media(product_id, ad_id, ad_header)
     VALUES (2049, 4, adheader_typ(null, null, null, bigraw));

  /* The following is not allowed because we try to perform INSERT AS
     SELECT data INTO LOB */
  INSERT INTO print_media(product_id, ad_id, ad_sourcetext)
    SELECT 2056, 5, bigtext FROM dual;

END;
/

Using the Data Interface for LOBs with INSERT, UPDATE, and SELECT Operations

INSERT and UPDATE statements on LOBs are used in the same way as on LONGs. For example:

DECLARE
  ad_buffer VARCHAR2(100);
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO print_media(product_id, ad_id, ad_sourcetext)
    VALUES(2004, 5, 'Source for advertisement 1');
  UPDATE print_media SET ad_sourcetext= 'Source for advertisement 2'
    WHERE product_id=2004 AND ad_id=5;
  /* This will get the LOB column if it is up to 100 bytes, otherwise it will
   * raise an exception */
  SELECT ad_sourcetext INTO ad_buffer FROM print_media 
    WHERE product_id=2004 AND ad_id=5;
END;
/

Using the Data Interface for LOBs in Assignments and Parameter Passing

The data interface for LOBs enables implicit assignment and parameter passing as shown in the following example:

CREATE TABLE t (clob_col CLOB, blob_col BLOB);
INSERT INTO t VALUES('abcdefg', 'aaaaaa');

DECLARE
  var_buf VARCHAR2(100);
  clob_buf CLOB;
  raw_buf RAW(100);
  blob_buf BLOB;
BEGIN
  SELECT * INTO clob_buf, blob_buf FROM t;
  var_buf := clob_buf;
  clob_buf:= var_buf;
  raw_buf := blob_buf;
  blob_buf := raw_buf;
END;
/

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE FOO ( a IN OUT CLOB) IS
BEGIN
  -- Any procedure body
  a := 'abc';
END;
/

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE BAR (b IN OUT VARCHAR2) IS
BEGIN
  -- Any procedure body
  b := 'xyz';
END;
/

DECLARE
  a VARCHAR2(100) := '1234567';
  b CLOB;
BEGIN
  FOO(a);
  SELECT clob_col INTO b FROM t;
  BAR(b);
END;
/

Using the Data Interface for LOBs with PL/SQL Built-In Functions

This example illustrates the use of CLOBs in PL/SQL built-in functions, using the data interface for LOBs:

DECLARE
  my_ad CLOB;
  revised_ad CLOB;
  myGist VARCHAR2(100):= 'This is my gist.';
  revisedGist VARCHAR2(100);
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO print_media (product_id, ad_id, ad_sourcetext)
    VALUES (2004, 5, 'Source for advertisement 1');  

  -- select a CLOB column into a CLOB variable
  SELECT ad_sourcetext INTO my_ad FROM print_media 
    WHERE product_id=2004 AND ad_id=5;

  -- perform VARCHAR2 operations on a CLOB variable
  revised_ad := UPPER(SUBSTR(my_ad, 1, 20));
 
  -- revised_ad is a temporary LOB
  -- Concat a VARCHAR2 at the end of a CLOB
  revised_ad := revised_ad || myGist;

  -- The following statement will raise an error if my_ad is
  -- longer than 100 bytes
  myGist := my_ad;
END;
/

Using the Data Interface for Persistent LOBs in OCI

This section discusses OCI functions included in the data interface for persistent LOBs. These OCI functions work for LOB datatypes exactly the same way as they do for LONG datatypes. Using these functions, you can perform INSERT, UPDATE, fetch, bind, and define operations in OCI on LOBs using the same techniques you would use on other datatypes that store character or binary data.

Note:

You can use array bind and define interfaces to insert and select multiple rows with LOBs in one round trip.

See Also:

Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide, section "Runtime Data Allocation and Piecewise Operations in OCI"

Binding LOB Datatypes in OCI

You can bind LOB datatypes in the following operations:

  • Regular, piecewise, and callback binds for INSERT and UPDATE operations

  • Array binds for INSERT and UPDATE operations

  • Parameter passing across PL/SQL and OCI boundaries

Piecewise operations can be performed by polling or by providing a callback. To support these operations, the following OCI functions accept the LONG and LOB datatypes listed in Table 14-2.

  • OCIBindByName() and OCIBindByPos()

    These functions create an association between a program variable and a placeholder in the SQL statement or a PL/SQL block for INSERT and UPDATE operations.

  • OCIBindDynamic()

    You use this call to register callbacks for dynamic data allocation for INSERT and UPDATE operations

  • OCIStmtGetPieceInfo() and OCIStmtSetPieceInfo()

    These calls are used to get or set piece information for piecewise operations.

Defining LOB Datatypes in OCI

The data interface for persistent LOBs allows the following OCI functions to accept the LONG and LOB datatypes listed in Table 14-2.

