2 Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Real Application Clusters

This chapter describes the installation procedures for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) with Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). This chapter also describes some of the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) features. This chapter contains the following topics:

Note:

To install Oracle RAC on Windows Server 2008, use the Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1.0.7.0) for Microsoft Windows Server 2008 media.

2.1 Verifying System Readiness for Installing the Oracle Database with CVU

To verify that your system is prepared to install Oracle Database with Oracle RAC successfully, run Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) from the CRS_home\bin directory, using the following command syntax:

cluvfy.bat stage -pre dbinst -n node_list [-r 11gR1 ] [-verbose]

In the preceding syntax example:

  • The variable node_list is the list of nodes in your cluster, separated by commas

For example, to perform a pre-installation check for an Oracle Database with Oracle RAC installation on a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and node2, enter the following command:

cluvfy.bat stage -pre dbinst -n node1,node2 -verbose

Oracle recommends that you select the option -verbose to receive progress updates as CVU performs its system checks. The -verbose option provides detailed test reporting, which you can use to identify the cause of any checks that fail.

If the cluster verification check fails, then review and correct the relevant system configuration steps, and run the test again. Use the system configuration checks described in "Troubleshooting Installation Setup for Windows" to assist you.

2.1.1 Troubleshooting Installation Setup for Windows

If you run CVU and your system fails system configuration checks, then review the CVU report, and use the output to resolve failed configuration checks.

User Equivalence Check Failed
Cause: Failure to establish user equivalency across all nodes.
Action: From the node where you intend to run OUI, verify that you have administrative privileges on the other nodes. To do this, enter the following command for each node that is a part of the cluster:
net use \\node_name\C$

where node_name is the node name.

If you find a node where you are not able to log on, then you must correct the user information on that node. You must use the same user name and password that has local administrative privileges on each node in a cluster, or use a domain user name. If you use a domain user name, then log on under a domain user that has administrative privileges on each node.

When you have corrected the path configuration information on the node, run the CVU check again.

Node Reachability Check Failed
Cause: Failure of one or more nodes to be properly connected for communication.
Action: Possible causes of this message include the following:
  • Improper network configuration

  • The node running CVU is unable to connect to one or more nodes in the cluster

Use the following command to check your current configuration on each node:

ipconfig /all 
Node Connectivity Check Failed
Cause: One or more of the cluster nodes is not able to be connected from all nodes in the cluster
Action: Check for firewalls preventing the nodes from communicating on their private network interfaces.
System Requirements Check Failed
Cause: insufficient system resources, missing software packages, or other operating system or hardware problem.
Action: If you did not run the CVU command with the -verbose flag, then run the command again using -verbose, and review the report to determine which system requirement failed. Correct the problem.

2.2 Oracle Database Configuration Type Descriptions

When you run OUI, you can select the General Purpose, Transaction Processing, Data Warehouse, or Advanced database configuration type.

For the first three configuration types, you can complete additional procedures that are described later in this chapter. If you select Advanced configuration, then you can use Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create the database as described in Chapter 3, "Creating Oracle RAC Databases with the Database Configuration Assistant". Oracle recommends that you use DBCA to create your database.

2.2.1 General Purpose, Transaction Processing, and Data Warehouse Configuration Types

The General Purpose, Transaction Processing, and Data Warehouse configuration types use preconfigured database templates.

During installation, if you select one of the preconfigured database templates, then OUI starts Oracle Network Configuration Assistant (NETCA) and DBCA, and installs the preconfigured database without further input. During database installation, OUI displays a progress indicator.

DBCA processing for these three configuration types creates a starter database, and configures the Oracle network services. If you choose raw devices on the Specify Database File Storage Option page, then DBCA verifies that you configured the raw devices for each tablespace.

If you select Advanced configuration, then you must enter specific information as described in the next section.

2.2.2 Using the Advanced Configuration Type

If you select the Advanced configuration type, then OUI runs DBCA, which displays General Purpose, Transaction Processing, Data Warehouse, and a fourth configuration type, Custom Database.

Use the Advanced Configuration type to address specific requirements, such as creating a database in a nondefault character set, or adding translation of product user interface into languages other than English. By default, the installation configures the character set of a new database based on the language of the operating system.

See Also:

Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for detailed information on character sets and language configuration

The first three templates are customizable versions of the preconfigured database types. The Custom Database type creates a database without using preconfigured options.

The following section provides more detail about OUI and DBCA processing when creating an Oracle RAC database.

See Also:

Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform for information about configuring globalization

2.3 Oracle Configuration Manager Option

During installation, you are prompted to provide information needed to enable Oracle Configuration Manager. This option enables you to associate information about your Oracle RAC configuration with your My Oracle Support account. In the event that you need to place a service request with Oracle Support, that configuration information can help to provide a more rapid resolution to the service issue.

You can enable Oracle Configuration Manager during or after installation, or choose not to enable it. To enable it during installation, you must have the following information available:

  • Customer Support Identification Number (CSI) that identifies your organization

  • My Oracle Support user account name

  • Country code associated with your service agreement

Refer to My Oracle Support (https://metalink.oracle.com) if you encounter registration failures and are uncertain that the correct country code has been specified. You can find the country associated with your My Oracle Support account in the Profile section under the Licenses link.

See Also:

Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration Guide for further information

2.4 Actions of OUI, DBCA, and Other Assistants During Installation

After installation, OUI starts the Network Configuration Assistant (NETCA). After NETCA completes its processing, OUI runs DBCA to create your database, in accordance with Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. An installation created following OFA guidelines means that DBCA creates your database files, including the default server parameter file (SPFILE), using standard file naming and file placement practices.

The primary phases of DBCA processing are the following:

  • Create the database.

  • Configure the Oracle network services, if necessary.

  • Start the listeners and database instances.

You can also use DBCA in standalone mode to create or delete a database or ASM installation, or to switch database management from Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control.

Note that with Oracle Database release 11.1, service management is no longer performed for Oracle RAC databases. Use Oracle Enterprise Manager DB Control or Grid Control for all administration and monitoring of services.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide if you experience problems (for example, with the listener configuration), and for further information about Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) support

In Oracle Database 10g and later releases, some database language and territory definition files have been updated to better reflect locale conventions used in associated locales.

If the resulting changes in default NLS parameter values render your existing applications inoperative, then you can revert the changes by installing Oracle9i compatibility definition files. To install Oracle9i files in place of Oracle11g files, you must run OUI from a command line, as described in "Installation of Oracle RAC Using Oracle Universal Installer", and use the following statement to set the b_cr9idata variable to true:

runInstaller oracle.rsf.nlsrtl_rsf:b_cr9idata=true

See Also:

Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for additional information about updates to the Oracle Database language and territory definition files

2.5 Database Security Options

During installation, you are prompted to select database security configuration.The Secure Configuration option configures the database with database auditing options, and password policy and expiration settings.

For new database installations, the default configuration for Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) includes the Secure Configuration option. If you want to disable these enhanced security controls, then you can check the Disable security settings check box. Oracle Database is then installed with default options for Oracle Database 10g Release 2. After installation, you can change security settings by starting DBCA and modifying security settings. You can enable or disable auditing or password security settings, or revert to a previous security setting.

For database upgrades, the upgraded database retains your existing database security configuration, to ensure compatibility with existing applications. After installation, you can use DBCA to enable or disable the Secure Configuration auditing or password security settings for testing.

Note:

Oracle strongly recommends configuring your database with the Secure Configuration option either during installation, or after installation using DBCA.

2.6 Installation of Oracle RAC Using Oracle Universal Installer

Perform the following procedures to install Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) software with Oracle RAC.

  1. Start the setup.exe command from the base directory of the Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) media, choose Oracle Database 11g, then click Next.

  2. Provide information when prompted by OUI. If you need assistance during installation, click Help. If you encounter problems during installation, examine the OUI actions recorded in the installation log file. The log file is located in the Oracle Inventory directory with a name that includes the timestamp (date_time) of the install process, as shown in this example:

    C:\Program Files\Oracle\Inventory\logs\installActionsdate_time.log 
    

    In the preceding syntax example, the variables date and time represents the date and the time of the log file.

    Note:

    The Oracle home name and path that you provide during database installation must be different from the home that you used during Oracle Clusterware installation. Do not install Oracle Database 11g with RAC software into the same home in which you installed Oracle Clusterware software.

    The following is a list of additional information to note about installation:

    • If you select Automatic Storage Management (ASM) during installation, then the default partitions for ASM disk partition locations from which you must select ASM disks are marked as follows:

      \\.\orcldisk*
      

      If you are installing Oracle RAC from the Standard Edition, then you must use ASM for your database storage.

      Note:

      The only partitions that OUI displays for Windows systems are logical drives that are on drives that do not contain a primary partition, and have been stamped with asmtool. To stamp drives in Windows Server 2008 environments, run asmtoolg from an Administrative command prompt.

When have completed all steps for the second and final phase of the installation, proceed to Chapter 4, "Oracle Real Application Clusters Post-Installation Procedures" to perform the post-installation tasks.

2.7 Installation on Windows-Based Systems with the Minimum Memory Requirements

Installations of Oracle RAC on nodes in Windows-based systems with 512 MB of RAM and 500 MB of virtual memory have the following limitations:

  • 1 GB of RAM is recommended and 512 MB is the minimum allowable amount of RAM

  • Depending on how many applications are running on the computer, you may need to further increase the paging file size or reduce the size of the System Global Area (SGA) if you run out of virtual memory. Note that if temporary files and the paging file are both stored on the same physical drive, then a situation can occur where the space requirements for one can limit the size of another. If your system has limited free space, then first install the Oracle Database software. After the installation is finished, run NETCA to configure listeners and then DBCA to create a database.

On computer systems that barely meet the minimum memory and virtual memory requirements, 512 MB and 500 MB respectively, do not install the database. Instead, follow these guidelines:

  • Select Enterprise Edition Installation and deselect "Do not create a starter database"

  • Select Custom Installation, select "Do not create a starter database" from the Select Database Configuration page.

  • Select Advanced Installation, select the Custom installation type from the Select Installation Type page, and select No on the Create Database page when prompted to create the database.

  • Cancel DBCA from the Configuration Assistants page.

After installation, run the appropriate configuration assistant for your needs:

  • To create a new database, run DBCA from the Start Menu. Choose Start, then Programs, then Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Configuration and Migration Tools, and then Database Configuration Assistant.

  • To upgrade an existing database, run DBUA from the Start Menu. Choose Start, then Programs, then Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Configuration and Migration Tools, and then Database Upgrade Configuration Assistant.

To ensure that all nodes in your cluster use the new Oracle home, ensure that the path name for the new Oracle home is defined on each node in the cluster by completing the following procedure:

  1. On each node, navigate to Start, then to Control Panel, then to System, then to Advanced and then to Environment Variables

  2. In the "System variables" dialog, select the Path variable and ensure that the value for the Path variable contains oracle_home\bin, where oracle_home is your new Oracle home. If the variable does not contain this value, then click Edit and add this value to the start of the path variable definition in the Edit System Variable dialog and click OK.

  3. Click OK in the Environment Variables page, then click OK in the System Properties page, and then close the Control Panel.

2.8 Deinstalling Oracle Real Application Clusters Software

If you need to de-install Real Application Cluster software, then you must run OUI to de-install the software on the same node from which you performed the installation, and you must de-install Oracle database software first before de-installing Oracle Clusterware software. Perform the following procedures to deinstall Oracle Database 11g RAC and Oracle Clusterware software, as described in the following sections:

  • Deinstalling Oracle Database with Oracle RAC Software

  • Deinstalling Automatic Storage Management

    Note:

    These sections describe a complete de-installation of the Oracle RAC, ASM, and Oracle Clusterware software where Oracle RAC and ASM share the Oracle home and no other Oracle home exists.

    If you have multiple Oracle homes on your cluster, then check for any dependencies that might affect your other databases. Dependencies can include listeners, ASM instances, and so on, that run in the Oracle home that you want to delete. You can identify dependencies by using the Windows Services panel.

    Note:

    For Windows Server 2008, you must have administrator privileges and you must run commands from an Administrative command prompt to run executables that reside in the Oracle Clusterware home.

    See Also:

    Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more information about using Oracle RAC scalability features of adding and deleting nodes and instances from Oracle RAC databases, and for information about viewing OCR content

2.8.1 Deinstalling Oracle Database with Oracle RAC Software

This section describes the procedure to deinstall Oracle Database 11g RAC software. Before you perform these steps, Oracle recommends that you make a backup of any databases that run from the Oracle home you are about to delete. You should then stop any instances and processes on all nodes, including services, that depend on the software that you are de-installing.

Note:

For Windows Server 2008, you must have administrator privileges and you must run commands from an Administrative command prompt to run executables that reside in the Oracle Clusterware home.
  1. Drop all of the databases that are dependent on the Oracle home that you are deleting by using DBCA "Delete a database" option and selecting the correct database or databases to be dropped.

  2. If an ASM instance runs in the Oracle home, then ensure that there are no other database dependencies on the ASM instance. Then remove the ASM configuration by logging on as an Administrative user and completing the following steps:

    1. Connect to the ASM instance and run the following command to identify any database instances that are using this ASM instance:

      SQL> select INSTANCE_NAME from GV$ASM_CLIENT;
      

      Note:

      This command only lists database instances that are running. It is possible that other instances are associated with the ASM instance, but they are not currently running. If you removed a database from this Oracle home but the output from the command shows that this ASM instance is supporting a database instance in another Oracle home, then do not remove the ASM instance or the Oracle home.
    2. For each instance listed in the output of the statement you ran in Step a, stop the respective databases.

    3. Oracle recommends that you back up the database files for all of the databases that are currently using this ASM instance.

    4. Using your connection to the ASM instance, run the following command:

      SQL> select * from V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
      
    5. For each diskgroup listed in the output of the statement you ran in Step d, run the following command:

      SQL> drop diskgroup diskgroup_name including contents;
      

      where diskgroup_name is the name of the diskgroup.

    6. Shut down ASM on all Oracle RAC nodes, and verify that all ASM instances are stopped.

    7. To remove the ASM entry from the OCR, run the following command for all nodes on which this Oracle home exists:

      srvctl remove asm -n nodename
      

      where nodename is the name of a node from which you want to remove the ASM instance.

    8. Run the following command on each node that has an ASM instance where node_number is the node identifier:

      oradim -delete -asmsid +ASMnode_number 
      
    9. If you are using a shared cluster file system for your Oracle home, then run the following commands on the local node:

      delete %ORACLE_HOME%\database\*ASM*
      delete %ORACLE_BASE%\admin\+ASM
      

      You may need to remove subordinate files or directories before these commands complete successfully.

    10. If you are not using a shared cluster file system for your Oracle home, then run the commands from the previous step, Step i, on each node on which the Oracle home exists.

    11. Stop any other processes running in this Oracle home:

      Stop Oracle Ultra Search: %ORACLE_HOME%\bin\searchctl stop
      
  3. If the listener runs from this Oracle home, then use NETCA to remove the listener and its configuration.

  4. Start OUI using the following command:

    %ORACLE_HOME%\oui\bin\setup.exe
    

    In the Welcome page, click Deinstall Products. The Inventory screen appears, listing all of the Oracle homes on the system. In the Inventory screen, select the Oracle home and the products that you want to remove, then click Remove.

    Note:

    Always use OUI to remove Oracle software. Do not delete any Oracle home directories without first using OUI to remove the software. In addition, you cannot perform an Oracle RAC installation from the same OUI session in which you perform a de-installation of Oracle RAC. In other words, if you de-install Oracle RAC with OUI and want to perform another Oracle RAC installation, then you must start a new OUI session.

2.8.2 Deinstalling Automatic Storage Management

To remove the Automatic Storage Management (ASM) instances, complete the following tasks:

  1. There is one listener for each node that Oracle Clusterware manages, and that is started and stopped with nodeapps. It is named nodename_LISTENER, and it is located in the Oracle home. Use NetCA to remove this listener and its Oracle Clusterware resources. If necessary, re-create this listener in another Oracle home.

  2. If this is the Oracle home from which the ASM instance runs, then enter the following commands to remove the ASM configuration:

    srvctl stop asm -n node
    srvctl remove asm -n node
    
  3. If you are not using a cluster file system for your ASM Oracle home, then run the Server Control stop and remove commands listed in the previous step on each node on which the Oracle home exists.

  4. If you are using a shared cluster file system for your ASM Oracle home, then run the following commands on the local node:

    delete %ORACLE_HOME%\database\*ASM*
    delete %ORACLE_BASE%\admin\+ASM
    

    You may need to remove subordinate files or directories before these commands complete successfully.

  5. If you are not using a shared cluster file system for your ASM Oracle home, then run the commands from the previous step, step 4, on each node on which the Oracle home exists.

  6. Run the following command on each node:

    %ORACLE_HOME%\bin\oradim.exe -delete -asmsid +ASMnode_number
    

    where node_number is the node identifier.