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Oracle® Clusterware Installation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1) for Solaris Operating System

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2 Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes the system configuration tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Clusterware.

This chapter contains the following topics:

2.1 Reviewing Upgrade Best Practices

If you have an existing Oracle installation, then document version numbers, patches, and other configuration information, and review upgrade procedures for your existing installation. Review Oracle upgrade documentation before proceeding with installation, to decide how you want to proceed.

For late-breaking updates and best practices about preupgrade, post-upgrade, compatibility, and interoperability discussions, refer to "Oracle Upgrade Companion." "Oracle Upgrade Companion" is available through Note 466181.1 on OracleMetaLink:

https://metalink.oracle.com

2.2 Logging In to a Remote System as root Using X Terminal

Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root user on the system where you install Oracle software. To complete tasks as the root user on a remote server, you must enable remote display as root.

Note:

If you log in as another user (for example, oracle), then you must repeat this procedure for that user as well.

To enable remote display, complete one of the following procedures:

2.3 Overview of Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware Installations

You must create the following group and user to install Oracle Clusterware:

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for UNIX Systems and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about the OSDBA and OSOPER groups and the SYSDBA, SYSASM and SYSOPER privileges

2.4 Creating Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware

Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle Inventory group and a software owner for Oracle Clusterware:

2.4.1 Understanding the Oracle Inventory Group

You must have a group whose members are given access to write to the Oracle Central Inventory (oraInventory). The Central Inventory contains the following:

  • A registry of the Oracle home directories (Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Database, and Automatic Storage Management) on the system

  • Installation logs and trace files from installations of Oracle software. These files are also copied to the respective Oracle homes for future reference.

Other metadata inventory information regarding Oracle installations are stored in the individual Oracle home inventory directories, and are separate from the Central Inventory.

2.4.2 Understanding the Oracle Inventory Directory

The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer checks to see if you have created an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) compliant path in the format u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app, and that the user running the installation has permissions to write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:

/u01/app/oraInventory

If you have set the environment variable $ORACLE_BASE for the user performing the Oracle Clusterware installation, then OUI creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path $ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if $ORACLE_BASE is set to /opt/oracle/11, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path /opt/oracle/oraInventory.

If you have created neither an OFA-compliant path nor set $ORACLE_BASE, then the Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is performing the installation. For example:

/home/oracle/oraInventory

As this placement can cause permission errors during subsequent installations with multiple Oracle software owners, Oracle recommends that you either create an OFA-compliant installation path, or set an $ORACLE_BASE environment path.

For new installations, Oracle recommends that you allow OUI to create the Central Inventory directory. By default, if you create an Oracle path in compliance with OFA structure, such as /u01/app, that is owned by an Oracle software owner, then the Central Inventory is created in the path u01/app/oraInventory using correct permissions to allow all Oracle installation owners to write to this directory.

2.4.3 Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists

When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, OUI creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (typically, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Central Inventory directory. An oraInst.loc file has contents similar to the following:

inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group

In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle Central Inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to write to the central inventory.

If you have an existing Oracle Inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.

To determine if you have an Oracle Inventory on your system:

# more /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc

If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

inventory_loc=/u01/app/oracle/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall

In the previous output example:

  • The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory

  • The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in this example, oinstall).

2.4.4 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist

If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by entering a command similar to the following:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 501 oinstall

The preceding command creates the group oinstall, with the group ID number 501.

2.4.5 Creating the Oracle Clusterware User

You must create a software owner for Oracle Clusterware in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle software on the system

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, such as crs, with different group membership, to give separate clusterware and database administrative privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database installation.

    In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle Clusterware software installations is called the crs user. A user created to own either all Oracle installations, or only Oracle database installations, is called the oracle user.

Note:

If you intend to use multiple Oracle software owners for different Oracle Database homes, then Oracle recommends that you create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle Clusterware, and install Oracle Clusterware using the Oracle Clusterware software owner.

If you want to create separate Oracle software owners (oracle, crs, asm) to create separate users and separate operating system privileges groups for different Oracle software installations, then note that each of these users must have the oinstall group as their primary group, and each user must share the same Oracle Central Inventory (oraInventory), to prevent corruption of the Central Inventory. Refer to "Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles".

2.4.5.1 Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle or crs exists, enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):

# id oracle

If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)

Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user.

If you want to use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall).

2.4.5.2 Creating or Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User for Oracle Clusterware

If the Oracle software owner (oracle, crs) user does not exist, or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it. The following procedure uses crs as the name of the Oracle software owner.

  1. To create a user, enter a command similar to the following:

    # /usr/sbin/useradd -u 501 -g oinstall crs
    

    In the preceding command:

    • The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user ID number. However, you must make note of the user ID number of the user you create for Oracle Clusterware, as you require it later during preinstallation.

    • The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group. For example: oinstall.

    Use the usermod command to change user id numbers and groups. For example:

    # id oracle
    uid=500(oracle) gid=500(oracle) groups=500(oracle)
    # /usr/sbin/usermod -u 500 -g 501 -G 500,502 oracle
    # id oracle
    uid=500(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=501(oinstall),500(oracle),502(dba)
    
  2. Set the password of the user that will own Oracle Clusterware. For example:

    # passwd crs
    
  3. Repeat this procedure on all of the other nodes in the cluster.

2.4.6 Example of Creating the Oracle Clusterware User and OraInventory Path

The following is an example of how to create the Oracle Clusterware software owner (in this case, crs), and a path compliant with OFA structure with correct permissions for the oraInventory directory. This example also shows how to create separate Oracle Database and Oracle ASM homes with correct ownership and permissions:

# mkdir -p  /u01/app/crs
# chown -R crs:oinstall /u01/app
# mkdir  /u01/app/oracle
# chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod 775 /u01/app/
# mkdir  /u01/app/asm
# chown asm:oinstall /u01/app/asm

At the end of this procedure, you will have the following:

  • /u01 owned by root.

  • /u01/app owned by crs:oinstall with 775 permissions. This ownership and permissions enables OUI to create the oraInventory directory, in the path /u01/app/oraInventory.

  • /u01/app/crs owned by crs:oinstall with 775 permissions. These permissions are required for installation, and are changed during the installation process.

  • /u01/app/oracle owned by oracle:oinstall with 775 permissions.

  • /u01/app/asm owned by asm:oinstall with 775 permissions.

2.5 Checking the Hardware Requirements

Each system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

To ensure that each system meets these requirements:

  1. To determine the physical RAM size, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/prtconf | grep "Memory size"
    

    If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

  2. To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/swap -s
    

    If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

  3. To determine the amount of disk space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    # df -k /tmp
    

    If there is less than 400 MB of disk space available in the /tmp directory, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TEMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment (described later).

