This chapter describes the Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) storage configuration tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI). This chapter includes information about the following tasks:
Complete the following steps to prepare shared disks for storage:
You must disable write caching on all disks that will be used to share data between the nodes in your cluster. Perform these steps to disable write caching:
Click Start, then click Settings, then Control Panel, then Administrative Tools, then Computer Management, then Device Manager, and then Disk drives.
Expand the Disk drives and double-click the first drive listed.
Under the Disk Properties tab for the selected drive, uncheck the option that enables the write cache.
For Windows 2000, select the option Optimize for quick removal on the Policies tab.
Double-click each of the other drives that will be used by Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC and disable write caching as described in the previous step.
Caution:Any disks that you use to store files, including database files, that will be shared between nodes, must have write caching disabled.
If you are using Windows 2003, then you must enable disk automounting, depending on the Oracle products that you are installing and on other conditions. You must enable automounting when using:
Raw, or unformatted, partitions for Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
Cluster file system for Oracle RAC
Unformatted partitions for single-node database installations
Logical drives for Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
To enable automounting:
Enter the following commands at a command prompt:
c:\> diskpart DISKPART> automount enable Automatic mounting of new volumes enabled.
exit to end the
Repeat steps 1 and 2 for each node in the cluster.
When you have prepared all of the cluster nodes in your Windows 2003 system as described in the previous steps, restart all of the nodes.
Note:All nodes in the cluster must have automatic mounting enabled in order to correctly install Oracle RAC and Oracle Clusterware. Oracle recommends that you enable automatic mounting before creating any logical partitions for use by the database, ASM, or the Oracle Cluster File System.
You must restart each node after enabling disk automounting. After it is enabled and the node is restarted, automatic mounting remains active until it is disabled.
This section describes supported options for storing Oracle Database software and database files. It includes the following sections:
There are four ways to store Oracle Database and recovery files on shared disks:
ASM (database files only): ASM is an integrated, high-performance database file system and disk manager for Oracle files. Because ASM requires an Oracle Database instance, it cannot contain Oracle software, but you can use ASM to manage database and recovery files. If you are using Oracle Standard Edition and Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC), then you must use ASM to store all the database files.
Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS): Note that if you intend to use OCFS for your database files, then you should create partitions large enough for the all the database and recovery files when you create partitions for use by Oracle Database.
Note:If you want to have a shared Oracle home directory for all nodes, then you must use OCFS.
Direct Network File Systems (NFS): You can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using an Oracle internal Direct NFS client.
Raw storage: If you choose to use raw storage instead of ASM or OCFS for storing data files, then you must manually manage the disk space with Microsoft Windows disk management tools or by tools provided by third party vendors. Also, you must create individual raw volumes or partitions for every shared database file that uses raw storage.
The storage option that you choose for recovery files can be the same as or different from the option that you choose for the database files. However, you cannot use raw storage to store recovery files.
For all installations, you must choose the storage options that you want to use for Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle Database files. If you want to enable automated backups during the installation, then you must also choose the storage option that you want to use for recovery files (the flash recovery area). You do not have to use the same storage option for each file type.
For single-instance Oracle Database installations using Oracle Clusterware for failover, you must use OCFS, ASM, or shared raw disks if you do not want the failover processing to include dismounting and remounting the disks containing your database files.
The following table shows the storage options supported for storing Oracle Clusterware files, Oracle Database files, and Oracle Database recovery files. Oracle Clusterware files include the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and the voting disk. Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file.
Note:For the most up-to-date information about supported storage options for Oracle RAC installations, refer to the Certify pages on the OracleMetaLink Web site:
|Storage Option||File Types Supported|
|Cluster file system (OCFS)||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Shared raw storage||Yes||Yes||No|
Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options that you want to use for each file type:
If you meet all of the requirements listed for the chosen storage options, then you can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file type.
Oracle recommends that you choose ASM as the storage option for database and recovery files.
For Standard Edition cluster installations, ASM is the only supported storage option for database or recovery files.
If you intend to use ASM with Oracle RAC, and you are configuring a new ASM instance, then you must ensure that your system meets the following conditions:
All nodes on the cluster have Oracle Clusterware release 1 (11.1) installed
Any existing ASM instance on any node in the cluster is shut down
If you intend to upgrade an existing Oracle RAC database, or an Oracle RAC database with ASM instances, then you must ensure that your system meets the following conditions:
The Oracle RAC database or Oracle RAC database with ASM instance is running on the node from which the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) and Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) is run
The Oracle RAC database or Oracle RAC database with ASM instance is running on the same nodes that you intend to make members of the new cluster installation. For example, if you have an existing Oracle RAC database running on a three node cluster, then you must install the upgrade on all three nodes. You cannot attempt to upgrade only 2 nodes of the cluster.
If you decide to place the Oracle data files on OCFS, then use the following guidelines when deciding where to place them:
If you want to use a single cluster file system, then choose a cluster file system on a physical device that is dedicated to the database.
For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume on more than one physical device and implement the stripe-and-mirror-everything methodology, also known as SAME.
If you want to use more than one cluster file system, then choose cluster file systems on separate physical devices or partitions that are dedicated to the database.
This method enables you to distribute physical I/O and create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also enables you to fully implement Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. To implement this method, you must choose either the Advanced database creation option or choose the Custom installation type during installation.
If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the cluster file system (or systems) that you choose must have at least 4 GB of free disk space.
For optimum performance, the cluster file systems that you choose should be on physical devices that are used only by the database.
Note:You must not create an NTFS partition on a disk that you are using for OCFS.
The default location suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory. However, this default location is not appropriate for Oracle RAC production databases.
You must choose a location for recovery files prior to installation only if you intend to enable automated backups during installation.
If you choose to place the Oracle recovery files on a cluster file system, then use the following guidelines when deciding where to place them:
To prevent disk failure from making the database files as well as the recovery files unavailable, place the recovery files on a cluster file system that is on a different physical disk from the database files.
Note:Alternatively use an ASM disk group with a normal or high redundancy level for either or both file types, or use external redundancy.
The cluster file system that you choose should have at least 3 GB of free disk space.
The disk space requirement is the default disk quota configured for the flash recovery area (specified by the
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE initialization parameter).
If you choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database configuration option, then you can specify a different disk quota value. After you create the database, you can also use Oracle Enterprise Manager to specify a different value.
See Also:Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Basics for more information about sizing the flash recovery area.
The default location suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the recovery area directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory. However, this default location is not appropriate for Oracle RAC production databases.
When you have determined your disk storage options, you must perform the following tasks in the following order:
To use a OCFS for database or recovery file storage, refer to "Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Shared File System" to create volumes or partitions with sizes sufficient to store Oracle Database files and binaries.
To use ASM for database or recovery file storage, refer to "Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management".
To use raw devices (partitions) for database file storage, refer to "Configuring Logical Volumes or Unformatted Partitions".
To use a network file system (NFS) for database file or recovery file storage, refer to "Configuring Direct NFS Storage for Data Files".
To use OCFS for your Oracle home and data files, at a minimum, the following partitions must exist before you run OUI to install Oracle Clusterware:
3 GB or larger partition for the Oracle home, if you want a shared Oracle home
3 GB or larger partition for the Oracle Database data files and recovery files
To use ASM for your database files, you only need to perform the actions related to creating partitions for the Oracle home and the Oracle Clusterware files.
Log in to Windows with Administrative privileges and perform the steps described in this section to set up the shared disk raw partitions for OCFS. Windows refers to raw partitions as logical drives. If you need more information about creating partitions, then refer to the Windows online help from within the disk administration tools.
Run Windows Disk Management from one node to create an extended partition. Use a basic disk: dynamic disks are not supported.
Create a partition for the Oracle Database data files and recovery files, and optionally create a second partition for the Oracle home.
The number of partitions used for OCFS affects performance. Therefore, you should create the minimum number of partitions needed for the OCFS option you choose.
Oracle supports installing the database into multiple Oracle Homes on a single system. This allows flexibility in deployment and maintenance of the database software. For example, it allows you to run different versions of the database simultaneously on the same system, or it allows you to upgrade specific database or Automatic Storage Management instances on a system without affecting other running databases.
However, when you have installed multiple Oracle Homes on a single system, there is also some added complexity introduced that you may need to take into account to allow these Oracle Homes to coexist. For more information on this topic, please see Note 460054.1 on OracleMetaLink.
To create the required partitions, perform the following steps:
From one of the existing nodes of the cluster, run the Windows disk administration tool as follows:
Click Start, then select Settings, Control Panel, Administrative Tools, and then Computer Management
Expand the Storage folder to Disk Management. Use a basic disk with a Master Boot Record (MBR) partition style as an extended partition for creating partitions.
Right click inside an unallocated part of an extended partition and choose Create Logical Drive. A wizard presents pages for configuring the logical drive. Select the select logical drive radio button and click Next.
Enter the size that you want for the partition and click Next.
If you are preparing drives on a Windows 2003 system, then you should restart all nodes in the cluster after you have created the logical drives.
Check all nodes in the cluster to ensure that the partitions are visible on all the nodes and to ensure that none of the Oracle partitions have drive letters assigned. If any partitions have drive letters assigned, then remove them by performing these steps:
Right-click the partition in the Windows disk administration tool
Select "Change Drive Letters and Paths..." from the menu
Click Remove in the "Change Drive Letter and Paths" window
This section describes how to configure disks for use with ASM. Before you configure the disks, you must determine the number of disks and the amount of free disk space that you require. The following sections describe how to identify the requirements and configure the disks for ASM:
Identify your site's storage requirements.
Optionally, use an existing ASM disk group.
If you are creating a new ASM disk group, then create partitions for DAS or SAN disks.
Use one of the following methods to complete the ASM configuration:
If you plan to install Oracle Database using interactive mode, then Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the ASM disk configuration information during the installation.
If you plan to install Oracle Database using noninteractive mode, then you must configure the disks manually before performing the installation.
To identify the storage requirements for using ASM, you must determine how many devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this task, follow these steps:
Determine whether you want to use ASM for Oracle data files, recovery files, or both.
Note:You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for data files and recovery files. One can use the file system, while the other uses ASM. If you plan to use ASM for both data files and recovery files, then you should create separate ASM disk groups for the data files and the recovery files.
If you plan to enable automated backups during the installation, then you can choose ASM as the storage mechanism for recovery files by specifying an ASM disk group for the flash recovery area. Depending how you choose to create a database during the installation, you have the following options:
If you select an installation method that runs DBCA in interactive mode (for example, by choosing the Advanced database configuration option), then you can decide whether you want to use the same ASM disk group for data files and recovery files. You can also choose to use different disk groups for each file type. Ideally, you should create separate ASM disk groups for data files and recovery files.
The same choice is available to you if you use DBCA after the installation to create a database.
If you select an installation type that runs DBCA in non-interactive mode, then you must use the same ASM disk group for data files and recovery files.
The redundancy level that you choose for the ASM disk group determines how ASM mirrors files in the disk group, and determines the number of disks and amount of disk space that you require. The redundancy levels are as follows:
An external redundancy disk group requires a minimum of one disk device. The effective disk space in an external redundancy disk group is the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
Because ASM does not mirror data in an external redundancy disk group, Oracle recommends that you use only RAID or similar devices that provide their own data protection mechanisms as disk devices in this type of disk group.
In a normal redundancy disk group, ASM uses two-way mirroring by default (except for the control file, which is mirrored three ways), to increase performance and reliability. A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two disk devices, or two failure groups. The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy disk groups.
In a high redundancy disk group, ASM uses three-way mirroring to increase performance and provide the highest level of reliability. A high redundancy disk group requires a minimum of three disk devices (or three failure groups). The effective disk space in a high redundancy disk group is one-third the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
While high redundancy disk groups do provide a high level of data protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices before deciding to use this redundancy level.
|Redundancy Level||Minimum Number of Disks||Data Files||Recovery FIles||Both File Types|
|External||1||1.15 GB||2.3 GB||3.45 GB|
|Normal||2||2.3 GB||4.6 GB||6.9 GB|
|High||3||3.45 GB||6.9 GB||10.35 GB|
If an ASM instance already exists on the system, then you can use an existing disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the installation. The next set of procedures describes how to identify existing disk groups and determine the free disk space that they contain.
Note:You need to complete this step only to use an installation method that runs DBCA in interactive mode. Do this if, for example, you choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database configuration option. Other installation types do not enable you to specify failure groups.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further protect your database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in a custom failure group. Failure groups define ASM disks that share a common potential failure mechanism. For more information about ASM failure groups, refer to Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide.
Note:If you define custom failure groups, you must specify a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Use the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
All of the devices in an ASM disk group should be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.
Do not specify two or more partitions on a single physical disk as ASM disks in the same disk group. ASM expects each device for a disk group to be on a separate physical disk.
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an ASM disk group, Oracle does not recommend their use. Logical volume managers can hide the physical disk architecture, preventing ASM from optimizing I/O across the physical devices.
Tip:As you progress through the following steps, make a list of the raw device names you intend to use and have it available during your database or ASM installation.
To use ASM as the storage option for either database or recovery files, and an existing ASM disk group already exists, you have the following options, depending on the installation method that you select:
If you select an installation method that runs DBCA in interactive mode (for example, by choosing the Advanced database configuration option for example), then you can decide whether you want to create a new disk group, or use an existing disk group.
The same choice is available to you if you use DBCA after the installation to create a database.
If you select an installation type that runs DBCA in non-interactive mode, then you must choose an existing disk group for the new database; you cannot create a new disk group. However, you can add disk devices to an existing disk group if the existing disk group has insufficient free space for your requirements.
Note:The ASM instance that manages the existing disk group can be running in a different Oracle home directory.
To determine whether an existing ASM disk group exists, or to determine whether there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager, either Grid Control or Database Control. Alternatively, you can use the following procedure:
In the Services Control Panel, make sure that the
n service, where
n is the node number, has started.
Open a Windows command prompt and temporarily set the
ORACLE_SID environment variable to specify the appropriate value for the ASM instance that you want to use.
For example, if the ASM SID is named
+ASM1, then enter a setting similar to the following:
C:\> set ORACLE_SID = +ASM1
Use SQL*Plus to connect to the ASM instance as the
SYS user with the
SYSASM privilege and start the instance if necessary with a command similar to the following:
C:\> sqlplus /nolog SQL> CONNECT SYS AS SYSASM Enter password: sys_password Connected to an idle instance. SQL> STARTUP
Enter the following command to view the existing disk groups, their redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each disk group:
SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and note the free space that it contains.
If necessary, install, or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the storage requirements listed in the previous section.
To use direct-attached storage (DAS) or storage area network (SAN) disks for ASM, each disk must have a partition table. Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk that encompasses the entire disk.
Note:You can use any physical disk for ASM, as long as it is partitioned. However, you cannot use network-attached storage (NAS) or Microsoft dynamic disks.
Use Microsoft Computer Management utility or the command line tool
diskpart to create the partitions. Ensure that you create the partitions without drive letters. After you have created the partitions, the disks can be configured.
See Also:"Assigning Logical Names" for more information about using
diskpartto create a partition
To use ASM with DAS or SAN devices, the disks must be stamped with a header. If you install Oracle Database in interactive mode, then Oracle Universal Installer configures the disks' headers during the installation process.
However, if you plan to install Oracle Database in noninteractive mode, then you need to configure the disks manually before installation either by using
asmtoolg (GUI version) or using
asmtool (command line version). You can also use these tools to reconfigure the disks after installation. The
asmtool utilities only work on partitioned disks; you cannot use ASM on unpartitioned disks.
The following section describes the
asmtool functions and commands.
asmtool tools associate meaningful, persistent names with disks to facilitate using those disks with ASM. ASM uses disk strings to operate more easily on groups of disks at once. The names that
asmtool create make this easier than using Windows drive letters.
All disk names created by
asmtool begin with the prefix
ORCLDISK followed by a user-defined prefix (the default is
DATA), and by a disk number for identification purposes. You can use them as raw devices in the ASM instance by specifying a name
prefix either can be
DATA, or can be a value you supply, and where
n represents the disk number.
To add or change disk stamps:
In the installation media labeled Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), navigate to
db\asmtool, and double-click
If Oracle Database is already installed, then navigate to
bin, and double-click
Select the Add or change label option, and then click Next.
asmtoolg shows the devices available on the system. Unrecognized disks are labeled as a "Candidate device." Unformatted partitions are labeled as "Oracle raw device file." Stamped ASM disks are labeled as "Stamped ASM disk," and unstamped ASM disks are labeled as "Unstamped ASM disks." The tool also shows disks that are recognized by Windows as a file system (such as NTFS). These disks are not available for use as ASM disks, and cannot be selected. In addition, Microsoft Dynamic disks are not available for use as ASM disks.
If necessary, follow the steps under "Creating Partitions for Logical Volumes" to create disk partitions for the ASM instance.
On the Stamp Disks screen, select the disks to stamp.
For ease of use, ASM can generate unique stamps for all of the devices selected for a given prefix. The stamps are generated by concatenating a number with the prefix specified. For example, if the prefix is
DATA, then the first ASM link name is
You can also specify the stamps of individual devices.
Optionally, select a disk to edit the individual stamp (ASM link name).
To delete disk stamps:
Select the Delete labels option, then click Next.
The delete option is only available if disks exist with stamps. The delete screen shows all stamped ASM disks.
On the Delete Stamps screen, select the disks to unstamp.
||Adds or changes stamps. You must specify the hard disk, partition, and new stamp name. If the disk is a raw device or has an existing ASM stamp, then you must specify the
If necessary, follow the steps under "Creating Partitions for Logical Volumes" to create disk partitions for the ASM instance.
asmtool -add [-force] \Device\Harddisk1\Partition1 ORCLDISKASM0 \Device\Harddisk2\Partition1 ORCLDISKASM2...
||Adds or changes stamps using a common prefix to generate stamps automatically. The stamps are generated by concatenating a number with the prefix specified. If the disk is a raw device or has an existing ASM stamp, then you must specify the
asmtool -addprefix ORCLDISKASM [-force] \Device\Harddisk1\Partition1 \Device\Harddisk2\Partition1...
||List available disks. The stamp, windows device name, and disk size in megabytes are shown. Some disks may be file systems, and cannot be stamped. If the disk is a raw device or has an existing ASM stamp, then you must specify the
asmtool -list [-force]
||Removes existing stamps from disks.||
asmtool -delete ORCLDISKASM0 ORCLDISKASM1...
asmtoolwill notify any ASM instances on the local machine and other nodes in the cluster if available, to rescan the available disks.
If you have an array of disks managed by a logical volume manager, or have decided to use unformatted devices to store data files, you need to prepare the disks for use by Oracle Database.
This section contains the following topics:
You must create the following logical volumes or partitions prior to installing Oracle Database.
|Number||Partition Size (MB)||Purpose and Sample Logical Volume Name|
|1||400 + (Number of instances * 250)||
This SYSAUX entry is for a two-node cluster.
|1 for each instance||500||
|2 for each instance||120||Two online redo log files (where m is the thread number and n is the log number, 1 or 2):
|2||110||First and second control files:
|1||5||Server parameter file (SPFILE):
To create and configure logical volumes or partitions, use the disk administration tools provided by the operating system or third party vendors. The following administration tools are provided by the operating system:
Disk Management snap-in to manage disks.
To access this tool, type
diskmgmt.msc at the command prompt. Alternatively, from the Start menu, select Programs, then Administrative Tools, then Computer Management. Then select the Disk Management node in the Storage tree.
Command line tool to manage disks.
To access this tool, type
diskpart.exe at the command prompt.
Note:If you need to download the
diskmgmt.msctool, consult Microsoft documentation on the Microsoft Web site
See Also:The online help or documentation for the administration tool you are using
You can use the
diskpart tool command
create partition to create primary or extended partitions, or create logical drives. The following example uses the
diskpart tool to create a 120 MB extended partition on disk 100. In this syntax,
diskpart.exe is the command line tool for managing disks.
c:\> diskpart.exe DISKPART> select disk 100 DISKPART> create partition extended size=120
Note:Be aware of the following restrictions for partitions:
You cannot use primary partitions for storing Oracle Clusterware files while running the OUI to install Oracle Clusterware as described in Chapter 5, "Installing Oracle Clusterware". You must create logical drives inside extended partitions for the disks to be used by Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle ASM.
With 32-bit Windows, you cannot create more than four primary disk partitions for each disk. One of the primary partitions can be an extend partition, which can then be subdivided into multiple logical partitions.
You can assign mount points only to primary partitions and logical drives.
You must create logical drives inside extended partitions for the disks to be used by Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle ASM.
Oracle recommends that you limit the number of partitions you create on a single disk to prevent disk contention. Therefore, you may prefer to use extended partitions rather than primary partitions.
For these reasons, you might prefer to use extended partitions for storing Oracle software files and not primary partitions.
After creating volumes, assign logical names for Oracle Database. You can assign names to partitions by using
importSYMLinks from the command line, or by using Oracle Object Link Manager. To use Oracle Object Link Manager to create persistent symbolic links to the corresponding raw partitions, run the command
Note:You must complete this procedure only if you are using raw devices for database files. You do not specify the raw devices for the Oracle Clusterware files in the DBCA raw device mapping file.
To enable DBCA to identify the appropriate raw partition symbolic links for each database file, you must create a raw device mapping file, as follows:
Set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you identified or created previously, as in this example:
C:\>set ORACLE_BASE = E:\oracle
Create a database subdirectory under the Oracle base directory as in this example:
dbname is the name of the database that you chose previously.
Change directory to the
Using any text editor, create a file called
conf.txt. The file should have the following characteristics:
Each line in the file must have the following format:
database_object_identifier = symbolic link name
For your Oracle RAC database, the file should specify all the shared files for the Oracle RAC database being created. You should have created logical volumes or disk partitions for each of these files, for example:
The data files for each tablespace
At least one automatic undo tablespace data file
The temporary tablespace tempfile
At least two redo log files (
_2) for each instance where
n is the instance number
The system parameter file (SPFILE)
The password file
At least two control files (
Note:In Windows, by default,
\represents the escape key. To enter a backslash as part of a script, you must enter it in as a string literal. This means that when configuring the mapping file, for Windows to read the mapping file with the path
\\.\, you must enter the path as
\\\\.\\. Windows reads this as "escape backslash escape backslash period escape backslash."
The following syntax example is for a mapping file for a two-instance Oracle RAC cluster:
system=\\\\.\\dbname_SYSTEM sysaux=\\\\.\\dbname_SYSAUX spfile=\\\\.\\dbname_SPFILE users=\\\\.\\dbname_USERS temp=\\\\.\\dbname_TEMP undotbs1=\\\\.\\dbname_UNDOTBS1 undotbs2=\\\\.\\dbname_UNDOTBS2 control1=\\\\.\\dbname_CONTROL1 control2=\\\\.\\dbname_CONTROL2 redo1_1=\\\\.\\dbname_REDO1_1 redo1_2=\\\\.\\dbname_REDO1_2 redo2_1=\\\\.\\dbname_REDO2_1 redo2_2=\\\\.\\dbname_REDO2_2 example=\\\\.\\dbname_EXAMPLE pwdfile=\\\\.\\dbname_pwdfile
Save the file and note the file name that you specified.
You may optionally set an environment variable,
DBCA_RAW_CONFIG, to specify the full path to this file. For the Oracle base defined in Step 1, you would use the following command:
This section contains the following information about Direct NFS:
With Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using an Oracle internal Direct NFS client. Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS to operate. To disable reserved port checking, consult your NFS file server documentation.
If you use Direct NFS, then you must create a new configuration file,
oranfstab, to specify the options/attributes/parameters that enable Oracle Database to use Direct NFS. You must add the
oranfstab file to the
For Oracle RAC installations, if you want to use Direct NFS, then you must replicate the
oranfstab file on all of the nodes. You must also keep all of the
oranfstab files synchronized on all nodes.
oranfstab file is placed in
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\dbs, the entries in the file are specific to a single database. All nodes running an Oracle RAC database should use the same
Direct NFS determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on the configuration information in
oranfstab. If Oracle Database is unable to open an NFS server using Direct NFS, then an error message is written into the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS could not be established.
The Oracle files on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS client can be accessed by way of a third party NFS client. The usual considerations for maintaining integrity of the Oracle files apply in this situation.
The database files accessed through Direct NFS Client should also be mounted using other means, such as CIFS or NFS. This ensures that the kernel input and output interface is able to access these files.
Direct NFS can use up to four network paths defined in the
oranfstab file for an NFS server. The Direct NFS client performs load balancing across all of the specified paths. If a specified path fails, then Direct NFS re-issues input and output commands over any remaining paths.
Note:You can have only one active Direct NFS implementation for each instance. Using Direct NFS on an instance prevents the use of another Direct NFS implementation.
Use the following views for Direct NFS management:
V$DNFS_SERVERS: Lists the servers that are accessed using Direct NFS.
V$DNFS_FILES: Lists the files that are currently open using Direct NFS.
V$DNFS_CHANNELS: Shows the open network paths, or channels, to servers for which Direct NFS is providing files.
V$DNFS_STATS: Lists performance statistics for Direct NFS.
To enable Direct NFS Clients, you must add an
oranfstab file to
oranfstab is placed in this directory, the entries in this file are specific to one particular database. The Direct NFS Client searches for the mount point entries as they appear in
oranfstab. Direct NFS uses the first matched entry as the mount point. Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS:
oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server that you want to access using Direct NFS:
SERVER: The NFS server name.
PATH: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP address, or by name, as displayed using the
EXPORT: The exported path from the NFS server. Use a UNIX-style path syntax.
MOUNT: The local mount point for the NFS server. Use a WINDOWS-style path syntax.
The following is an example of an
oranfstab file with two NFS server entries:
server: MyDataServer1 path: 18.104.22.168 path: 22.214.171.124 export: /vol/oradata1 mount: C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL server: MyDataServer2 path: NfsPath1 path: NfsPath2 path: NfsPath3 path: NfsPath4 export: /vol/oradata2 mount: C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL2 export: /vol/oradata3 mount: C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL3
Note:You can specify two optional parameters in
uid: The UNIX user ID to be used by Direct NFS
gid: The UNIX group ID to be used by Direct NFS
The Direct NFS Client uses the
gid value to access all NFS servers listed in
oranfstab. Direct NFS ignores a
gid value of
Note:The exported path from the NFS server must be accessible for
read/write/executeby the user with the
oranfstabor, if neither
gidis listed, by the user with the
Oracle Database uses an ODM library,
oranfsodm11.dll, to enable Direct NFS. To replace the standard ODM library,
oraodm11.dll, with the ODM NFS library,
oranfsodm11.dll, complete the following steps:
Change directory to
Enter the following commands:
copy oraodm11.dll oraodm11.dll.stub copy /Y oranfsodm11.dll oraodm11.dll
Use one of the following methods to disable the Direct NFS client:
Remove the oranfstab file.
Restore the stub
oraodm10.dll file by reversing the process you completed in .
Remove the specific NFS server or export paths in the
Direct NFS requires an NFS server supporting NFS read and write buffers of at least 16384 bytes. Direct NFS issues writes at
wtmax granularity to the NFS server. Direct NFS cannot serve an NFS server with a
wtmax of less than 16384. Oracle recommends that you use the value
Note:If you remove an NFS path from
oranfstabthat Oracle Database is using, then you must restart the database for the change to be effective. In addition, the mount point that you use for the file system must be identical on each node.
See Also:Your storage vendor documentation for additional information about NFS Buffer Size parameters
If you use OCFS or ASM for your database files, then your database will be created by default with files managed by Oracle Database. You may also elect to use files managed by Oracle if you choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database creation option. If you use this feature, you need only specify the database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting database files.
Configuration procedures are required in order to enable Oracle Managed Files.
See Also:"Using Oracle-Managed Files" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide