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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1) for Linux

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2 Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements

This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer. It includes information about the following tasks:

Note:

This guide contains information required to install Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) on various platforms of Linux. Ensure that you review information related to the platform on which you intend to install Oracle Database 11g.

2.1 Logging In to the System as root

Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root user. To log in as the root user, complete one of the following procedures:

Note:

Unless you intend to complete a silent-mode installation, you must install the software from an X Window System workstation, an X terminal, or a PC or other system with X server software installed.

For more information about silent-mode installations, refer to Appendix A.

2.2 Checking the Hardware Requirements

The system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

2.2.1 Memory Requirements

The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • At least 1 GB of RAM

    To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:

    # grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
    

    If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

  • The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the configured swap space requirement:

    Note:

    On Linux, the Hugepages feature allocates non-swappable memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you enable Hugepages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to Hugepages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
    RAM Swap Space
    Between 1 GB and 2 GB 1.5 times the size of RAM
    Between 2 GB and 16 GB Equal to the size of RAM
    More than 16 GB 16 GB

    To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
    

    If necessary, refer to the operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command:

# free

Note:

Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is because the available RAM and swap space keep changing depending on the user interactions with the computer.

Automatic Memory Management

Starting with Oracle Database 11g, the Automatic Memory Management feature requires more shared memory (/dev/shm)and file descriptors. The size of the shared memory should be at least the greater of MEMORY_MAX_TARGET and MEMORY_TARGET for each Oracle instance on the computer. If MEMORY_MAX_TARGET or MEMORY_TARGET is set to a non zero value, and an incorrect size is assigned to the shared memory, it will result in an ORA-00845 error at startup. The number of file descriptors for each Oracle instance should be at least 512*PROCESSES. Also, the limit of descriptors for each process should be at least 512. If file descriptors are not sized correctly, you will notice ORA-27123 from various Oracle processes and potentially Linux Error EMFILE (Too many open files) errors in non-Oracle processes.

To determine the amount of shared memory available, enter the following command:

# df -k /dev/shm/

Note:

MEMORY_MAX_TARGET and MEMORY_TARGET cannot be used when LOCK_SGA is enabled or with huge pages on Linux.

On the Initialization Parameters page, note that Memory Size (SGA and PGA), which sets the initialization parameter MEMORY_TARGET or MEMORY_MAX_TARGET. Note that the initialization parameters cannot be greater than the shared memory file system on the operating system. For example, if the shared memory file system allocation on your system is 1 GB, but you set Memory Size (MEMORY_TARGET) to 2 GB, then the following error messages are displayed during database startup:

ORA-00845: MEMORY_TARGET not supported on this system
ORA-01078: Failure in processing system parameters

In addition, if you click All Initialization Parameters and the global database name is longer than 8 characters, then the database name value (in the DB_NAME parameter) is truncated to the first eight characters, and the DB_UNIQUE_NAME parameter value is set to the global name.

2.2.2 System Architecture

To determine whether the system architecture can run the software, enter the following command:

# uname -m

This command displays the processor type. Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release that you want to install. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

2.2.3 Disk Space Requirements

The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • Between 150 and 200 MB of disk space in the /tmp directory

    To determine the amount of disk space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    # df -k /tmp
    

    If there is less than 400 MB of free disk space available in the /tmp directory, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment (described later).

    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the system administrator for information about extending file systems.

  • To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following command:

    # df -k
    
  • The following table describes the disk space requirements for software files for each installation type on Linux 86:

    Installation Type Requirement for Software Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 3.47
    Standard Edition 3.22
    Custom (maximum) 3.45

    Between 3.5 GB and 5 GB of disk space for the Oracle software, depending on the installation type

  • The following table describes the disk space requirements for each installation type on Linux x86-64:

    Installation Type Requirement for Software Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 4.35
    Standard Edition 3.73
    Custom (maximum) 4.54

    Between 3.5 GB and 5 GB of disk space for the Oracle software, depending on the installation type

  • The following table describes the disk space requirements for each installation type on Linux x86:

    Installation Type Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 1.6
    Standard Edition 1.6
    Custom (maximum) 1.81

  • The following table describes the disk space requirements for each installation type on Linux x86-64:

    Installation Type Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 1.68
    Standard Edition 1.48
    Custom (maximum) 2.14

    Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Automatic Storage Management disk group is required for the flash recovery area if you choose to configure automated backups.

2.2.4 Recommended Hardware Requirement for SQL Developer

The following table lists the recommended Memory and Display requirements for SQL Developer.

Resource Recommended
Memory 1 GB RAM (recommended), 256 MB RAM (min)
Display 65536 colors, set to at least 1024 X 768 resolution

2.3 Checking the Software Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following software are installed on the system.

Note:

  • This guide contains information required to install Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) on various platforms of Linux. Ensure that you review information related to the platform on which you intend to install Oracle Database 11g.

  • Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on the system to verify that it meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle Universal Installer.

2.3.1 Operating System Requirements

The following are the operating system requirements for Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

Note:

Oracle Universal Installer performs checks to verify that the system meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle Universal Installer.

On Linux x86 and Linux x86-64:

  • Asianux 2 SP2

  • Asianux 3

  • Oracle Linux 4

  • Oracle Linux 5

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10

To determine the distribution and version of Linux installed, enter the following command:

# cat /proc/version

Note:

Only the distributions and versions listed in the earlier list are supported. Do not install the software on other versions of Linux.

2.3.2 Kernel Requirements

The following are the Kernel requirements for Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • On Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:

    2.6.9 or later

  • On Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:

    2.6.18 or later

  • On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10:

    2.6.16.21 or later

To determine whether the required kernel is installed, enter the following command:

# uname -r

The following is a sample output displayed by running this command on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0 system:

2.6.9-55.0.0.0.2.EL

In this example, the output shows the kernel version (2.6.9) and errata level (55.0.0.0.2.EL) on the system.

If the kernel version does not meet the requirement, then contact the operating system vendor for information about obtaining and installing kernel updates.

2.3.3 Package Requirements

The following are the list of packages required for Oracle Database 11g Release 1.

Note:

  • Oracle recommends that you install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs), unless you specifically intend to perform a minimal installation, and follow the directions for performing such an installation to ensure that you have all required packages for Oracle software.