  • OCIDefineByPos()

    This call associates an item in a SELECT list with the type and output data buffer.

  • OCIDefineDynamic()

    This call registers user callbacks for SELECT operations if the OCI_DYNAMIC_FETCH mode was selected in OCIDefineByPos() function call.

When you use these functions with LOB types, the LOB data, and not the locator, is selected into your buffer. Note that in OCI, you cannot specify the amount you want to read using the data interface for LOBs. You can only specify the buffer length of your buffer. The database only reads whatever amount fits into your buffer and the data is truncated.

Using Multibyte Character Sets in OCI with the Data Interface for LOBs

When the client character set is in a multibyte format, functions included in the data interface operate the same way with LOB datatypes as they do for LONG datatypes as follows:

  • For a piecewise fetch in a multibyte character set, a multibyte character could be cut in the middle, with some bytes at the end of one buffer and remaining bytes in the next buffer.

  • For a regular fetch, if the buffer cannot hold all bytes of the last character, then Oracle returns as many bytes as fit into the buffer, hence returning partial characters.

Using OCI Functions to Perform INSERT or UPDATE on LOB Columns

This section discusses the various techniques you can use to perform INSERT or UPDATE operations on LOB columns or attributes using the data interface. The operations described in this section assume that you have initialized the OCI environment and allocated all necessary handles.

Simple INSERTs or UPDATEs in One Piece

To perform simple INSERT or UPDATE operations in one piece using the data interface for persistent LOBs, perform the following steps:

  1. Call OCIStmtPrepare() to prepare the statement in OCI_DEFAULT mode.

  2. Call OCIBindByName() or OCIBindbyPos() in OCI_DEFAULT mode to bind a placeholder for LOB as character data or binary data.

  3. Call OCIStmtExecute() to do the actual INSERT or UPDATE operation.

Using Piecewise INSERTs and UPDATEs with Polling

To perform piecewise INSERT or UPDATE operations with polling using the data interface for persistent LOBs, do the following steps:

  1. Call OCIStmtPrepare() to prepare the statement in OCI_DEFAULT mode.

  2. Call OCIBindByName() or OCIBindbyPos() in OCI_DATA_AT_EXEC mode to bind a LOB as character data or binary data.

  3. Call OCIStmtExecute() in default mode. Do each of the following in a loop while the value returned from OCIStmtExecute() is OCI_NEED_DATA. Terminate your loop when the value returned from OCIStmtExecute() is OCI_SUCCESS.

    • Call OCIStmtGetPieceInfo() to retrieve information about the piece to be inserted.

    • Call OCIStmtSetPieceInfo() to set information about piece to be inserted.

Piecewise INSERTs and UPDATEs with Callback

To perform piecewise INSERT or UPDATE operations with callback using the data interface for persistent LOBs, do the following steps:

  1. Call OCIStmtPrepare() to prepare the statement in OCI_DEFAULT mode.

  2. Call OCIBindByName() or OCIBindbyPos() in OCI_DATA_AT_EXEC mode to bind a placeholder for the LOB column as character data or binary data.

  3. Call OCIBindDynamic() to specify the callback.

  4. Call OCIStmtExecute() in default mode.

Array INSERT and UPDATE Operations

To perform array INSERT or UPDATE operations using the data interface for persistent LOBs, use any of the techniques discussed in this section in conjunction with OCIBindArrayOfStruct(), or by specifying the number of iterations (iter), with iter value greater than 1, in the OCIStmtExecute() call.

Using the Data Interface to Fetch LOB Data in OCI

This section discusses techniques you can use to fetch data from LOB columns or attributes in OCI using the data interface for persistent LOBs.

Simple Fetch in One Piece

To perform a simple fetch operation on LOBs in one piece using the data interface for persistent LOBs, do the following:

  1. Call OCIStmtPrepare() to prepare the SELECT statement in OCI_DEFAULT mode.

  2. Call OCIDefineByPos() to define a select list position in OCI_DEFAULT mode to define a LOB as character data or binary data.

  3. Call OCIStmtExecute() to run the SELECT statement.

  4. Call OCIStmtFetch() to do the actual fetch.

Piecewise Fetch with Polling

To perform a piecewise fetch operation on a LOB column with polling using the data interface for LOBs, do the following steps:

  1. Call OCIStmtPrepare() to prepare the SELECT statement in OCI_DEFAULT mode.

  2. Call OCIDefinebyPos() to define a select list position in OCI_DYNAMIC_FETCH mode to define the LOB column as character data or binary data.

  3. Call OCIStmtExecute() to run the SELECT statement.

  4. Call OCIStmtFetch() in default mode. Do each of the following in a loop while the value returned from OCIStmtFetch() is OCI_NEED_DATA. Terminate your loop when the value returned from OCIStmtFetch() is OCI_SUCCESS.

    • Call OCIStmtGetPieceInfo() to retrieve information about the piece to be fetched.

    • Call OCIStmtSetPieceInfo() to set information about piece to be fetched.

Piecewise with Callback

To perform a piecewise fetch operation on a LOB column with callback using the data interface for persistent LOBs, do the following:

  1. Call OCIStmtPrepare() to prepare the statement in OCI_DEFAULT mode.

  2. Call OCIDefinebyPos() to define a select list position in OCI_DYNAMIC_FETCH mode to define the LOB column as character data or binary data.

  3. Call OCIStmtExecute() to run the SELECT statement.

  4. Call OCIDefineDynamic() to specify the callback.

  5. Call OCIStmtFetch() in default mode.

Array Fetch

To perform an array fetch in OCI using the data interface for persistent LOBs, use any of the techniques discussed in this section in conjunction with OCIDefineArrayOfStruct(), or by specifying the number of iterations (iter), with the value of iter greater than 1, in the OCIStmtExecute() call.

PL/SQL and C Binds from OCI

When you call a PL/SQL procedure from OCI, and have an IN or OUT or IN OUT bind, you should be able to:

  • Bind a variable as SQLT_CHR or SQLT_LNG where the formal parameter of the PL/SQL procedure is SQLT_CLOB, or

  • Bind a variable as SQLT_BIN or SQLT_LBI where the formal parameter is SQLT_BLOB

The following two cases work:

Calling PL/SQL Out-binds in the "begin foo(:1); end;" Manner

Here is an example of calling PL/SQL out-binds in the "begin foo(:1); end;" Manner:

text *sqlstmt = (text *)"BEGIN get_lob(:c); END; " ;

Calling PL/SQL Out-binds in the "call foo(:1);" Manner

Here is an example of calling PL/SQL out-binds in the "call foo(:1);" manner:

text *sqlstmt = (text *)"CALL get_lob(:c);" ;

In both these cases, the rest of the program has these statements:

OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, sqlstmt, (ub4)strlen((char *)sqlstmt),
               (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
   curlen = 0;
OCIBindByName(stmthp, &bndhp[3], errhp,
        (text *) ":c", (sb4) strlen((char *) ":c"),
        (dvoid *) buf5, (sb4) LONGLEN, SQLT_CHR,
        (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *) 0, (ub2 *) 0,
        (ub4) 1, (ub4 *) &curlen, (ub4) OCI_DATA_AT_EXEC);

The PL/SQL procedure, get_lob(), is as follows:

procedure get_lob(c INOUT CLOB) is  -- This might have been column%type 
  BEGIN
  ... /* The procedure body could be in PL/SQL or C*/
  END;

Example: C (OCI) - Binds of More than 4000 Bytes for INSERT and UPDATE

void insert3() 
{ 
/* Insert of data into LOB attributes is allowed. */
   ub1 buffer[8000]; 
   text *insert_sql = (text *)"INSERT INTO Print_media (ad_header) \
               VALUES (adheader_typ(NULL, NULL, NULL,:1))"; 
   OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, insert_sql, strlen((char*)insert_sql),  
            (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT); 
   OCIBindByPos(stmthp, &bindhp[0], errhp, 1, (dvoid *)buffer, 2000,  
             SQLT_LNG, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT); 
   OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, 1, 0, (const OCISnapshot*) 0, 
                  (OCISnapshot*)0, OCI_DEFAULT); 
}

Using the Data Interface for LOBs in PL/SQL Binds from OCI on LOBs

The data interface for LOBs allows LOB PL/SQL binds from OCI to work as follows. When you call a PL/SQL procedure from OCI, and have an IN or OUT or IN OUT bind, you should be able to bind a variable as SQLT_CHR, where the formal parameter of the PL/SQL procedure is SQLT_CLOB.

Note:

C procedures are wrapped inside a PL/SQL stub, so the OCI application always calls the PL/SQL stub.

For the OCI calling program, the following are likely cases:

Calling PL/SQL Out-binds in the "begin foo(:1); end;" Manner

For example:

text *sqlstmt = (text *)"BEGIN PKG1.P5 (:c); END; " ;

Calling PL/SQL Out-binds in the "call foo(:1);" Manner

For example:

text *sqlstmt = (text *)"CALL PKG1.P5( :c );" ;

In both these cases, the rest of the program is as follows:

   OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, sqlstmt, (ub4)strlen((char *)sqlstmt),
            (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
   curlen = 0;

   OCIBindByName(stmthp, &bndhp[3], errhp,
            (text *) ":c4", (sb4) strlen((char *) ":c"),
            (dvoid *) buf5, (sb4) LONGLEN, SQLT_CHR,
            (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *) 0, (ub2 *) 0,
            (ub4) 1, (ub4 *) &curlen, (ub4) OCI_DATA_AT_EXEC);

    OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp,(ub4) 0,(ub4) 0, (const OCISnapshot*) 0,
            (OCISnapshot*) 0,(ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);

The PL/SQL procedure PKG1.P5 is as follows:

   CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY pkg1 AS
     ...
   procedure p5 (c OUT CLOB) is
     -- This might have been table%rowtype (so it   is CLOB now)
   BEGIN
     ...
   END p5;

END pkg1;

Binding LONG Data for LOB Columns in Binds Greater Than 4000 Bytes

The following example illustrates binding character data for a LOB column:

void simple_insert()
{
  word buflen;
  text buf[5000];
  text *insstmt = (text *) "INSERT INTO Print_media(Product_id, Ad_id,\
                  Ad_sourcetext) VALUES (2004, 1, :SRCTXT)";
 
  OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, insstmt, (ub4)strlen((char *)insstmt), 
                (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  
  OCIBindByName(stmthp, &bndhp[0], errhp,
                (text *) ":SRCTXT", (sb4) strlen((char *) ":SRCTXT"),
                (dvoid *) buf, (sb4) sizeof(buf), SQLT_CHR,
                (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *) 0, (ub2 *) 0,
                (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  memset((void *)buf, (int)'A', (size_t)5000);
  OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 1, (ub4) 0,
                 (const OCISnapshot*) 0, (OCISnapshot*) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
}

Binding LONG Data to LOB Columns Using Piecewise INSERT with Polling

The following example illustrates using piecewise INSERT with polling using the data interface for LOBs.

void piecewise_insert()
{
  text *sqlstmt = (text *)"INSERT INTO Print_media(Product_id, Ad_id,\
                  Ad_sourcetext) VALUES (:1, :2, :3)";
  ub2 rcode;
  ub1 piece, i;
  word product_id = 2004;
  word ad_id = 2;
  ub4 buflen;
  char buf[5000];
 
  OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, sqlstmt, (ub4)strlen((char *)sqlstmt), 
                 (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  OCIBindByPos(stmthp, &bndhp[0], errhp, (ub4) 1,
               (dvoid *) &product_id, (sb4) sizeof(product_id), SQLT_INT,
               (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *)0,
               (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  OCIBindByPos(stmthp, &bndhp[1], errhp, (ub4) 2,
               (dvoid *) &ad_id, (sb4) sizeof(ad_id), SQLT_INT,
               (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *)0,
               (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  OCIBindByPos(stmthp, &bndhp[2], errhp, (ub4) 3,
               (dvoid *) 0, (sb4) 15000, SQLT_LNG,
               (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *)0,
               (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DATA_AT_EXEC);
 
  i = 0;
  while (1)
  {
    i++;
    retval = OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 1, (ub4) 0,
                            (CONST OCISnapshot*) 0, (OCISnapshot*) 0,
                            (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
    switch(retval)
    {
    case OCI_NEED_DATA:
      memset((void *)buf, (int)'A'+i, (size_t)5000);
      buflen = 5000;
      if (i == 1) piece = OCI_FIRST_PIECE;
      else if (i == 3) piece = OCI_LAST_PIECE;
      else piece = OCI_NEXT_PIECE;
 
      if (OCIStmtSetPieceInfo((dvoid *)bndhp[2],
                              (ub4)OCI_HTYPE_BIND, errhp, (dvoid *)buf,
                              &buflen, piece, (dvoid *) 0, &rcode))
        {
          printf("ERROR: OCIStmtSetPieceInfo: %d \n", retval);
          break;
        }
      
      break;
    case OCI_SUCCESS:
      break;
    default:
      printf( "oci exec returned %d \n", retval);
      report_error(errhp);
      retval = OCI_SUCCESS;
    } /* end switch */
    if (retval == OCI_SUCCESS) 
      break;
  } /* end while(1) */
}

Binding LONG Data to LOB Columns Using Piecewise INSERT with Callback

The following example illustrates binding LONG data to LOB columns using a piecewise INSERT with callback:

void callback_insert()
{
  word buflen = 15000;
  word product_id = 2004;
  word ad_id = 3;
  text *sqlstmt = (text *) "INSERT INTO Print_media(Product_id, Ad_id,\
                  Ad_sourcetext) VALUES (:1, :2, :3)";
  word pos = 3;
 
  OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, sqlstmt, (ub4)strlen((char *)sqlstmt),
                 (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT)
 
  OCIBindByPos(stmthp, &bndhp[0], errhp, (ub4) 1,
               (dvoid *) &product_id, (sb4) sizeof(product_id), SQLT_INT,
               (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *)0,
               (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  OCIBindByPos(stmthp, &bndhp[1], errhp, (ub4) 2,
               (dvoid *) &ad_id, (sb4) sizeof(ad_id), SQLT_INT,
               (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *)0,
               (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  OCIBindByPos(stmthp, &bndhp[2], errhp, (ub4) 3,
               (dvoid *) 0, (sb4) buflen, SQLT_CHR,
               (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *)0,
               (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DATA_AT_EXEC);
 
  OCIBindDynamic(bndhp[2], errhp, (dvoid *) (dvoid *) &pos,
                 insert_cbk, (dvoid *) 0, (OCICallbackOutBind) 0);
 
  OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 1, (ub4) 0,
                 (const OCISnapshot*) 0, (OCISnapshot*) 0,
                 (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
} /* end insert_data() */
 
/* Inbind callback to specify input data. */
static sb4 insert_cbk(dvoid *ctxp, OCIBind *bindp, ub4 iter, ub4 index,
                       dvoid **bufpp, ub4 *alenpp, ub1 *piecep, dvoid **indpp)
{
  static int a = 0;
  word   j;
  ub4    inpos = *((ub4 *)ctxp);
  char   buf[5000];
 
  switch(inpos)
  {
  case 3:
    memset((void *)buf, (int) 'A'+a, (size_t) 5000);
    *bufpp = (dvoid *) buf;
    *alenpp = 5000 ;
    a++;
    break;
  default: printf("ERROR: invalid position number: %d\n", inpos);
  }
 
  *indpp = (dvoid *) 0;
  *piecep = OCI_ONE_PIECE;
  if (inpos == 3)
  {
    if (a<=1)
    {
      *piecep = OCI_FIRST_PIECE;
      printf("Insert callback: 1st piece\n");
    }
    else if (a<3)
    {
      *piecep = OCI_NEXT_PIECE;
      printf("Insert callback: %d'th piece\n", a);
    }
    else {
      *piecep = OCI_LAST_PIECE;
      printf("Insert callback: %d'th piece\n", a);
      a = 0;
    }
  }
  return OCI_CONTINUE;
}

Binding LONG Data to LOB Columns Using an Array INSERT

The following example illustrates binding character data for LOB columns using an array INSERT operation:

void array_insert()
{
  ub4 i;
  word buflen;
  word arrbuf1[5];
  word arrbuf2[5];
  text arrbuf3[5][5000];
  text *insstmt = (text *)"INSERT INTO Print_media(Product_id, Ad_id,\
                  Ad_sourcetext) VALUES (:PID, :AID, :SRCTXT)";
 
  OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, insstmt,
                 (ub4)strlen((char *)insstmt), (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX,
                 (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  OCIBindByName(stmthp, &bndhp[0], errhp,
                (text *) ":PID", (sb4) strlen((char *) ":PID"),
                (dvoid *) &arrbuf1[0], (sb4) sizeof(arrbuf1[0]), SQLT_INT,
                (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *) 0,
                (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  OCIBindByName(stmthp, &bndhp[1], errhp,
                (text *) ":AID", (sb4) strlen((char *) ":AID"),
                (dvoid *) &arrbuf2[0], (sb4) sizeof(arrbuf2[0]), SQLT_INT,
                (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *) 0,
                (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  OCIBindByName(stmthp, &bndhp[2], errhp,
                (text *) ":SRCTXT", (sb4) strlen((char *) ":SRCTXT"),
                (dvoid *) arrbuf3[0], (sb4) sizeof(arrbuf3[0]), SQLT_CHR,
                (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *) 0, (ub2 *) 0,
                (ub4) 0, (ub4 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  OCIBindArrayOfStruct(bndhp[0], errhp sizeof(arrbuf1[0]),
                       indsk, rlsk, rcsk);
  OCIBindArrayOfStruct(bndhp[1], errhp, sizeof(arrbuf2[0]),
                       indsk, rlsk, rcsk);
  OCIBindArrayOfStruct(bndhp[2], errhp, sizeof(arrbuf3[0]),
                       indsk, rlsk, rcsk);
 
  for (i=0; i<5; i++)
  {
    arrbuf1[i] = 2004;
    arrbuf2[i] = i+4;
    memset((void *)arrbuf3[i], (int)'A'+i, (size_t)5000);
  }
  OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 5, (ub4) 0,
                 (const OCISnapshot*) 0, (OCISnapshot*) 0,
                 (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
}

Selecting a LOB Column into a LONG Buffer Using a Simple Fetch

The following example illustrates selecting a LOB column using a simple fetch:

void simple_fetch()
{
  word retval;
  text buf[15000];
  text *selstmt = (text *) "SELECT Ad_sourcetext FROM Print_media WHERE\
                  Product_id = 2004";
 
  OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, selstmt, (ub4)strlen((char *)selstmt),
                 (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  retval = OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 0, (ub4) 0,
                          (const OCISnapshot*) 0, (OCISnapshot*) 0,
                          (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  while (retval == OCI_SUCCESS || retval == OCI_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO)
  {
    OCIDefineByPos(stmthp, &defhp, errhp, (ub4) 1, (dvoid *) buf,
                   (sb4) sizeof(buf), (ub2) SQLT_CHR, (dvoid *) 0,
                   (ub2 *) 0, (ub2 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
    retval = OCIStmtFetch(stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 1,
                          (ub4) OCI_FETCH_NEXT, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
    if (retval == OCI_SUCCESS || retval == OCI_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO)
      printf("buf = %.*s\n", 15000, buf);
  }
}

Selecting a LOB Column into a LONG Buffer Using Piecewise Fetch with Polling

The following example illustrates selecting a LOB column into a LONG buffer using a piecewise fetch with polling:

void piecewise_fetch()
{
  text buf[15000];
  ub4 buflen=5000;
  word retval;
  text *selstmt = (text *) "SELECT Ad_sourcetext FROM Print_media\ 
                  WHERE Product_id = 2004 AND Ad_id = 2";
 
  OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, selstmt,
                 (ub4) strlen((char *)selstmt),
                 (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  OCIDefineByPos(stmthp, &dfnhp, errhp, (ub4) 1,
                 (dvoid *) NULL, (sb4) 100000, SQLT_LNG,
                 (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *) 0,
                 (ub2 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DYNAMIC_FETCH);
 
  retval = OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 0, (ub4) 0,
                          (CONST OCISnapshot*) 0, (OCISnapshot*) 0,
                          (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  retval = OCIStmtFetch(stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 1 ,
                        (ub2) OCI_FETCH_NEXT, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  while (retval != OCI_NO_DATA && retval != OCI_SUCCESS)
  {
    ub1 piece;
    ub4 iter;
    ub4 idx;
  
    genclr((void *)buf, 5000);
    switch(retval)
    {
    case OCI_NEED_DATA:
      OCIStmtGetPieceInfo(stmthp, errhp, &hdlptr, &hdltype,
                          &in_out, &iter, &idx, &piece);
      buflen = 5000;
      OCIStmtSetPieceInfo(hdlptr, hdltype, errhp,
                          (dvoid *) buf, &buflen, piece,
                          (CONST dvoid *) &indp1, (ub2 *) 0);
      retval = OCI_NEED_DATA;
      break;
    default:
      printf("ERROR: piece-wise fetching, %d\n", retval);
      return;
    } /* end switch */
    retval = OCIStmtFetch(stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 1 ,
                          (ub2) OCI_FETCH_NEXT, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
    printf("Data : %.5000s\n", buf);
  } /* end while */
}

Selecting a LOB Column into a LONG Buffer Using Piecewise Fetch with Callback

The following example illustrates selecting a LONG column into a LOB buffer when using a piecewise fetch with callback:

char buf[5000];
void callback_fetch()
{
  word outpos = 1;
  text *sqlstmt = (text *) "SELECT Ad_sourcetext FROM Print_media WHERE\
                  Product_id = 2004 AND Ad_id = 3";
  
  OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, sqlstmt, (ub4)strlen((char *)sqlstmt),
                 (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  OCIDefineByPos(stmthp, &dfnhp[0], errhp, (ub4) 1,
                 (dvoid *) 0, (sb4)3 * sizeof(buf), SQLT_CHR,
                 (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *)0,
                 (ub4) OCI_DYNAMIC_FETCH);
  
  OCIDefineDynamic(dfnhp[0], errhp, (dvoid *) &outpos,
                   (OCICallbackDefine) fetch_cbk);
 
  OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 1, (ub4) 0,
                 (const OCISnapshot*) 0, (OCISnapshot*) 0,
                 (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  buf[ 4999 ] = '\0';
  printf("Select callback: Last piece: %s\n", buf);
}
 
/* -------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Fetch callback to specify buffers. */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------- */
static sb4 fetch_cbk(dvoid *ctxp, OCIDefine *dfnhp, ub4 iter, dvoid **bufpp, 
                      ub4 **alenpp, ub1 *piecep, dvoid **indpp, ub2 **rcpp)
{
  static int a = 0;
  ub4 outpos = *((ub4 *)ctxp);
  ub4 len = 5000;
  switch(outpos)
  {
  case 1:
    a ++;
    *bufpp = (dvoid *) buf;
    *alenpp = &len;
    break;
  default:
    *bufpp = (dvoid *) 0;
    *alenpp = (ub4 *) 0;
    printf("ERROR: invalid position number: %d\n", outpos);
  }
  *indpp = (dvoid *) 0;
  *rcpp = (ub2 *) 0;
 
  buf[len] = '\0';
  if (a<=1)
  {
    *piecep = OCI_FIRST_PIECE;
    printf("Select callback: 0th piece\n");
  }
  else if (a<3)
  {
    *piecep = OCI_NEXT_PIECE;
    printf("Select callback: %d'th piece: %s\n", a-1, buf);
  }
  else {
    *piecep = OCI_LAST_PIECE;
    printf("Select callback: %d'th piece: %s\n", a-1, buf);
    a = 0;
  }
  return OCI_CONTINUE;
}

Selecting a LOB Column into a LONG Buffer Using an Array Fetch

The following example illustrates selecting a LOB column into a LONG buffer using an array fetch:

void array_fetch()
{
  word i;
  text arrbuf[5][5000];
  text *selstmt = (text *) "SELECT Ad_sourcetext FROM Print_media WHERE\
                  Product_id = 2004 AND Ad_id >=4";
 
  OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, selstmt, (ub4)strlen((char *)selstmt),
                 (ub4) OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 0, (ub4) 0,
                 (const OCISnapshot*) 0, (OCISnapshot*) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  OCIDefineByPos(stmthp, &defhp1, errhp, (ub4) 1,
                   (dvoid *) arrbuf[0], (sb4) sizeof(arrbuf[0]),
                   (ub2) SQLT_CHR, (dvoid *) 0,
                   (ub2 *) 0, (ub2 *) 0, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
 
  OCIDefineArrayOfStruct(dfnhp1, errhp, sizeof(arrbuf[0]), indsk,
                         rlsk, rcsk);
 
  retval = OCIStmtFetch(stmthp, errhp, (ub4) 5,
                        (ub4) OCI_FETCH_NEXT, (ub4) OCI_DEFAULT);
  if (retval == OCI_SUCCESS || retval == OCI_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO)
  {
     printf("%.5000s\n", arrbuf[0]);
     printf("%.5000s\n", arrbuf[1]);
     printf("%.5000s\n", arrbuf[2]);
     printf("%.5000s\n", arrbuf[3]);
     printf("%.5000s\n", arrbuf[4]);
  }
}

Using the Data Interface for Persistent LOBs in Java

You can also read and write CLOB and BLOB data using the same streaming mechanism as for LONG and LONG RAW data. To read, use defineColumnType(nn, Types.LONGVARCHAR) or defineColumnType(nn, Types.LONGVARBINARY) on the column. This produces a direct stream on the data as if it is a LONG or LONG RAW column. For input in a PreparedStatement, you may use setBinaryStream(), setCharacterStream(), or setAsciiStream() for a parameter which is a BLOB or CLOB. These methods use the stream interface to create a LOB in the database from the data in the stream. Both of these techniques reduce database round trips and may result in improved performance in some cases. See the Javadoc on stream data for the significant restrictions which apply, at http://www.oracle.com/technology/.

Refer to the following in the JDBC Developer's Guide and Reference:

See Also:

Using the Data Interface with Remote LOBs

The data interface for insert, update, and select of remote LOBs (access over a dblink) is supported since Oracle Database 10g Release 2. The examples in the following sections are for the print_media table created in two schemas: dbs1 and dbs2. The CLOB column of that table used in the examples shown is ad_finaltext. The examples to be given for PL/SQL, OCI, and Java use binds and defines for this one column, but multiple columns can also be accessed. Here is the functionality supported and its limitations:

See Also:

"Remote Data Interface Example in PL/SQL" and the sections following it.

Non-Supported Syntax

  • Queries involving more than one database are not supported:

    SELECT t1.lobcol, a2.lobcol FROM t1, t2.lobcol@dbs2 a2 WHERE 
    LENGTH(t1.lobcol) = LENGTH(a2.lobcol);
    

    Neither is this query (in a PL/SQL block):

    SELECT t1.lobcol INTO varchar_buf1 FROM t1@dbs1
    UNION ALL
    SELECT t2.lobcol INTO varchar_buf2 FROM t2@dbs2;
    
  • Only binds and defines for data going into remote persistent LOB columns are supported, so that parameter passing in PL/SQL where CHAR data is bound or defined for remote LOBs is not allowed because this could produce a remote temporary LOB, which are not supported. These statements all produce errors:

    SELECT foo() INTO varchar_buf FROM table1@dbs2; -- foo returns a LOB
    
    SELECT foo()@dbs INTO char_val FROM DUAL; -- foo returns a LOB
    
    SELECT XMLType().getclobval INTO varchar_buf FROM table1@dbs2;
    
  • If the remote object is a view such as

    CREATE VIEW v AS SELECT foo() a FROM ... ; -- foo returns a LOB
    /* The local database then tries to get the CLOB data and returns an error */
    SELECT a INTO varchar_buf FROM v@dbs2;
    

    This will return an error because it produces a remote temporary LOB, which is not supported.

  • RETURNING INTO does not support implicit conversions between CHAR and CLOB.

  • PL/SQL parameter passing is not allowed where the actual argument is a LOB type and the remote argument is a VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2, CHAR, NCHAR, or RAW.

Remote Data Interface Example in PL/SQL

The data interface only supports data of size less than 32KB in PL/SQL. The following snippet shows a PL/SQL example:

CONNECT pm
declare
  my_ad varchar(6000) := lpad('b', 6000, 'b');
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO print_media@dbs2(product_id, ad_id, ad_finaltext) 
       VALUES (10000, 10, my_ad);
  -- Reset the buffer value
  my_ad := 'a';
  SELECT ad_finaltext INTO my_ad FROM print_media@dbs2 
       WHERE product_id = 10000;
END;
/

If ad_finaltext were a BLOB column instead of a CLOB, my_ad has to be of type RAW. If the LOB is greater than 32KB - 1 in size, then PL/SQL will raise a truncation error and the contents of the buffer are undefined.

Remote Data Interface Example in OCI

The data interface only supports data of size less than 2 GBytes (the maximum value possible of a variable declared as sb4) for OCI. The following pseudocode can be enhanced to be a part of an OCI program:

...
text *sql = (text *)"insert into print_media@dbs2
                    (product_id, ad_id, ad_finaltext) 
                    values (:1, :2, :3)";
OCIStmtPrepare(...);
OCIBindByPos(...); /* Bind data for positions 1 and 2
                     * which are independent of LOB */
OCIBindByPos(stmthp, &bndhp[2], errhp, (ub4) 3, 
             (dvoid *) charbuf1, (sb4) len_charbuf1, SQLT_CHR, 
             (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *)0, 0, 0, OCI_DEFAULT);
OCIStmtExecute(...);

...

text *sql = (text *)"select ad_finaltext from print_media@dbs2
                    where product_id = 10000";
OCIStmtPrepare(...);
OCIDefineByPos(stmthp, &dfnhp[2], errhp, (ub4) 1, 
             (dvoid *) charbuf2, (sb4) len_charbuf2, SQLT_CHR, 
             (dvoid *) 0, (ub2 *)0, (ub2 *)0, OCI_DEFAULT);
OCIStmtExecute(...);
...

If ad_finaltext were a BLOB instead of a CLOB, then you bind and define using type SQLT_BIN. If the LOB is greater than 2GB - 1 in size, then OCI will raise a truncation error and the contents of the buffer are undefined.

Remote Data Interface Examples in JDBC

The following code snippets works with all three JDBC drivers (OCI, Thin, and kprb in the database):

Bind:

This is for the non-streaming mode:

...
String sql = "insert into print_media@dbs2 (product_id, ad_id, ad_final_text)" +
             " values (:1, :2, :3)";
    PreparedStatement pstmt = conn.prepareStatement(sql);
    pstmt.setInt( 1, 2 );
    pstmt.setInt( 2, 20);
    pstmt.setString( 3, "Java string" );
    int rows = pstmt.executeUpdate();
...

For the streaming mode, the same code as the preceding works, except that the setString() statement is replaced by one of the following:

pstmt.setCharacterStream( 3, new LabeledReader(), 1000000 );
pstmt.setAsciiStream( 3, new LabeledAsciiInputStream(), 1000000 );

Here, LabeledReader() and LabeledAsciiInputStream() produce character and ASCII streams respectively. If ad_finaltext were a BLOB column instead of a CLOB, then the preceding example works if the bind is of type RAW:

pstmt.setBytes( 3, <some byte[] array> );

pstmt.setBinaryStream( 3, new LabeledInputStream(), 1000000 );

Here, LabeledInputStream() produces a binary stream.

Define:

For non-streaming mode:

OracleStatement stmt = (OracleStatement)(conn.createStatement());
  stmt.defineColumnType( 1, Types.VARCHAR );
  ResultSet rst = stmt.executeQuery("select ad_finaltext from print_media@dbs2" );
  while( rst.next() )
     {
       String s = rst.getString( 1 );
       System.out.println( s );
     }

For streaming mode:

OracleStatement stmt = (OracleStatement)(conn.createStatement());
  stmt.defineColumnType( 1, Types.LONGVARCHAR );
  ResultSet rst = stmt.executeQuery("select ad_finaltext from print_media@dbs2" );
  while( rst.next() )
     {
       Reader reader = rst.getCharacterStream( 1 );
       while( reader.ready() )
       {
         System.out.print( (char)(reader.next()) );
       }
       System.out.println();
     }

If ad_finaltext were a BLOB column instead of a CLOB, then the preceding examples work if the define is of type LONGVARBINARY:

...
   OracleStatement stmt = (OracleStatement)conn.createStatement();
 
   stmt.defineColumnType( 1, Types.INTEGER );
   stmt.defineColumnType( 2, Types.LONGVARBINARY );
 
   ResultSet rset = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT ID, LOBCOL FROM LOBTAB@MYSELF");
 
   while(rset.next())
    {
     /* using getBytes() */
     /*
     byte[] b = rset.getBytes("LOBCOL");
     System.out.println("ID: " + rset.getInt("ID") + "  length: " + b.length);
     */
 
        /* using getBinaryStream() */
        InputStream byte_stream = rset.getBinaryStream("LOBCOL");
        byte [] b = new byte [100000];
        int b_len = byte_stream.read(b);
        System.out.println("ID: " + rset.getInt("ID") + "  length: " + b_len);
 
        byte_stream.close();
    }
...

See Also:

Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide and Reference, "Working with LOBs and BFILEs", section "Shortcuts for Inserting and Retrieving CLOB Data"