    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact your system administrator for information about extending file systems.

  4. To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following command:

    # df -k /tmp
    

    The following table shows the approximate disk space requirements for software files for each installation type:

    Installation Type Requirement for Software Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 4
    Standard Edition 4
    Custom (maximum) 4

  5. To determine if the system architecture can run the Oracle software, enter the following command:

    # /bin/isainfo -kv
    

    Note:

    The following is the expected output of this command:

    64-bit SPARC installation:

    64-bit sparcv9 kernel modules

    Ensure that the Oracle software you have is the correct Oracle software for your processor type.

    If the output of this command indicates that your system architecture does not match the system for which the Oracle software you have is written, then you cannot install the software. Obtain the correct software for your system architecture before proceeding further.

2.6 Checking the Network Requirements

Review the following sections to check that you have the networking hardware and internet protocol (IP) addresses required for an Oracle Real Application Clusters installation:

Note:

For the most up-to-date information about supported network protocols and hardware for Oracle RAC installations, refer to the Certify pages on the OracleMetaLink Web site at the following URL:
https://metalink.oracle.com

2.6.1 Network Hardware Requirements

The following is a list of requirements for network configuration:

  • Each node must have at least two network adapters or network interface cards (NICs): one for the public network interface, and one for the private network interface (the interconnect).

    If you want to use more than one NIC for the public network or for the private network, then Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding, or "link aggregation," IPMP.

  • The public interface names associated with the network adapters for each network must be the same on all nodes, and the private interface names associated with the network adaptors should be the same on all nodes.

    For example: With a two-node cluster, you cannot configure network adapters on node1 with eth0 as the public interface, but on node2 have eth1 as the public interface. Public interface names must be the same, so you must configure eth0 as public on both nodes. You should configure the private interfaces on the same network adapters as well. If eth1 is the private interface for node1, then eth1 should be the private interface for node2.

  • For the public network, each network adapter must support TCP/IP.

  • For the private network, the interconnect must support the user datagram protocol (UDP) using high-speed network adapters and switches that support TCP/IP (Gigabit Ethernet or better recommended).

    Note:

    UDP is the default interconnect protocol for Oracle RAC, and TCP is the interconnect protocol for Oracle Clusterware. Oracle recommends that you use a dedicated switch for the interconnect.

    Oracle does not support token-rings or crossover cables for the interconnect.

  • For the private network, the endpoints of all designated interconnect interfaces must be completely reachable on the network. There should be no node that is not connected to every private network interface. You can test whether an interconnect interface is reachable using a ping command.

2.6.2 IP Address Requirements

Before starting the installation, you must have the following IP addresses available for each node:

  • An IP address with an associated host name (or network name) registered in the DNS for the public interface. If you do not have an available DNS, then record the host name and IP address in the system hosts file, /etc/hosts.

  • One virtual IP (VIP) address with an associated host name registered in a DNS. If you do not have an available DNS, then record the host name and VIP address in the system hosts file, /etc/hosts. Select an address for your VIP that meets the following requirements:

    • The IP address and host name are currently unused (it can be registered in a DNS, but should not be accessible by a ping command)

    • The VIP is on the same subnet as your public interface

  • A private IP address with a host name for each private interface

    Oracle recommends that you use private network IP addresses for these interfaces (for example: 10.*.*.* or 192.168.*.*).

    In addition:

    • Using Oracle Clusterware only or Sun Cluster 3.1 older than 10/03: Use the /etc/hosts file on each node to associate private network names with private IP addresses. If you use the /etc/hosts file for private network names, then the private IP address must be available in each node's /etc/hosts file.

    • Using Sun Cluster 3.1 or later: Do not enter the private interconnect in the /etc/hosts file, but instead use clusternodeX-priv to indicate the private interconnect for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC.

    For the private interconnects, because of Cache Fusion and other traffic between nodes, Oracle strongly recommends using a physically separate, private network. You should ensure that the private IP addresses are reachable only by the cluster member nodes. After installation, if you define multiple RAC private interfaces by using the Oracle Interface Configuration (oifcfg) tool, or by or using the CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS parameter, then all of the interconnects you define must be available, or Oracle RAC instances will fail or fail to start.

    During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network interface that OUI detects on your cluster node. You must identify each interface as a public or private interface, and you must use the same private interfaces for both Oracle RAC and Oracle Clusterware.

    You can bond separate interfaces to a common interface to provide redundancy, in case of a NIC failure, but Oracle recommends that you do not create separate interfaces for Oracle RAC and Oracle Clusterware. If you use more than one NIC for the private interconnect, then Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding. Note that multiple private interfaces provide load balancing but not failover, unless bonded.

    For example, if you intend to use the interfaces eth2 and eth3 as interconnects, then before installation, you must configure eth2 and eth3 with the private interconnect addresses. If the private interconnect addresses are 10.10.1.1 for eth2 and 10.10.2.1 for eth3, then bond eth2 and eth3 to an interface, such as bond0, using a separate subnet such as 10.10.222.0. During installation, define the Oracle Clusterware private node names on 10.10.222.0, and then use the oifcfg tool to define 10.10.222.0 (and only that one) as a private interconnect. This ensures that Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC are using the same network.

    After installation, if you modify interconnects with the CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS initialization parameter, then you must change it to a private IP address, on a subnet that is not used with a public IP address, nor marked as a public subnet by oifcfg. Oracle does not support changing the interconnect to an interface using a subnet that you have designated as a public subnet.

    See Also:

    Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for further information about setting up and using bonded multiple interfaces.

    You should not use a firewall on the network with the private network IP addresses, as this can block interconnect traffic.

Before installation, check that the default gateway can be accessed by a ping command. To find the default gateway, use the route command, as described in your operating system's help utility. After installation, configure clients to use either the VIP address, or the host name associated with the VIP. If a node fails, then the node's virtual IP address fails over to another node.

For example, with a two node cluster where each node has one public and one private interface, you might have the configuration shown in the following table for your network interfaces, where the hosts file is /etc/hosts:

Node Host Name Type IP Address Registered In
rac1 rac1 Public 143.46.43.100 DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
rac1 rac1-vip Virtual 143.46.43.104 DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
rac1 rac1-priv Private 10.0.0.1 Hosts file
rac2 rac2 Public 143.46.43.101 DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
rac2 rac2-vip Virtual 143.46.43.105 DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
rac2 rac2-priv Private 10.0.0.2 Hosts file

To enable VIP failover, the configuration shown in the preceding table defines the public and VIP addresses of both nodes on the same subnet, 143.46.43. When a node or interconnect fails, then the associated VIP is relocated to the surviving node, enabling fast notification of the failure to the clients connecting through that VIP. If the application and client are configured with transparent application failover options, then the client is reconnected to the surviving node.

Note:

All host names must conform to the RFC 952 standard, which permits alphanumeric characters. Host names using underscores ("_") are not allowed.

2.6.3 Node Time Requirements

Before starting the installation, ensure that each member node of the cluster is set as closely as possible to the same date and time. Oracle strongly recommends using the Network Time Protocol feature of most operating systems for this purpose, with all nodes using the same reference Network Time Protocol server.

2.6.4 Network Configuration Options

The precise configuration you choose for your network depends on the size and use of the cluster you want to configure, and the level of availability you require.

If storage for Oracle RAC is provided by Ethernet-based networks, such as network-attached storage (NAS), network file storage (NFS), or iSCSI, then you must have a third network interface for I/O. Failing to provide three separate interfaces in this case can cause performance and stability problems under load.

For high capacity clusters with a small number of multiprocessor servers, to ensure high availability, you may want to configure redundant network interfaces to prevent a NIC failure from reducing significantly the overall cluster capacity. If you are using network storage, and want to provide redundant network interfaces, then Oracle recommends that you provide six network interfaces: two for the public network interface, two for the private network interface, and two for the network storage.

2.6.5 Configuring the Network Requirements

To verify that each node meets the requirements, follow these steps:

  1. If necessary, install the network adapters for the public and private networks and configure them with either public or private IP addresses.

  2. Register the host names and IP addresses for the public network interfaces in DNS.

  3. For each node, register one virtual host name and IP address in DNS.

  4. For each private interface on every node, add a line similar to the following to the /etc/hosts file on all nodes, specifying the private IP address and associated private host name:

    10.0.0.1     rac1-priv1
    
  5. To identify the interface name and associated IP address for every network adapter, enter the following command:

    # /sbin/ifconfig
    

    From the output, identify the interface name and IP address for all network adapters that you want to specify as public or private network interfaces.

    Note:

    When you install Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, you will require this information.
  6. To prevent public network failures with Oracle RAC databases using NAS devices or NFS mounts, enter the following command as root to enable the Name Service Cache Daemon (nscd):

    # /usr/sbin/svcadm enable system/name-service-cache
    

2.7 Identifying Software Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following software is installed on the system. The procedure following the table describes how to check these requirements.

Note:

Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) performs checks on your system to verify that it meets minimum installation requirements. To ensure that these verifications succeed, verify the requirements before you start OUI.

The following is the list of supported Solaris platforms and requirements at the time of release:

2.7.1 Software Requirements List for Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit) Platforms

Table 2-1 System Requirements for Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit)

Item Requirement

Operating system

One of the following 64-bit operating system versions:

  • Solaris 9 update 7 or later

  • Solaris 10 or later

Packages

Solaris 9

SUNWarc
SUNWbtool
SUNWhea
SUNWlibC
SUNWlibm
SUNWlibms
SUNWsprot
SUNWtoo
SUNWi1of
SUNWi1cs
SUNWi15cs
SUNWxwfnt
SUNWsprox

Solaris 10

Identical to Solaris 9, except that SUNWsprox is not needed.

Note: You may also require additional font packages for Java, depending on your locale. Refer to the following Web site for more information:

http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/font-requirements.html

Oracle RAC

Oracle Clusterware, or a supported Sun Cluster version. Sun Cluster is supported for use with RAC on SPARC systems but it is not required.

If you use Sun Cluster, then you must install the following additional kernel packages:

SUNWscucm
SUNWudlmr
SUNWudlm

Note: You do not require the additional packages if you install Oracle Clusterware.

If you use a volume manager, then you may need to install the following additional kernel packages for your volume manager:

Clustered Solaris Volume Manager:

SUNWscmd

Clustered Veritas Volume Manager:

SUNWcvm
SUNWcvmr

Hardware RAID:

SUNWschwr

Note: The SUNWschwr package installs disk fencing to protect data on the disks. It should be installed if you are using RAID but are not using Oracle Clusterware or a supported cluster volume manager. The disk fencing is also contained in the volume manager packages, so when using either of the volume manager options for RAC, the SUNWschwr package should not be installed even if the devices are hardware RAID.

Review the following additional information for your operating system:

 

Sun Cluster 3.1 and Sun Cluster 3.2

ORCLudlm 64-Bit reentrant 3.3.4.10

For Sun Cluster, Oracle provides a UDLM patch that you must install onto each node in the cluster from the /udlm directory on the clusterware directory before installing and configuring RAC. Although you may have a functional version of the UDLM from a previous Oracle Database release, you must install the Oracle 11g Release 1 (11.1) 3.3.4.10 UDLM.

Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with the following software:

IBM MQSeries V5.3, client and server

Tibco Rendezvous 7.2

Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK)

Sun ONE Studio 11 (C and C++ 5.8)

Oracle ODBC Driver

gcc 3.4.2

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) packages are only needed if you plan on using ODBC. If you do not plan to use ODBC, then you do not need to install the ODBC RPMs for Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, or Oracle RAC.

Programming languages for Oracle RAC database

  • Pro*COBOL

    Micro Focus Cobol 5.0

  • Pro*FORTRAN

    Sun ONE Studio 11 (Fortran 95)

Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers

You can use the following optional JDK versions with the Oracle JDBC/OCI drivers, however they are not required for the installation:

  • Sun JDK 1.5.0.

Note: JDK 1.5.0 is installed with this release.


2.8 Checking the Software Requirements

To ensure that the system meets these requirements, follow these steps:

  1. To determine which version of Solaris is installed, enter the following command:

    # uname -r
    5.9
    

    In this example, the version shown is Solaris 9 (5.9). If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about upgrading the operating system.

  2. To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter a command similar to the following:

    # pkginfo -i SUNWarc SUNWbtool SUNWhea SUNWlibC SUNWlibm SUNWlibms SUNWsprot \
     SUNWsprox SUNWtoo SUNWi1of SUNWi1cs SUNWi15cs SUNWxwfnt
    

    If a package that is required for your system architecture is not installed, then install it. Refer to your operating system or software documentation for information about installing packages.

Note:

There may be more recent versions of packages listed installed on the system. If a listed patch is not installed, then determine if a more recent version is installed before installing the version listed.

2.9 Verifying Operating System Patches

You must verify that the required operating system patches for your system architecture are installed on the system. The procedure following the table describes how to check these requirements.

Note:

Your system may have more recent versions of the listed patches installed on it. If a listed patch is not installed, then determine if a more recent version is installed before installing the version listed.

Select the table for your system architecture and review the list of required operating system patches:

2.9.1 Verifying Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-bit) Patches

Table 2-2 Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-bit) Patches

Installation Type or Product Requirement

All Solaris 9 installations

Patches for Solaris 9

  • 112233-11, SunOS 5.9: Kernel Patch

  • 111722-04, SunOS 5.9: Math Library (libm) patch

The following additional patches are required for Numa Systems on Solaris 9:

  • 115675-01, SunOS 5.9: liblgrp API

  • 113471-08, SunOS 5.9: Miscellaneous SunOS Commands Patch

  • 115675-01, SunOS 5.9: /usr/lib/liblgrp.so Patch

All Solaris 10 installations

127111-02 SunOS 5.10: libc patch

Oracle Messaging Gateway

Corrective Service Diskettes (CSDs) for WebSphere MQ:

  • CSD09 or later for MQSeries V5.1

  • MQSeries Client for Sun Solaris, Intel Platform Edition -V5.1 SupportPac MACE

Pro*C/C++, Pro*FORTRAN, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK)

Patches for Solaris 9:

112760-05, C 5.5: Patch for S1S8CC C compiler

Oracle RAC

Sun Cluster patches for Solaris 9:

  • 113801-12, Sun Cluster 3.1: Core/Sys Admin Patch


Note:

The following patches are not required for silent installations:
  • 108652-66, X11 6.4.1: Xsun patch

  • 108921-16, CDE 1.4: dtwm patch

To ensure that the system meets these requirements:

  1. To determine whether an operating system patch is installed, and whether it is the correct version of the patch, enter a command similar to the following:

    # /usr/sbin/patchadd -p | grep patch_number
    

    For example, to determine if any version of the 112760 patch is installed, use the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/patchadd -p | grep 112760
    

    If an operating system patch is not installed, then download it from the following Web site and install it:

    http://sunsolve.sun.com
    

2.10 Configuring Kernel Parameters

Note:

The kernel parameter and shell limit values shown in the following sections are recommended values only. For production database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to optimize the performance of the system. Refer to your operating system documentation for more information about tuning kernel parameters.

2.10.1 Configuring Kernel Parameters On Solaris 9

On Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-bit) installations running Solaris9, on all nodes in the cluster, verify that the kernel parameters shown in the following table are set to values greater than or equal to the recommended value:

Parameter Recommended Value
noexec_user_stack 1
semsys:seminfo_semmni 100
semsys:seminfo_semmns 1024
semsys:seminfo_semmsl 256
semsys:seminfo_semvmx 32767
shmsys:shminfo_shmmax 4294967295
shmsys:shminfo_shmmni 100

On Solaris 9 operating systems, use the following procedure to view the current value specified for these kernel parameters, and to change them if necessary:

To view the current value specified for these kernel parameters, and to change them if necessary:

  1. To view the current values of these parameters, enter the following commands:

    # grep noexec_user_stack /etc/system
    # /usr/sbin/sysdef | grep SEM
    # /usr/sbin/sysdef | grep SHM
    
  2. If you must change any of the current values, then:

    1. Create a backup copy of the /etc/system file, for example:

      # cp /etc/system /etc/system.orig
      
    2. Open the /etc/system file in any text editor and, if necessary, add lines similar to the following (edit the lines if the file already contains them):

      set noexec_user_stack=1
      set semsys:seminfo_semmni=100
      set semsys:seminfo_semmns=1024
      set semsys:seminfo_semmsl=256
      set semsys:seminfo_semvmx=32767
      set shmsys:shminfo_shmmax=4294967295
      set shmsys:shminfo_shmmni=100
      
    3. Enter the following command to restart the system:

      # /usr/sbin/reboot
      
    4. When the system restarts, log in and switch user to root.

  3. Repeat this procedure on all other nodes in the cluster.

2.10.2 Configuring Kernel Parameters on Solaris 10

On Solaris 10 operating systems, verify that the kernel parameters shown in the following table are set to values greater than or equal to the recommended value shown. The table also contains the resource controls that replace the /etc/system files for specific kernel parameters. As Oracle Clusterware does not set project information when starting processes, some /etc/system processes that are deprecated but not removed must still be set for Oracle Clusterware.

The procedure following the table describes how to verify and set the values.

Note:

In Solaris 10, you are not required to make changes to the /etc/system file to implement the System V IPC. Solaris 10 uses the resource control facility for its implementation. However, Oracle recommends that you set both resource control and /etc/system/ parameters. Operating system parameters not replaced by resource controls continue to affect performance and security on Solaris 10 systems. For further information, contact your Sun vendor.
Parameter Replaced by Resource Control Recommended value
noexec_user_stack NA 1
semsys:seminfo_semmni project.max-sem-ids 100
semsys:seminfo_semmns NA 1024
semsys:seminfo_semmsl process.max-sem-nsems 256
semsys:seminfo_semvmx NA 32767
shmsys:shminfo_shmmax project.max-shm-memory 4294967295
shmsys:shminfo_shmmni project.max-shm-ids 100

On Solaris 10, use the following procedure to view the current value specified for resource controls, and to change them if necessary:

  1. To view the current values of the resource control, enter the following commands:

    # id -p // to verify the project id
    uid=0(root) gid=0(root) projid=1 (user.root)
    # prctl -n project.max-shm-memory -i project user.root
    # prctl -n project.max-sem-ids -i project user.root
    
  2. If you must change any of the current values, then:

    • To modify the value of max-shm-memory to 6 GB:

      # prctl -n project.max-shm-memory -v 6442450944 -r -i project user.root 
      
    • To modify the value of max-sem-ids to 256:

      # prctl -n project.max-sem-ids -v 256 -r -i project user.root
      

    Note:

    When you use the command prctl (Resource Control) to change system parameters, you do not need to restart the system for these parameter changes to take effect. However, the changed parameters do not persist after a system restart.

Use the following procedure to modify the resource control project settings, so that they persist after a system restart:

  1. By default, Oracle instances are run as the oracle user of the dba group. A project with the name group.dba is created to serve as the default project for the oracle user. Run the command id to verify the default project for the oracle user:

    # su - oracle
    $ id -p
    uid=100(oracle) gid=100(dba) projid=100(group.dba)
    $ exit
    
  2. To set the maximum shared memory size to 2 GB, run the projmod command:

    # projmod -sK "project.max-shm-memory=(privileged,2G,deny)" group.dba
    

    Alternatively, add the resource control value project.max-shm-memory=(privileged,2147483648,deny) to the last field of the project entries for the Oracle project.

  3. After these steps are complete, check the values for the /etc/project file using the following command:

    # cat /etc/project
    

    The output should be similar to the following:

    system:0::::
    user.root:1::::
    noproject:2::::
    default:3::::
    group.staff:10::::
    group.dba:100:Oracle default
    project:::project.max-shmmemory=(privileged,2147483648,deny)
    
  4. To verify that the resource control is active, check process ownership, and run the commands id and prctl, as in the following example:

    # su - oracle
    $ id -p
    uid=100(oracle) gid=100(dba) projid=100(group.dba)
    $ prctl -n project.max-shm-memory -i process $$
    process: 5754: -sh
    NAME     PRIVILEGE     VALUE     FLAG     ACTION    RECIPIENT
    project.max-shm-memory
                   privileged         2.00GB     -             deny
    

    Note:

    For additional information, refer to the Solaris Tunable Parameters Reference Manual.

2.11 Running the Rootpre.sh Script on x86-64 with Sun Cluster

On x86-64 platforms running Solaris, if you install Sun Cluster in addition to Oracle Clusterware, then complete the following task:

  1. Switch user to root:

    $ su - root
    
  2. Complete one of the following steps, depending on the location of the installation

    • If the installation files are on a DVD, then enter a command similar to the following, where mountpoint is the disk mount point directory or the path of the database directory on the DVD:

      # mountpoint/clusterware/rootpre/rootpre.sh
      
    • If the installation files are on the hard disk, change directory to the directory /Disk1/rootpre and enter the following command:

      # ./rootpre.sh
      
  3. Exit from the root account:

    # exit
    
  4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 on all nodes of the cluster.

2.12 Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes

Before you install and use Oracle Clusterware, you should configure secure shell (SSH) for the user that you plan to use to install Oracle Clusterware, on all cluster nodes. If you intend to install Oracle RAC or other Oracle software, then you should repeat this process for each of the other users (oracle, asm or other software owner) that you plan to use to install the software, and ensure that you load SSH keys into memory before running the installation, as described in this procedure. In the examples that follow, the Oracle software owner listed is the crs user. As you perform this procedure, replace the example with the user name for which you are configuring SSH.

OUI uses the ssh and scp commands during installation to run remote commands on and copy files to the other cluster nodes. If you want to use SSH for increased security during installation, then you must configure SSH so that the ssh and scp commands used during installation do not prompt for a password.

The SSH configuration procedure in this section describes how to configure SSH using SSH1.

This section contains the following:

2.12.1 Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System

To determine if SSH is running, enter the following command:

$ pgrep sshd

If SSH is running, then the response to this command is one or more process ID numbers. In the home directory of the software owner that you want to use for the installation (crs, oracle), use the command ls -al to ensure that the .ssh directory is owned and writable only by the user.

You need either an RSA or a DSA key for the SSH protocol. RSA is used with the SSH 1.5 protocol, while DSA is the default for the SSH 2.0 protocol. With OpenSSH, you can use either RSA or DSA. The instructions that follow are for SSH1. If you have an SSH2 installation, and you cannot use SSH1, then refer to your SSH distribution documentation to configure SSH1 compatibility or to configure SSH2 with DSA.

2.12.2 Configuring SSH on Cluster Member Nodes

To configure SSH, you must first create RSA or DSA keys on each cluster node, and then copy all the keys generated on all cluster node members into an authorized keys file that is identical on each node. Note that the SSH files must be readable only by root and by the software installation user (oracle, crs, asm), as SSH ignores a private key file if it is accessible by others. When this is done, then start the SSH agent to load keys into memory. In the examples that follow, the RSA key is used.

You must configure SSH separately for each Oracle software installation owner that you intend to use for installation.

To configure SSH, complete the following:

2.12.2.1 Create .SSH, and Create RSA Keys On Each Node

Complete the following steps on each node:

  1. Log in as the software owner (in this example, the crs user).

  2. To ensure that you are logged in as the Oracle user, and that the user ID matches the expected user ID you have assigned to the Oracle user, enter the commands id and id oracle. Ensure that Oracle user group and user and the terminal window process group and user IDs are identical. For example:

    $ id 
    uid=502(crs) gid=501(oinstall) groups=501(oinstall),502(crs)
    $ id crs
    uid=502(crs) gid=501(oinstall) groups=501(oinstall),502(crs)
    
  3. Ensure that the user home directory permissions are no greater than 750. For example:

    $ ls -al /scratch/crs
    drwxr-x---     4  crs     oinstall    512  Oct 9 21:33  .
    drwxrwxrwx     10 root    other       512  Oct 12 06:55 ..
    drwx------     2  crs     oinstall    512  Oct 23 21:14 .ssh
    
  4. If necessary, create the .ssh directory in the crs user's home directory, and set permissions on it to ensure that only the oracle user has read and write permissions:

    $ mkdir ~/.ssh
    $ chmod 700 ~/.ssh
    
  5. Enter the following command:

    $ /usr/bin/ssh-keygen -t rsa
    

    At the prompts:

    • Accept the default location for the key file (press Enter).

    • Enter and confirm a pass phrase unique for this installation user.

    This command writes the RSA public key to the ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub file and the private key to the ~/.ssh/id_rsa file.

    Never distribute the private key to anyone not authorized to perform Oracle software installations.

  6. Repeat steps 1 through 4 on each node that you intend to make a member of the cluster, using the RSA key.

2.12.2.2 Add All Keys to a Common authorized_keys File

Complete the following steps:

  1. On the local node, change directories to the .ssh directory in the Oracle Clusterware owner's home directory (typically, either crs or oracle).

    Then, add the RSA key to the authorized_keys file using the following commands:

    $ cat id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys
    $ ls
    

    In the .ssh directory, you should see the id_rsa.pub keys that you have created, and the file authorized_keys.

  2. On the local node, use SCP (Secure Copy) or SFTP (Secure FTP) to copy the authorized_keys file to the oracle user .ssh directory on a remote node. The following example is with SCP, on a node called node2, with the Oracle Clusterware owner crs, where the crs user path is /home/crs:

    [crs@node1 .ssh]scp authorized_keys node2:/home/crs/.ssh/
    

    You are prompted to accept an RSA key. Enter Yes, and you see that the node you are copying to is added to the known_hosts file.

    When prompted, provide the password for the oracle user, which should be the same on all nodes in the cluster. The authorized_keys file is copied to the remote node.

    Your output should be similar to the following:

    [crs@node1 .ssh]$ scp authorized_keys node2:/home/crs/.ssh/
    The authenticity of host 'node2 (130.00.173.152) can't be established.
    RSA key fingerprint is 7e:60:60:ae:40:40:d1:a6:f7:4e:zz:me:a7:48:ae:f6:7e.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
    Warning: Permanently added 'node1,130.00.173.152' (RSA) to the list
    of known hosts
    crs@node2's password:
    authorized_keys       100%             828             7.5MB/s      00:00
    
  3. Using SSH, log in to the node where you copied the authorized_keys file, using the pass phrase you created. Then change to the .ssh directory, and using the cat command, add the RSA keys for the second node to the authorized_keys file:

    [crs@node1 .ssh]$ ssh node2
    The authenticity of host node2 (xxx.xxx.100.102) can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is z3:z3:33:z3:z3:33:zz:76:z3:z3:z3.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting? (yes/no)? yes
    Enter passphrase for key '/home/oracle/.ssh/id_rsa':
    [crs@node2 crs]S cd .ssh
    [crs@node2 ssh]$ cat id_rsa.pub  >> authorized_keys
    

    Repeat steps 2 and 3 from each node to each other member node in the cluster.

    When you have added keys from each cluster node member to the authorized_keys file on the last node you want to have as a cluster node member, then use scp to copy the authorized_keys file with the keys from all nodes back to each cluster node member, overwriting the existing version on the other nodes.

    If you want to confirm that you have all nodes in the authorized_keys file, enter the command more authorized_keys, and check to see that there is an RSA key for each member node. The file lists the type of key (ssh-rsa), followed by the key, and then followed by the user and server. For example:

    ssh-rsa AAAABBBB . . . = crs@node1
    

    Note:

    The crs user's /.ssh/authorized_keys file on every node must contain the contents from all of the /.ssh/id_rsa.pub files that you generated on all cluster nodes.

2.12.3 Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Member Nodes

After you have copied the authorized_keys file that contains all keys to each node in the cluster, complete the following procedure, in the order listed. In this example, the Oracle Clusterware software owner is named crs:

  1. On the system where you want to run OUI, log in as the crs user.

  2. Use the following command syntax, where hostname1, hostname2, and so on, are the public hostnames (alias, and fully qualified domain name) of nodes in the cluster, to run SSH from the local node to each node, including from the local node to itself, and from each node to each other node:

    [crs@nodename]$ ssh hostname1 date
    [crs@nodename]$ ssh hostname2 date
        .
        .
        .
    

    For example:

    [crs@node1 crs]$ ssh node1 date
    The authenticity of host 'node1 (xxx.xxx.100.101)' can't be established.
    RSA key fingerprint is 7z:60:60:zz:48:48:z1:a0:f7:4e.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
    Warning: Permanently added 'node1,xxx.xxx.100.101' (RSA) to the list of
    known hosts.
    Enter passphrase for key '/home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa':
    Mon Dec 4 11:08:13 PST 2006
    [crs@node1 crs]$ ssh node1.somehost.com date
    The authenticity of host 'node1.somehost.com (xxx.xxx.100.101)' can't be established.
    RSA key fingerprint is 7z:60:60:zz:48:48:z1:a0:f7:4e.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
    Warning: Permanently added 'node1,xxx.xxx.100.101' (RSA) to the list of
    known hosts.
    Enter passphrase for key '/home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa':
    Mon Dec 4 11:08:13 PST 2006
    [crs@node1 crs]$ ssh node2 date
    Enter passphrase for key '/home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa':
    Mon Dec 4 11:08:35 PST 2006
    [crs@node1 crs]$ 
    

    At the end of this process, the public hostname for each member node should be registered in the known_hosts file for all other cluster member nodes.

    If you are using a remote client to connect to the local node, and you see a message similar to "Warning: No xauth data; using fake authentication data for X11 forwarding," then this means that your authorized keys file is configured correctly, but your ssh configuration has X11 forwarding enabled. To correct this issue, proceed to "Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration".

  3. Repeat step 2 on each cluster node member.

  4. On each node, enter the following commands to start the SSH agent, and to load the SSH keys into memory:

    $ exec /usr/bin/ssh-agent $SHELL
    $ /usr/bin/ssh-add
    

    At the prompt, enter the pass phrase for each key that you generated.

    For example:

    [crs@node1 .ssh]$ exec /usr/bin/ssh-agent $SHELL
    [crs@node1 .ssh]$ ssh-add
    Enter passphrase for /home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa
    Identity added: /home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa (/home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa)
    

    These commands start the ssh-agent on the node, and load the RSA keys into memory so that you are not prompted to use pass phrases when issuing SSH commands

If you have configured SSH correctly, then you can now use the ssh or scp commands without being prompted for a password or a pass phrase. For example:

[crs@node1 ~]$ ssh node2 date
Mon Feb 26 23:34:42 UTC 2007
[crs@node1 ~]$ ssh node1 date
Mon Feb 26 23:34:48 UTC 2007
[crs@node1 ~]$ ssh node2

If any node prompts for a password or pass phrase, then verify that the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file on that node contains the correct public keys, and that you have created an Oracle software owner with identical group membership and IDs.

Note:

You must run OUI from this session, or make a note of your SSH pass phrase, and remember to repeat step 4 before you start OUI from a different terminal session.

2.12.4 Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration

  • If you are on a remote terminal, and the local node has only one visual (which is typical), then use the following syntax to set the DISPLAY environment variable:

    Bourne and Korn shells:

    $ export DISPLAY=hostname:0
    

    C shell:

    $ setenv DISPLAY=hostname:0
    

    For example, if you are using the Bourne shell, and if your hostname is node1, then enter the following command:

    $ export DISPLAY=node1:0
    
  • To ensure that X11 forwarding will not cause the installation to fail, create a user-level SSH client configuration file for the Oracle software owner user, as follows:

    1. Using any text editor, edit or create the ~oracle/.ssh/config file.

    2. Make sure that the ForwardX11 attribute is set to no. For example:

      Host *
            ForwardX11 no
      

2.12.5 Preventing Oracle Clusterware Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands

During an Oracle Clusterware installation, OUI uses SSH to run commands and copy files to the other nodes. During the installation, hidden files on the system (for example, .cshrc) will cause makefile and other installation errors if they contain stty commands.

To avoid this problem, you must modify these files to suppress all output on STDERR, as in the following examples:

  • Bourne and Korn shells:

    if [ -t 0 ]; then
       stty intr ^C
    fi
    
  • C shell:

    test -t 0
    if ($status == 0) then
       stty intr ^C
    endif
    

    Note:

    When SSH is not available, the Installer uses the rsh and rcp commands instead of ssh and scp.

    If there are hidden files that contain stty commands that are loaded by the remote shell, then OUI indicates an error and stops the installation.

2.13 Configuring Software Owner User Environments

You run OUI from the user account that you want to own the Oracle Clusterware installation (oracle or crs). However, before you start OUI you must configure the environment of the user performing the Oracle Clusterware installation. In addition, create other required Oracle software owners, if needed.

This section contains the following topics:

2.13.1 Environment Requirements for Oracle Clusterware Software Owner

Complete the following tasks to configure the Oracle Clusterware software owner environment:

  • Create an Oracle Clusterware home. For example: /crs.

  • Set the installation software owner user (crs, oracle) default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.

  • Set the software owner's environment variable DISPLAY environment variables in preparation for the Oracle Clusterware installation

2.13.2 Environment Requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle ASM Owners

If you intend to install Oracle Database or Oracle ASM, then complete the following additional tasks. If you plan to install other software using the role-based privileges method, then complete the following tasks for the Oracle Database software owner (oracle) and Oracle ASM software owner (asm).

  • Create an Oracle Base path. The Optimal Flexible Architecture path for the Oracle Base is /u01/app/user, where user is the name of the user account that you want to own the Oracle Database software. For example: /u01/app/oracle.

    Note:

    Do not create the Oracle Clusterware home under Oracle base. Creating an Oracle Clusterware installation in an Oracle base directory path will cause succeeding Oracle installations to fail.
  • Set the installation software owner user (asm, oracle) default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.

  • Set the software owners' environment variable DISPLAY environment variables in preparation for the ASM or Oracle Database installation

2.13.3 Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments

To set the Oracle software owners' environments, follow these steps, for each software owner (crs, oracle, asm):

  1. Start a new terminal session; for example, start an X terminal (xterm).

  2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on this system:

    $ xhost + hostname
    

    The hostname is the name of the local host.

  3. If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the software, then log in to that system as the software owner user.

  4. If you are not logged in as the user, then switch to the software owner user you are configuring. For example, with the crs user:

    $ su - crs
    
  5. To determine the default shell for the user, enter the following command:

    $ echo $SHELL
    
  6. Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:

    • Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):

      % vi .profile
      
    • C shell (csh or tcsh):

      % vi .login
      
  7. Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode creation mask:

    umask 022
    
  8. If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set in the file, then remove the appropriate lines from the file.

  9. Save the file, and exit from the text editor.

  10. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:

    • Bourne and Korn shells:

      $ . ./.profile
      
    • C shell:

      % source ./.login
      
  11. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter a command similar to the following to direct X applications to display on the local system:

    • Bourne and Korn shells:

      $ DISPLAY=local_host:0.0 ; export DISPLAY
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
      

    In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system that you want to use to display OUI (your workstation or PC).

  12. If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 400 MB of free disk space, then identify a file system with at least 400 MB of free space and set the TEMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:

    Note:

    You cannot use a shared file system as the location of the temporary file directory (typically /tmp) for Oracle RAC installation. If you place /tmp on a shared file system, then the installation fails.
    1. Use the df -h command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free space.

    2. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate permissions on the directory:

      $ su - root
      # mkdir /mount_point/tmp
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/tmp
      # exit
      
    3. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TEMP and TMPDIR environment variables:

      • Bourne and Korn shells:

        $ TEMP=/mount_point/tmp
        $ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
        $ export TEMP TMPDIR
        
      • C shell:

        % setenv TEMP /mount_point/tmp
        % setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
        

2.13.4 Setting Shell Limits for Oracle Installation Owner Users

To improve the performance of the software, you must increase the following shell limits for installation owner users (crs, oracle, asm:

Shell Limit Item in limits.conf Hard Limit
Maximum number of open file descriptors rlim_fd_max 65536
Maximum number of processes available to a single user maxuprc 16384

To increase the shell limits:

  1. Add the following lines to the /etc/system file:

    set rlim_fd_max = 65536
    set maxuprc = 16384
    
  2. Repeat this procedure on all other nodes in the cluster.

    Note:

    For these system changes to take effect, each node must be restarted.

2.14 Requirements for Creating an Oracle Clusterware Home Directory

During installation, you are prompted to provide a path to a home directory to store Oracle Clusterware binaries. Ensure that the directory path you provide meets the following requirements:

For installations with Oracle Clusterware only, Oracle recommends that you create a path compliant with Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines, so that Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) can select that directory during installation. For OUI to recognize the path as an Oracle software path, it must be in the form u0[1-9]/app.

When OUI finds an OFA-compliant path, it creates the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Central Inventory (oraInventory) directories for you.

Create an Oracle Clusterware path. For example:

# mkdir -p  /u01/app
# chown -R crs:oinstall /u01

Alternatively, if you later intend to install Oracle Database software, then create an Oracle base path. OUI automatically creates an OFA-compliant path for Oracle Clusterware derived from the Oracle base path. The Optimal Flexible Architecture path for the Oracle Base is /u01/app/user, where user is the name of the user account that you want to own the Oracle Database software. For example:

# mkdir -p  /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle

Note:

If you choose to create an Oracle Clusterware home manually, then do not create the Oracle Clusterware home under Oracle base. Creating an Oracle Clusterware installation in an Oracle base directory will cause succeeding Oracle installations to fail.

See Also:

Creating Standard Configuration Operating System Groups and Users, and Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles for information about creating groups, users, and software homes for additional Oracle software installations

2.15 Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility

Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) is a tool that performs system checks. This guide provides Cluster Verification Utility commands to assist you with confirming that your system is properly configured for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters installation.

This section describes the following topics:

2.15.1 Entering Cluster Verification Utility Commands

Before Oracle software is installed, to enter a Cluster Verification Utility command, change directories and start runcluvfy.sh using the following syntax:

$ cd /mountpoint/clusterware/cluvfy/
$ ./runcluvfy.sh options

In the preceding example, the variable mountpoint represents the mountpoint path for the installation media and the variable options represents the Cluster Verification Utility command options that you select. For example:

$ cd /dev/dvdrom/clusterware/cluvfy/
$ ./runcluvfy.sh comp nodereach -n node1,node2 -verbose

By default, when you enter a Cluster Verification Utility command, Cluster Verification Utility provides a summary of the test. During preinstallation, Oracle recommends that you obtain detailed output by using the -verbose argument with the Cluster Verification Utility command. The -verbose argument produces detailed output of individual checks. Where applicable, it shows results for each node in a tabular layout.

Note:

The script runcluvfy.sh contains temporary variable definitions which enable it to be run before installing Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Database. After you install Oracle Clusterware, use the command cluvfy to check prerequisites and perform other system readiness checks.

2.15.2 Using CVU to Determine if Installation Prerequisites are Complete

You can use Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to determine which system prerequisites for installation are already completed. Use this option if you are installing Oracle 11g Release 1 (11.1) on a system with a pre-existing Oracle software installation. In using this option, note the following:

  • You must complete the prerequisites for using Cluster Verification Utility

  • Cluster Verification Utility can assist you by finding preinstallation steps that need to be completed, but it cannot perform preinstallation tasks

Use the following syntax to determine what preinstallation steps are completed, and what preinstallation steps must be performed

$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node_list 

In the preceding syntax example, replace the variable node_list with the names of the nodes in your cluster, separated by commas.

For example, for a cluster with mountpoint /dev/dvdrom/, and with nodes node1, node2, and node3, enter the following command:

$ cd /dev/dvdrom/clusterware/cluvfy/
$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node1,node2,node3

Review the Cluster Verification Utility report, and proceed to the sections of the preinstallation chapter to complete additional steps as needed.

2.15.3 Using the Cluster Verification Utility Help

The cluvfy commands have context-sensitive help that shows correct syntax usage based on the command line arguments that you enter.

If you enter an invalid Cluster Verification Utility command, then it shows the correct usage for that command. For example, if you type runcluvfy.sh stage -pre dbinst, then Cluster Verification Utility shows the correct syntax for the database preinstallation checks that it performs with the dbinst stage option. The following is a list of context help commands.

  • cluvfy -help —Cluster Verification Utility displays detailed Cluster Verification Utility command information.

  • cluvfy comp -list—Cluster Verification Utility displays a list of components that can be checked, and brief descriptions of how each component is checked.

  • cluvfy comp -help—Cluster Verification Utility displays detailed syntax for each of the valid component checks.

  • cluvfy stage -list—Cluster Verification Utility displays a list of valid stages.

  • cluvfy stage -help—Cluster Verification Utility displays detailed syntax for each of the valid stage checks.

2.15.4 Using Cluster Verification Utility with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 or 2

You can use Cluster Verification Utility on the Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) media to check system requirements for Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later installations. To use Cluster Verification Utility to check 10. 1 installations, append the command flag -r 10gR1 to the standard Cluster Verification Utility system check commands.

For example, to perform a verification check for a Cluster Ready Services 10. 1 installation, on a system where the media mountpoint is /dev/dvdrom/, and the cluster nodes are node1, node2, and node3, enter the following command:

$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node1,node2,node3 -r 10gR1

2.15.5 Verbose Mode and "Unknown" Output

If you run Cluster Verification Utility using the -verbose argument, and a Cluster Verification Utility command responds with UNKNOWN for a particular node, then this is because Cluster Verification Utility cannot determine if a check passed or failed. The following is a list of possible causes for an "Unknown" response:

  • The node is down

  • Executables required by Cluster Verification Utility are missing in the /bin directory in the CRS home or Oracle home directory

  • The user account starting Cluster Verification Utility does not have privileges to run common operating system executables on the node

  • The node is missing an operating system patch, or a required package

  • The node has exceeded the maximum number of processes or maximum number of open files, or there is a problem with IPC segments, such as shared memory or semaphores

2.16 Checking Oracle Clusterware Installation Readiness with CVU

Use Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to check your servers for their readiness to install Oracle Clusterware:

2.16.1 Checking the Network Setup with CVU

As the oracle user, enter a command using the following syntax to verify node connectivity among all of the nodes for which your cluster is configured:

/mountpoint/clusterware/cluvfy/runcluvfy.sh comp nodecon -n node_list [-verbose]

In the preceding syntax example, the variable node_list is a comma-delimited list of nodes in your cluster. This command detects all the network interfaces available on the cluster nodes, and verifies the connectivity among all the nodes through the network interfaces it finds.

Select the option -verbose to receive progress updates as Cluster Verification Utility performs its system checks, and detailed reporting of the test results.

For example, to verify node connectivity on a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and node2, with the mountpoint /dev/dvdrom, and with updates and a summary of the verification checks Cluster Verification Utility performs, enter the following command:

/dev/dvdrom/clusterware/cluvfy/runcluvfy.sh comp nodecon -n node1,node2 -verbose

Note:

You can use this command to obtain a list of all the interfaces available on the nodes that are suitable for use as VIPs, as well as a list of private interconnects that are connecting successfully on all nodes.

2.16.2 Checking the Hardware and Operating System Setup with CVU

As the oracle user, use the following command syntax to start Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) stage verification to check hardware and operating system setup:

/mountpoint/clusterware/cluvfy/runcluvfy.sh stage –post hwos –n node_list [-verbose]

In the preceding syntax example, replace the variable node_list with the names of the nodes in your cluster, separated by commas. For example, to check the hardware and operating system of a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and node2, with the mountpoint /dev/dvdrom/ and with the option to limit the output to the test results, enter the following command:

/dev/dvdrom/clusterware/cluvfy/runcluvfy.sh stage –post hwos –n node1,node2

Select the option -verbose to receive detailed reports of the test results, and progress updates about the system checks performed by Cluster Verification Utility.

2.16.3 Checking the Operating System Kernel Requirements Setup with CVU

As the oracle user, use the following command syntax to check if your system meets the operating system requirement preinstallation tasks:

/mountpoint/clusterware/cluvfy/runcluvfy.sh comp sys -n node_list -p {crs|database}
-osdba osdba_group -orainv orainv_group -verbose

In the preceding syntax example:

  • The variable mountpoint is the mountpoint of the Oracle 11g Release 1 (11.1) installation media

  • The variable node_list is the list of nodes in your cluster, separated by commas

  • The -p flag identifies either crs or database, and indicates that checks are performed for Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Database system requirements

  • The variable osdba_group is the name of your OSDBA group, typically dba

  • The variable orainv_group is the name of your Oracle Inventory group, typically oinstall

You can select the option -verbose to receive progress updates as Cluster Verification Utility performs its system checks, and detailed reporting of the test results.

For example, to perform a system check for an Oracle Clusterware installation on a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and node2, with the OSDBA dba and Oracle inventory group oinstall, and with the media mountpoint /dev/dvdrom/, then enter the following command:

/dev/dvdrom/clusterware/cluvfy/runcluvfy.sh comp sys -n node1,node2 -p crs -osdba crs -orainv oinstall