  • Oracle recommends that you do not customize RPMs during a default operating system installation. A default installation includes most required packages, and will help you to limit manual checks of package dependencies.

  • If you did not perform a default Linux installation, you intend to use LDAP, and you want to use the scripts odisrvreg, oidca, or schemasync, then install the Korn shell RPM for the Linux distribution.

  • You must install the packages (or later versions) listed in the following table. Also, ensure that the list of RPMs and all of the prerequisites for these RPMs are installed.

On Linux x86:

Operating System Requirement
Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.15.92.0.2-18
compat-libstdc++-33.2.3-47.3
elfutils-libelf-0.97-5
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97-5
gcc-3.4.5-2
gcc-c++-3.4.5-2
glibc-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-common-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-devel-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-headers-2.3.4-2.19
libaio-devel-0.3.105-2
libaio-0.3.105-2
libgcc-3.4.5
libstdc++-3.4.5-2
libstdc++-devel-3.4.5-2
make-3.80-5
numactl-0.6.4.i386
sysstat-5.0.5
Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.17.50.0.6-2.el5
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61
elfutils-libelf-0.125-3.el5
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
gcc-4.1.1-52
gcc-c++-4.1.1-52
glibc-2.5-12
glibc-common-2.5-12
glibc-devel-2.5-12
glibc-headers-2.5-12
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106 
libgcc-4.1.1-52
libstdc++-4.1.1 
libstdc++-devel-4.1.1-52.e15
make-3.81-1.1
numactl-devel-0.9.8.i386
sysstat-7.0.0
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
compat-libstdc++-5.0.7
gcc-4.1.0
glibc-2.4-31.2
glibc-devel-2.4-31.2
ksh-93r-12.9
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.0
libstdc++-4.1.0
libstdc++-devel-4.1.0
make-3.80
sysstat-6.0.2

On Linux x86-64:

Operating System Requirement
Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.15.92.0.2
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
elfutils-libelf-0.97
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97
gcc-3.4.5
gcc-c++-3.4.5
glibc-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-2.3.4-2.19 (32 bit)
glibc-common-2.3.4
glibc-devel-2.3.4
glibc-devel-2.3.4 (32-bit)
libaio-0.3.105
libaio-0.3.105 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.105
libgcc-3.4.5
libgcc-3.4.5 (32-bit)
libstdc++-3.4.5
libstdc++-3.4.5 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 3.4.5
make-3.80
numactl-0.6.4.x86_64
sysstat-5.0.5
Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.17.50.0.6
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
elfutils-libelf-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
gcc-4.1.1
gcc-c++-4.1.1
glibc-2.5-12
glibc-2.5-12 (32 bit)
glibc-common-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5-12 (32 bit)
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libgcc-4.1.1
libgcc-4.1.1 (32 bit)
libstdc++-4.1.1
libstdc++-4.1.1 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 4.1.1
make-3.81
numactl-devel-0.9.8.x86_64
sysstat-7.0.0
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
compat-libstdc++-5.0.7-22.2
gcc-4.1.0
gcc-c++-4.1.0
glibc-2.4-31.2
glibc-32bit-2.4-31.2 (32 bit)
glibc-devel-2.4
glibc-devel-32bit-2.4 (32 bit)
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-32bit-0.3.104 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.0
libstdc++-4.1.0
libstdc++-devel-4.1.0
make-3.80
numactl-0.9.6.x86_64
sysstat-6.0.2

Note:

The numa package link for Linux x86-64 is /usr/lib64/ and Linux x86 is /usr/lib/.

To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar to the following:

# rpm -q package_name

If a package is not installed, then install it from the Linux distribution media or download the required package version from the Linux vendor's Web site.

2.3.4 Compiler Requirements

Intel C++ Compiler 9.1 or later and the version of GNU C and C++ compilers listed under "Package Requirements" are supported with Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, and Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK) for Oracle Database 11g Release 1.

Starting with Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1.0.7), Pro*COBOL is certified on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10.0, and XEN with Micro Focus Server Express 5.0 WP4.

Note:

Intel Compiler v9.1 can be used only with gcc 3.4.5 or gcc 4.0 or gcc 4.1 standard template libraries to build Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI) applications.

Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same compilers as OCCI.

2.3.5 Additional Software Requirements

Depending on the components you want to use, you must ensure that the following software are installed:

2.3.5.1 Oracle ODBC Drivers

If you intend to use ODBC, then you should install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for Linux. You can download and install the Driver Manager from the following link:

http://www.unixodbc.org

Linux RPMs are available on the site. You do not require ODBC Driver Manager to install Oracle Database. :

  • On Linux x86

    To use ODBC, you must also install the following additional 32-bit ODBC RPMs, depending on your operating system:

    • On Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:

      unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
      unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
      
    • On Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:

      unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
      unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
      
    • On SUSE 10:

      unixODBC-32bit-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
      unixODBC-devel-32bit-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
      
  • On Linux x86-64

    To use ODBC, you must also install the following additional 64-bit ODBC RPMs, depending on your operating system.

    • On Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:

      unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
      unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
      unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit ) or later
      
    • On Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:

      unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
      unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
      unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit ) or later
      
    • On SUSE 10:

      unixODBC-32bit-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
      unixODBC-2.2.11 (64 bit ) or later
      unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
      

2.3.5.2 Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers

You can use Sun JDK 1.5.0-06 with the JNDI extension with the Oracle Java Database Connectivity and Oracle Call Interface drivers. However, these are not mandatory for the database installation.

2.3.5.3 Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with the following software:

  • IBM WebSphere MQ V6.0, client and server, with corrective service diskette 5 (CSD05) or later:

    MQSeriesClient
    MQSeriesServer
    MQSeriesRuntime
    
  • TIBCO Rendezvous 7.3

If you require a CSD for WebSphere MQ, then refer to the following Web site for download and installation information:

http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Overview/Software/WebSphere/WebSphere_MQ

2.3.5.4 Browser Requirements

Web browsers must support Java Script and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. The following browsers meet these requirements:

  • For Oracle Application Express:

    • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or later version

    • Firefox 1.0 or a later version

  • For Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control:

    • Netscape Navigator 7.2

    • Netscape Navigator 8.1

    • Mozilla version 1.7

    • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2

    • Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0

    • Firefox 1.0.4

    • Firefox 1.5

    • Firefox 2.0

2.3.5.5 Oracle XML DB for Oracle Application Express

Oracle XML DB must be installed in the Oracle database that you want to use. If you are using a preconfigured database created either during an installation or by Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), then Oracle XML DB is already installed and configured.

See Also:

Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about manually adding Oracle XML DB to an existing database

2.3.5.6 PL/SQL Web Toolkit

Oracle Application Express requires the PL/SQL Web Toolkit version 10.1.2.0.6 or later. For instructions on determining the current version of the PL/SQL Web Toolkit, and for instructions on installing version 10.1.2.0.6, review the README.txt file contained in the directory apex/owa.

2.3.5.7 Oracle Text

Oracle Text must be installed to use the searchable online Help in Oracle Application Express. By default, Oracle Text is installed as a component Oracle Database.

See Also:

Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for more information on Oracle Text

2.4 Preinstallation Requirements for Oracle Configuration Manager

During the installation, you are prompted to provide information required to enable Oracle Configuration Manager. When you create a service request with Oracle Support, the configuration information can help to provide a rapid resolution to the service issue.

You can enable Oracle Configuration Manager during or after installation. To enable it during the installation, you must have the following information available:

Refer to the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) (https://support.oracle.com) if there is a registration failures and you are uncertain that the correct country code has been specified. You can find the country associated with the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) account in the Profile section under the Licenses link.

2.5 Checking the Network Setup

Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to the network. The computer has local storage, to store the Oracle Database installation. It also contains a display monitor, and DVD drive. This section describes how to install Oracle Database on computers that do not meet the typical scenario. It covers the following cases:

2.5.1 Configuring Name Resolution

When you run Oracle Universal Installer, an error may occur if name resolution is not set up. To avoid this error, before you begin installation, you must ensure that host names are resolved through the /etc/hosts file.

To ensure that host names are resolved only through the /etc/hosts file:

  1. Verify that the /etc/hosts file is used for name resolution. You can do this by checking the hosts file entry in the nsswitch.conf file as follows:

    # cat /etc/nsswitch.conf | grep hosts
    

    The output of this command should contain an entry for files.

  2. Verify that the host name has been set by using the hostname command as follows:

    # hostname
    

    The output of this command should be similar to the following:

    myhost.example.com
    
  3. Verify that the domain name has not been set dynamically by using the domainname command as follows:

    # domainname
    

    This command should not return any results.

  4. Verify that the hosts file contains the fully qualified host name by using the following command:

    # cat /etc/hosts 
    

    The output of this command should contain an entry for the fully qualified host name and localhost.

    For example:

    127.0.0.1    localhost.localdomain localhost 
    192.168.100.16  myhost.us.example.com myhost 
    

    If the hosts file does not contain the fully qualified host name, then open the file and make the required changes in it.

2.5.2 Installing on DHCP Computers

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns dynamic IP addresses on a network. Dynamic addressing enables a computer to have a different IP address each time it connects to the network. In some cases, the IP address can change while the computer is still connected. You can have a mixture of static and dynamic IP addressing in a DHCP system.

In a DHCP setup, the software tracks IP addresses, which simplifies network administration. This lets you add a new computer to the network without having to manually assign that computer a unique IP address.

2.5.3 Installing on Multihomed Computers

You can install Oracle Database on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer is associated with multiple IP addresses. This is typically achieved by having multiple network cards on the computer. Each IP address is associated with a host name. In addition, you can set up aliases for the host name. By default, Oracle Universal Installer uses the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable setting to find the host name. If ORACLE_HOSTNAME is not set and you are installing on a computer that has multiple network cards, then Oracle Universal Installer determines the host name by using the first entry in the /etc/hosts file.

Clients must be able to access the computer either by using this host name or by using aliases for this host name. To verify this, ping the host name from the client computers using the short name (host name only) and the full name (host name and domain name). Both tests must be successful.

Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable

Use the following procedure to set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable. For example, if the fully qualified host name is somehost.us.example.com, then enter one of the following commands:

In Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

$ ORACLE_HOSTNAME=somehost.us.example.com
$ export ORACLE_HOSTNAME

In C shell:

% setenv ORACLE_HOSTNAME somehost.us.example.com

2.5.4 Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases

A computer with multiple aliases is registered with the naming service under a single IP but with multiple aliases. The naming service resolves any of those aliases to the same computer. Before installing Oracle Database on such a computer, set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable to the computer whose host name you want to use.

2.5.5 Installing on Non-Networked Computers

You can install Oracle Database on a non-networked computer. If the computer, such as a laptop, is configured for DHCP and you plan to connect the computer to the network after the Oracle Database installation, then use the ping command on the computer on which you want to install the database to check if the computer can connect to itself. Perform this step by first using only the host name and then using the fully qualified name, which should be in the /etc/hosts file.

Note:

When you run the ping command on the computer itself, the ping command should return the IP address of the computer.

If the ping command fails, then contact the network administrator.

Connecting the Computer to the Network after Installation

If you connect the computer to a network after installation, then the Oracle Database instance on the computer can work with other instances on the network. The computer can use a static IP or DHCP, depending on the network to which you are connected.

2.6 Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users

Depending on whether this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on this system and on the products that you are installing, you may need to create several operating system groups and users.

The following operating system groups and user are required if you are installing Oracle Database:

The following operating system group and user are required for all installations:

A single Oracle Inventory group is required for all installations of Oracle software on the system. After the first installation of Oracle software, you must use the same Oracle Inventory group for all subsequent Oracle software installations on that system. However, you can choose to create different Oracle software owner users, OSDBA groups, and OSOPER groups (other than oracle, dba, and oper) for separate installations. By using different groups for different installations, members of these different groups have DBA privileges only on the associated databases rather than on all databases on the system.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information on the OSDBA and OSOPER groups and the SYSDBA and SYSOPER privileges

Note:

The following sections describe how to create local users and groups. As an alternative to creating local users and groups, you can create the appropriate users and groups in a directory service, for example, Network Information Services (NIS). For information about using directory services, contact the system administrator or refer to the operating system documentation.

The following sections describe how to create the required operating system users and groups:

2.6.1 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle Inventory group and a software owner:

Determining Whether the Oracle Inventory Group Exists

When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (typically, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory. An oraInst.loc file has contents similar to the following:

inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group

In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle Central Inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to write to the central inventory.

If you have an existing Oracle Inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.

To determine whether the Oracle Inventory group exists, enter the following command:

# more /etc/oraInst.loc

If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall

In the previous output example:

  • The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory

  • The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in this example, oinstall).

Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by entering the following command:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd oinstall

2.6.2 Creating the OSDBA Group

You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:

  • An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database administrative privileges in a new Oracle installation

To determine whether the OSDBA group exists, enter the following command:

# grep OSDBA_group_name /etc/group

Note:

The default OSDBA group name is dba.

If the OSDBA group does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create it as follows. In the following command, use the group name dba unless a group with that name already exists.

# /usr/sbin/groupadd dba

2.6.3 Creating an OSOPER Group (Optional)

Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. If you want to use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:

  • If an OSOPER group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation

If you require a new OSOPER group, then create it as follows. In the following command, use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists.

# /usr/sbin/groupadd oper

2.6.4 Creating an OSASM Group

Create an OSASM group only if you want SYSASM as a system privilege that enables the separation of the SYSDBA database administration privilege from the Automatic Storage Management storage administration privilege. If you want to use an OSASM group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:

  • If an OSASM group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • If an OSASM group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation

To determine whether the OSASM group exists, enter the following command:

# grep OSASM_group_name /etc/group

If the OSASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSASM group, then create it as follows. In the following command, use the group name asadmin unless a group with that name already exists.

# /usr/sbin/groupadd asmadmin

2.6.5 Creating the Oracle Software Owner User

You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle software on the system

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation

2.6.5.1 Determining Whether an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle exists, enter the following command:

# id oracle

If the oracle user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=440(oracle) gid=200(oinstall) groups=201(dba),202(oper)

If the user exists, then determine whether you want to use the existing user or create another oracle user. If you want to use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups. Refer to one of the following sections for more information:

Note:

If necessary, contact the system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.

2.6.5.2 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User

In the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name already exists. If the Oracle software owner user does not exist or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as follows:

  1. To create the oracle user, enter a command similar to the following:

     # /usr/sbin/useradd -g oinstall -G dba[,oper] oracle
    

    In this command:

    • The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall

    • The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA group and if required, the OSOPER group (dba or oper)

  2. Set the password of the oracle user:

    # passwd oracle
    

2.6.5.3 Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User

If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSOPER groups, then enter a command similar to the following to modify it. Specify the primary group using the -g option and any required secondary group using the -G option:

# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba[,oper] oracle

2.7 Configure Oracle Installation Owner Shell Limits

For information, review "Configuring the oracle User's Environment"

To improve the performance of the software, you must increase the following shell limits for the oracle user:

Shell Limit Item in limits.conf Hard Limit
Maximum number of open file descriptors nofile 65536
Maximum number of processes available to a single user nproc 16384

To increase the shell limits:

Add the following lines to the /etc/security/limits.conf file:

oracle              soft    nproc   2047
oracle              hard    nproc   16384
oracle              soft    nofile  1024
oracle              hard    nofile  65536

Note:

All the shell limit changes that you make to the limits.conf file is updated into the file, and is available the next time you log in to the system.

2.8 Configuring Kernel Parameters

Verify that the kernel parameters shown in the following table are set to values greater than or equal to the minimum value shown. If the current value for any parameter is higher than the value listed in this table, then do not change the value of that parameter. The procedure following the table describes how to verify and set the values.

Note:

The kernel parameter and shell limit values shown in the following section are minimum values only. For production database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to optimize the performance of the system. Refer to the operating system documentation for more information about tuning kernel parameters.
Parameter Minimum Value File
semmsl

semmns

semopm

semmni

250

32000

100

128

/proc/sys/kernel/sem
shmall 2097152 /proc/sys/kernel/shmall
shmmax Minimum of the following values:
  • Half the size of the memory

  • 4GB - 1 byte

Note: The minimum value required for shmmax is 0.5 GB. However, Oracle recommends that you set the value of shmmax to 2.0 GB for optimum performance of the system.

/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
shmmni 4096 /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
file-max 6815744 /proc/sys/fs/file-max
ip_local_port_range Minimum: 9000

Maximum: 65500

Note: Ignore any Oracle Universal Installer warnings related to this parameter.

/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
rmem_default 262144 /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default
rmem_max 4194304 /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max
wmem_default 262144 /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default
wmem_max 1048576 /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max
aio-max-nr Maximum: 1048576

Note: This value limits concurrent outstanding requests and should be set to avoid I/O subsystem failures.

/sbin/sysctl

To display the current value specified for these kernel parameters, and to change them if necessary, use the following steps:

Refer to the "Identifying Required Software Directories" section to continue.

2.9 Identifying Required Software Directories

You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:

2.9.1 Oracle Base Directory

The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. On Linux systems, the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:

/mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner

In this example:

  • mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that will contain the Oracle software.

    The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory. However, you can choose another mount point directory, such as /oracle or /opt/oracle.

  • oracle_sw_owner is the operating system user name of the Oracle software owner, for example oracle.

Note:

If you start a database instance using spfile with ORACLE_BASE environment variable set, then its value is automatically stored in spfile. If you unset ORACLE_BASE environment variable subsequently and start the instance afresh, then database uses the value of Oracle base stored in spfile.

You need to specify the Oracle base folder that contains all Oracle products.

Note:

If you have an existing Oracle base, then you can select it from the Use existing list. By default, the list contains the existing value for Oracle base preselected. Refer to "Installing the Oracle Database Software" for further information.

If you do not have an Oracle base, then you can create one by editing the text in the list box.

You can use the same Oracle base directory for more than one installation or you can create separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory. The following are the example of Oracle base directories that can exist on the same system:

/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser
/opt/oracle/app/oracle

2.9.2 Oracle Inventory Directory

The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.

The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer checks if you have created an OFA-compliant directory structure with the format u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app, and that the user running the installation has permissions to write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory similar to /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:

/u01/app/oraInventory

If you have set the environment variable ORACLE_BASE for the oracle user, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory similar to $ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to /opt/oracle/11, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created similar to /opt/oracle/oraInventory.

If you have neither created an OFA-compliant path nor set ORACLE_BASE, then the Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is performing the installation. For example:

/home/oracle/oraInventory

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not need to create it.

Note:

  • All Oracle software installations rely on this directory. Ensure that you back it up regularly.

  • Do not delete this directory unless you have completely removed all Oracle software from the system.

2.9.3 Oracle Home Directory

The Oracle home directory is the directory where you choose to install the software for a particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories. When you run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory and a name that identifies it. The directory that you specify must be a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the following for the Oracle home directory:

oracle_base/product/11.1.0/db_1

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not need to create this directory.

Note:

During installation, you must not specify an existing directory that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle home directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure due to file and group ownership permission errors.

2.10 Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base directory or if required, create one. This section contains information about the following:

Note:

You can choose to create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle base directories exist on the system.

2.10.1 Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory

Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that comply with OFA (Optimal Flexible Architecture) guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle Inventory directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify the Oracle base directories, as follows:

  • Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory. Refer to Creating the Oracle Inventory Group for more information.

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you do not put the oraInventory directory under Oracle base for a new installation. However, if you have an existing installation, then you should follow the steps suggested in this section.
  • Identifying an existing Oracle home directory

    Enter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:

    # more /etc/oratab
    

    If the oratab file exists, then it contains lines similar to the following:

    *:/u03/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1:N
    *:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
    *:/oracle/9.2.0:N
    

    The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories. Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner that you want to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user to install the software, then you can choose one of the following directories listed in the previous example:

    /u03/app/oracle
    /oracle
    

    Note:

    If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one (/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.
  • Identifying an existing Oracle base directory

    After you have located the Oracle home directory, you can run the following command to confirm the location of Oracle base:

    cat inventory/ContentsXML/oraclehomeproperties.xml
    

Before deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure that it satisfies the following conditions:

  • It should not be on the same file system as the operating system.

  • It must have sufficient free disk space, as follows:

    Requirement Free Disk Space
    The Oracle base directory will contain only software files. Up to 3 GB
    The Oracle base directory will contain both software and database files (not recommended for production databases). Up to 5.4 GB

    To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory is located, enter the following command:

    # df -k oracle_base_path
    

To continue:

  • If an Oracle base directory exists and you want to use it, then refer to the "Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files" section.

    When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the directory you chose.

  • If an Oracle base directory does not exist on the system or if you want to create an Oracle base directory, then refer to the following section.

2.10.2 Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file system with sufficient free disk space.

To identify an appropriate file system:

  1. To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the following command:

    # df -k 
    
  2. From the display, identify a file system that has appropriate free space.

    The file system that you identify can be a local file system, a cluster file system, or an NFS file system on a certified NAS device.

  3. Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.

To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and permissions for it:

  1. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    # mkdir -p /mount_point/app
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app
    # chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/
    

    For example:

    # mkdir -p /u01/app
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app
    # chmod -R 775 /u01/app/
    
  2. When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you have created.

2.11 Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files

Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage option that you want to use for Oracle Database files. If you want to enable automated backups during the installation, then you must also choose the storage option that you want to use for recovery files (the flash recovery area). You do not have to use the same storage option for each file type.

Note:

Database files and recovery files are supported on file systems and Automatic Storage Management.

Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options that you want to use for each file type:

For information about how to configure disk storage before you start the installation, refer to one of the following sections depending on your choice:

2.12 Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files

This section contains the following topics:

2.12.1 Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System

If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following guidelines when deciding where to place them:

  • The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.

  • You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the database files:

    • If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical device that is dedicated to the database.

      For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume on more than one physical device and implement the stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology.

    • If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.

      This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also enables you to fully implement the OFA guidelines described in Appendix D, "Optimal Flexible Architecture". You must choose either the Advanced database creation option or the Custom installation type during the installation to implement this method.

  • If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 1.5 GB of free disk space.

    For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement depending on the use that you want to make of the database.

  • For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose should be on physical devices that are used only by the database.

  • The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that you specify.

2.12.2 Creating Required Directories

Note:

You must perform this procedure only if you want to place the Oracle Database or recovery files on a separate file system to the Oracle base directory.

To create directories for the Oracle database, or recovery files on separate file systems to the Oracle base directory:

  1. Use the following to determine the free disk space on each mounted file system:

    # df -k 
    
  2. From the display, identify the file systems that you want to use:

    File Type File System Requirements
    Database files Choose either:
    • A single file system with at least 1.5 GB of free disk space

    • Two or more file systems with at least 1.5 GB of free disk space in total

    Recovery files Choose a file system with at least 2.4 GB of free disk space

    If you are using the same file system for more than one type of file, then add the disk space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.

  3. Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you identified.

  4. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    • Database file directory:

      # mkdir /mount_point/oradata
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
      

      The default location for Database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/oradata.

    • Recovery file directory (flash recovery area):

      # mkdir /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
      

      The default flash recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/flash_recovery_area. However, Oracle recommends that you keep the flash recovery area on a separate physical disk than that of the database file directory. This will enable you use the flash recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is unusable due to any reasons.

  5. If you also want to use Automatic Storage Management for storage, then refer to the following section:

    "Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation"

    Otherwise, refer to the "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" section.

2.13 Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation

This section describes how to configure disks for use with Automatic Storage Management. Before you configure the disks, you must determine the number of disks and the amount of free disk space that you require. The following sections describe how to identify the requirements and configure the disks on each platform:

2.13.1 General Steps for Configuring Automatic Storage Management

The following are the general steps to configure Automatic Storage Management:

  1. Identify the storage requirements of the site.

  2. Optionally, use an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group.

  3. If you are creating an Automatic Storage Management disk group, create partitions for DAS or SAN disks.

  4. Use one of the following methods to complete the Automatic Storage Management configuration:

    • If you plan to install Oracle Database using interactive mode, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the Automatic Storage Management disk configuration information during the installation.

    • If you plan to install Oracle Database using noninteractive mode, you should manually configure the disks before performing the installation.

2.13.2 Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management

To identify the storage requirements for using Automatic Storage Management, you must determine the number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this task:

  1. Determine whether you want to use Automatic Storage Management for Oracle Database files, recovery files, or both.

    Note:

    You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for data files and recovery files. You can use the file system for one file type and Automatic Storage Management for the other. If you plan to use Automatic Storage Management for both data files and recovery files, then you should create separate Automatic Storage Management disk groups for the data files and the recovery files.

    If you plan to enable automated backups during the installation, then you can choose Automatic Storage Management as the storage mechanism for recovery files by specifying an Automatic Storage Management disk group for the flash recovery area. Depending on how you choose to create a database during the installation, you have the following options:

    • If you select an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in an interactive mode, by choosing the Advanced database configuration option for example, then you can decide whether you want to use the same Automatic Storage Management disk group for database files and recovery files, or you can choose to use different disk groups for each file type. Ideally, you should create separate Automatic Storage Management disk groups for data files and for recovery files.

      The same choice is available to you if you use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after the installation to create a database.

    • If you select an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in noninteractive mode, then you must use the same Automatic Storage Management disk group for data files and recovery files.

  2. Choose the Automatic Storage Management redundancy level that you want to use for each Automatic Storage Management disk group that you create.

    The redundancy level that you choose for the Automatic Storage Management disk group determines how Automatic Storage Management mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of disks and amount of disk space that you require, as follows:

    • External redundancy

      An external redundancy disk group requires a minimum of one disk device. The effective disk space in an external redundancy disk group is the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.

      This option does not allow Automatic Storage Management to mirror the contents of the disk group. Oracle recommends that you select this redundancy level either when the disk group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own data protection or when the database does not require an uninterrupted access to data.

    • Normal redundancy

      In a normal redundancy disk group, to increase performance and reliability, Automatic Storage Management by default uses two-way mirroring. A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two disk devices (or two failure groups). The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.

      For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy disk groups.

    • High redundancy

      The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure groups (a minimum of 3 devices).

      Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices before deciding to use this redundancy level.

  3. Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files and recovery files.

    If an Automatic Storage Management instance is already running on the system, then you can use an existing disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the installation.

    Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum disk space requirements for the installation:

    Redundancy Level Minimum Number of Disks Data Files Recovery Files Both File Types
    External 1 1.15 GB 2.3 GB 3.45 GB
    Normal 2 2.3 GB 4.6 GB 6.9 GB
    High 3 3.45 GB 6.9 GB 10.35 GB

    The following step describes how to identify existing disk groups and determine the free disk space that they contain.

  4. Identify failure groups for the Automatic Storage Management disk group devices.

    Note:

    You need to perform this step only when you intend to use an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in an interactive mode. For example, if you intend to choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database configuration option. Other installation types do not enable you to specify failure groups.

    If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its failure group. However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.

    To avoid failures of this type, you can use two SCSI controllers, each with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller.

    Note:

    If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
  5. If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Apply the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:

    • All the devices in an Automatic Storage Management disk group should be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.

    • Do not specify more than one partition on a single physical disk as a disk group device. Automatic Storage Management expects each disk group device to be on a separate physical disk.

    • Oracle does not recommend the use of logical volume as a device in an Automatic Storage manger because the logical volume is capable of hiding the physical disk architecture which prevents Automatic Storage Manager from optimizing I/O across physical devices.

    See Also:

    "Step 4: Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management" for information about completing this task

2.13.3 Step 2: Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group

Note:

This is an optional step.

If you want to store either database or recovery files in an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group, then you have the following choices, depending on the installation method that you select:

  • To run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in an interactive mode (for example, choosing the Advanced database configuration option), you can decide to create a disk group or use an existing one.

    The same choice is available to you if you use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after the installation to create a database.

  • If you select an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in noninteractive mode, then you must choose an existing disk group for the new database; you cannot create a disk group. However, you can add disk devices to an existing disk group if it has insufficient free space for your requirements.

Note:

The Automatic Storage Management instance that manages the existing disk group can be running in a different Oracle home directory.

To determine whether an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group exists, or to determine whether there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control or Database Control. Alternatively, you can use the following procedure:

  1. View the contents of the oratab file to determine whether an Automatic Storage Management instance is configured on the system:

    # more /etc/oratab
    

    If an Automatic Storage Management instance is configured on the system, then the oratab file should contain a line similar to the following:

    +ASM:oracle_home_path:N
    

    In this example, +ASM is the system identifier (SID) of the Automatic Storage Management instance and oracle_home_path is the Oracle home directory where it is installed. By convention, the SID for an Automatic Storage Management instance begins with a plus sign.

  2. Open a shell prompt and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Automatic Storage Management instance that you want to use.

    For example, if the Automatic Storage Management SID is named OraDB11g+ASM and is located in the asm subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following commands to create the required settings:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_SID=OraDB11g+ASM
      $ export ORACLE_SID
      $ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
      $ export ORACLE_HOME
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_SID OraDB11g+ASM
      % setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
      
  3. By using SQL*Plus, connect to the Automatic Storage Management instance as the SYS user with SYSASM privilege and start the instance, if necessary:

    # $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus 
    SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSASM
    Enter password: SYS_password 
    SQL> STARTUP
    
  4. Enter the following command to display the existing disk groups, their redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:

    SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
    
  5. From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and note the free space that it contains.

  6. If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the storage requirements listed in the previous section.

    Note:

    If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then Oracle recommends that you use devices that have the same size and performance characteristics as the existing devices in that disk group.

2.13.4 Step 3: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Automatic Storage Management

In order to use a DAS or SAN disk in Automatic Storage Management, the disk must have a partition table. Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk containing the entire disk.

Note:

You can use any physical disk for Automatic Storage Management, as long as it is partitioned.

2.13.5 Step 4: Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management

Oracle provides an Automatic Storage Management library driver that you can use to simplify the configuration and management of the disk devices that you want to use with Automatic Storage Management. A disk that is configured for Automatic Storage Management is known as a candidate disk.

If you intend to use Automatic Storage Management for database storage, then Oracle recommends that you install the Automatic Storage Management library driver (ASMLIB) and associated utilities and use them to configure the devices that you want to include in an Automatic Storage Management disk group.

Note:

If you choose to configure disks using the Automatic Storage Management library driver, then you must change the default disk discovery string to ORCL:*. These disks would be discovered if the diskstring is either set to ORCL:* or is left empty ("").

2.13.5.1 Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management Using the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver (ASMLIB)

To use the Automatic Storage Management library driver to configure Automatic Storage Management devices, complete the following tasks:

Installing and Configuring the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver Software

To install and configure the Automatic Storage Management library driver software:

  1. Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of the system:

    # uname -rm
    
  2. If necessary, download the required Automatic Storage Management library driver packages from the Oracle Technology Network Web site:

    http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/linux/asmlib/index-101839.html
    

    Note:

    Automatic Storage Management library driver packages for some kernel versions are available on the Oracle Database installation media in the database/RPMS/asmlib directory. However, Oracle recommends that you check the Oracle Technology Network Web site for the most up-to-date packages.

    You must install the following packages, where version is the version of the Automatic Storage Management library driver, arch is the system architecture, and kernel is the version of the kernel that you are using:

    oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
    oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
    oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
    
  3. Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:

    # sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
               oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
               oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
    

    For example, if you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 5.0 enterprise kernel on an x86 system, then enter a command similar to the following:

    # sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm \
               oracleasm-2.6.9-e-enterprise-1.0.0-1.i686.rpm \
               oracleasmlib-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm
    
  4. Enter a command similar to the following to determine the UID of the Oracle software owner user that you are using for this installation (typically oracle) and the GID of the OSASM group (typically asm):

    # id oracle
    
  5. Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the configure option:

    # /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
    
  6. Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script displays:

    Prompt Suggested Response
    Default UID to own the driver interface: Specify the UID of the Oracle software owner user (oracle).
    Default GID to own the driver interface: Specify the GID of the OSASM group (asm).
    Start Oracle Automatic Storage Management Library driver on start (y/n): Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver when the system starts.

Configuring the Disk Devices to Use the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver

To configure the disk devices that you want to use in an Automatic Storage Management disk group:

  1. If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Automatic Storage Management disk group, then:

    1. If necessary, install or configure the disk devices that you intend to use for the disk group and restart the system.

    2. To identify the device name for the disks that you want to use, enter the following command:

      # /sbin/fdisk -l
      

      Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary.

      Disk Type Device Name Format Description
      IDE disk
      /dev/hdxn
      
      In this example, x is a letter that identifies the IDE disk and n is the partition number. For example, /dev/hda is the first disk on the first IDE bus.
      SCSI disk
      /dev/sdxn
      
      In this example, x is a letter that identifies the SCSI disk and n is the partition number. For example, /dev/sda is the first disk on the first SCSI bus.
      RAID disk
      /dev/rd/cxdypz
      /dev/ida/cxdypz
      
      Depending on the RAID controller, RAID devices can have different device names. In the examples shown, x is a number that identifies the controller, y is a number that identifies the disk, and z is a number that identifies the partition. For example, /dev/ida/c0d1 is the second logical drive on the first controller.

      To include devices in a disk group, you can specify either whole-drive device names or partition device names.

      Note:

      Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk partition on each disk that you want to use.
    3. Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the disk devices that you want to use.

  2. Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Automatic Storage Management disk:

    # /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1
    

    In this example, DISK1 is a name that you want to assign to the disk.

    Note:

    • If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Automatic Storage Management, then ensure that you specify the correct logical device name for the disk.

      The disk names that you specify can contain uppercase letters, numbers, and the underscore character. They must start with an uppercase letter.

    • To create a database during the installation using the Automatic Storage Management library driver, you must change the default disk discovery string to ORCL:*. These disks would be discovered if the diskstring is either set to ORCL:* or is left empty.

Administering the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver and Disks

To administer the Automatic Storage Management library driver and disks, use the oracleasm initialization script with the following options:

Option Description
configure
Use the configure option to reconfigure the Automatic Storage Management library driver, if necessary:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
enable
disable
Use the disable and enable options to change the behavior of the Automatic Storage Management library driver when the system starts. The enable option causes the Automatic Storage Management library driver to load when the system starts:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm enable
start
stop
restart
Use the start, stop, and restart options to load or unload the Automatic Storage Management library driver without restarting the system:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm restart
createdisk
Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device for use with the Automatic Storage Management library driver and give it a name:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISKNAME devicename
deletedisk
Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named disk device:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm deletedisk DISKNAME

Note: Do not use this command to unmark disks that are being used by an Automatic Storage Management disk group. You must drop the disk from the Automatic Storage Management disk group before you unmark it.

querydisk
Use the querydisk option to determine whether a disk device or disk name is being used by the Automatic Storage Management library driver:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm querydisk {DISKNAME | devicename}
listdisks
Use the listdisks option to list the disk names of marked Automatic Storage Management library driver disks:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm listdisks
scandisks
Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes to identify which shared disks have been marked as Automatic Storage Management library driver disks on another node:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm scandisks

2.14 Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database

The O_DIRECT parameter enables direct read and writes to block devices, avoiding kernel overhead. With Oracle Database Release 10.2 and later, Oracle Database files are configured by default to use direct input/output.

With the 2. 6 kernel or later for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, and SUSE Enterprise Server, you must create a permissions file to maintain permissions on Oracle database files. If you do not create this permissions file, then permissions on disk devices revert to their default values, root:disk, and Oracle database fails to start. Use the following steps to set the permissions file number:

To configure a permissions file for disk devices, complete the following tasks:

See Also:

Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux for information about configuring storage for Oracle database files on shared storage devices.

2.14.1 Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Database

The procedure to create a permissions file to grant oinstall group members write privileges to block devices is as follows:

  1. Log in as root.

  2. Change to the /etc/udev/permissions.d directory:

    # cd /etc/udev/permissions.d
    
  3. Start a text editor, such as vi, and enter the partition information where you want to place the data files and voting disk files, using the syntax device[partitions]:root:oinstall:0640. Oracle recommends that you place the data files on separate physical disks. For example, to grant oinstall members access to SCSI disks to place data files on sda and sdb, and to grant the Oracle Database owner permissions to place voting disks on sdF, sdG and sdE, add the following information to the file:

    Binary Files

    sdb:oracle:oinstall:0640
    sdc:oracle:oinstall:0640
    sda:oracle:oinstall:0640
    

    Data Files/Flash Recovery Files

    sdE:oracle:oinstall:0640
    sdF:oracle:oinstall:0640
    sdG:oracle:oinstall:0640
    
  4. Save the file as 49-oracle.permissions on a Red Hat and Oracle Linux 4 system and 51-oracle.permissions on a SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 system

  5. Using the following command, assign the permissions in the udev file to the devices:

    # /sbin/udevstart
    

2.14.2 Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Database

The following is the procedure to create partitions for Oracle Database files on block devices:

  1. Log in as root

  2. Enter the fdisk command to format a specific storage disk. For example, /sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb

  3. Create a partition, and make the partition 280 MB in size for both data files and voting disk partitions.

  4. Use the command similar to the following to update the kernel partition table for the shared storage device:

    /sbin/partprobe diskpath
    

The following is an example of how to use fdisk to create one partition on a shared storage block disk device for a data file:

$ sudo sh
Password:
# /sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 1024.
Command (m for help): n
Command action
  e   extended
  P   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-1024, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-4462, default 1)
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-1024, default 4462): using default value 4462

Command (m for help):w

The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl () to re-read partition table.
Synching disks.
# exit
$ ssh remotenode
Last login Wed Feb 21 20:23:01 from localnode
$ sudo sh
Password:
# /sbin/partprobe /dev/sdb1

2.15 Stopping Existing Oracle Processes

Note:

If you are installing additional Oracle Database 11g products in an existing Oracle home, then stop all processes running in the Oracle home. You must complete this task to enable Oracle Universal Installer to relink certain executables and libraries.

If you choose to create a database during the installation, then most installation types configure and start a default Oracle Net listener using TCP/IP port 1521 and the IPC key value EXTPROC. However, if an existing Oracle Net listener process is using the same port or key value, Oracle Universal Installer can only configure the new listener, it cannot start it. To ensure that the new listener process starts during the installation, you must shut down any existing listeners before starting Oracle Universal Installer.

To determine whether an existing listener process is running and to shut it down, if necessary:

  1. Switch user to oracle:

    # su - oracle
    
  2. Enter the following command to determine whether a listener process is running and to identify its name and the Oracle home directory in which it is installed:

    $ ps -ef | grep tnslsnr
    

    This command displays information about the Oracle Net listeners running on the system:

    ... oracle_home1/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inherit
    

    In this example, oracle_home1 is the Oracle home directory where the listener is installed and LISTENER is the listener name.

    Note:

    If no Oracle Net listeners run, then refer to the "Configuring the oracle User's Environment" section to continue.
  3. Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the appropriate Oracle home directory for the listener:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_HOME=oracle_home1
      $ export ORACLE_HOME
      
    • C or tcsh shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_HOME oracle_home1
      
  4. Enter the following command to identify the TCP/IP port number and IPC key value that the listener is using:

    $ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl status listenername
    

    Note:

    If the listener uses the default name LISTENER, then you do not have to specify the listener name in this command.
  5. Enter a command similar to the following to stop the listener process:

    $ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop listenername
    
  6. Repeat this procedure to stop all listeners running on this system.

2.16 Configuring the oracle User's Environment

You run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle account. However, before you start Oracle Universal Installer you must configure the environment of the oracle user. To configure the environment, you must:

To set the oracle user's environment:

  1. Start a new terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).

  2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on this system:

    $ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
    

    For example:

    $ xhost somehost.us.example.com
    
  3. If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the software, then log in to that system as the oracle user.

  4. If you are not logged in as the oracle user, then switch user to oracle:

    $ su - oracle
    
  5. To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:

    $ echo $SHELL
    
  6. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:

    • Bash shell:

      $ . ./.bash_profile
      
    • Bourne or Korn shell:

      $ . ./.profile
      
    • C shell:

      % source ./.login
      
  7. If you are not installing the software on the local computer, then run the following command on the remote computer to set the DISPLAY variable:

    • Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:

      $ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0      
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
      

    In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the local computer that you want to use to display Oracle Universal Installer.

    Run the following command on the remote computer to check if the shell and the DISPLAY environmental variable are set correctly:

    echo $SHELL
    echo $DISPLAY
    

    Now to enable X applications, run the following commands on the local computer:

    $ xhost + fully_qualified_remote_host_name
    

    To verify that X applications display is set properly, run a X11 based program that comes with the operating system such as xclock:

    $ xclock_path
    

    In this example, xclock_path is the directory path. For example, you can find xclock at /usr/X11R6/bin/xclocks. If the DISPLAY variable is set properly, then you can see xclock on your computer screen.

    See Also:

    PC-X Server or Operating System vendor documents for further assistance.
  8. If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 400 MB of free disk space, then identify a file system with at least 400 MB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:

    1. To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the following command:

      # df -k /tmp
      
    2. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate permissions on the directory:

      $ sudo mkdir /mount_point/tmp
      $ sudo chmod a+wr /mount_point/tmp
      # exit
      
    3. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables:

      • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

        $ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
        $ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
        $ export TMP TMPDIR
        
      • C shell:

        % setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
        % setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
        
  9. Enter commands similar to the following to set the ORACLE_BASE and ORACLE_SID environment variables:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
      $ ORACLE_SID=sales
      $ export ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_SID
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_BASE /u01/app/oracle
      % setenv ORACLE_SID sales
      

    In these examples, /u01/app/oracle is the Oracle base directory that you created or identified earlier and sales is the name that you want to call the database (typically no more than five characters).

  10. Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME and TNS_ADMIN environment variables are not set:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ unset ORACLE_HOME
      $ unset TNS_ADMIN
      
    • C shell:

      % unsetenv ORACLE_HOME
      % unsetenv TNS_ADMIN
      

    Note:

    If the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set, then Oracle Universal Installer uses the value that it specifies as the default path for the Oracle home directory. However, if you set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable, then Oracle recommends that you unset the ORACLE_HOME environment variable and choose the default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer.