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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1) for Microsoft Windows

B32006-09
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5 Getting Started with Oracle Database

This chapter describes where to go after you have completed an Oracle Database installation, such as how to check the installed contents, start various tools, and identify and locate various files. It covers these topics:

5.1 Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location

Use Oracle Universal Installer to check the contents and directory location of your Oracle Database installation.

Follow these steps:

  1. From the Start menu, select Programs, then Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Oracle Installation Products, then Universal Installer.

  2. In the Welcome window, click Installed Products to display the Inventory dialog box.

  3. To check the installed contents, find the Oracle Database product in the list.

    To find additional information about an installed product, click Details.

  4. To check the directory location of the installed contents, click the Environment tab.

  5. Click Close to exit the Inventory dialog box.

  6. Click Cancel to exit Oracle Universal Installer, then click Yes to confirm.

5.2 Logging in to Enterprise Manager Database Control

Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control provides a Web-based user interface that you can use to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database, including Automatic Storage Management.

To log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control:

  1. Open your Web browser and enter the following URL

    https://hostname:port/em
    
    
    

    In a default installation, the port number is 1158. If you are unsure of the correct port number to use, look for the following line in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\install\portlist.ini file:

    Enterprise Manager Console HTTP Port (db_name) = port
    

    Note:

    The portlist.ini file if not updated if you change a port number after you install Oracle Database. "Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports" explains how to find the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control port number in this situation

    For example, if you installed the database on a host computer named mgmt42, and the port number listed in the portlist.ini file is 5500, then enter the following URL:

    http://mgmt42:5500/em
    
    
    

    Enterprise Manager displays the Database Control Login Page.

  2. Log in to the database using the user name SYSTEM and connect as SYSDBA. Enterprise Manager displays the Database Home page.

    Use the password that you specified for the SYSTEM account during the installation.

    Note:

    You can also log in to the Database Control using the SYSTEM or SYSMAN accounts or you can grant login privileges to other database users.

5.2.1 Understanding Database Control Login Privileges

When you log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control using the SYSMAN user account, you are logging in as the Oracle Enterprise Manager super user. The SYSMAN account is automatically granted the roles and privileges required to access all the management functionality provided with Database Control.

You can also use the SYS and SYSTEM accounts to log in to Database Control. In addition, you can grant login privileges to other database users. To grant management access for other database users, use the following procedure:

  1. Log in to Database Control.

  2. Click Setup at the top of the Database Control Home page.

  3. Click Administrators in the left navigation bar.

  4. Click Create to create a new Enterprise Manager user.

  5. In the Name field, enter the user name of an existing database user, or click the flashlight icon and select a user from the pop-up window.

  6. Enter the password for this user, then click Review.

  7. On the properties page, click Finish.

Enterprise Manager assigns login privileges to the specified user and includes this user in the list of Enterprise Manager users on the Setup Administrators page.

To enable a nonadministrative user to log in to Database Control, the user must be granted the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY system privilege.

5.3 Starting and Stopping an Oracle Database

You can start and stop an Oracle database by using any of the following methods:

5.3.1 Starting and Stopping the Database with Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control

To start or stop the database:

  1. From a Web browser, start Enterprise Manager Database Control and log in, for example:

    http://myserver:1158/em
    
  2. Click Home to go to the home page.

  3. Under General, click Start to start the database or click Shutdown to shut it down.

5.3.2 Starting and Stopping the Database with Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows

Oracle Administration Assistant is available from the Custom installation type.

To start or stop the database:

  1. From the Start menu, select Programs, then Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Configuration and Migration Tools, and then Administrative Assistant for Windows.

  2. In the console window, expand the Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows tree structure.

  3. Under Databases, right-click the name of the database that you want, and from the menu, select from the following options:

    • Connect Database

    • Start Service

    • Disconnect Database

    • Stop Service

    • Startup/Shutdown Options

5.3.3 Starting and Stopping the Database from the Microsoft Windows Services Utility

To start or stop the database:

  1. From the Start menu, select Programs, then Administrative Tools, and then Services.

  2. In the Services dialog box, locate the name of the database you want to start or stop.

  3. Right-click the name of the database, and from the menu, select either Start, Stop, or Pause.

    To set its startup properties, right-click Properties, and in the dialog box, select either Automatic, Manual, or Disabled.

5.4 Managing Automatic Storage Management

This section covers the following topics:

5.4.1 Starting and Stopping Automatic Storage Management

To start and stop Automatic Storage Management, in addition to using SQL*Plus, you can use the Windows Services utility.

To start Automatic Storage Management using the Services utility:

  1. From the Start menu, select Programs, then Administrative Tools, and then Services.

  2. In the Services dialog box, start the following services by right-clicking their names and in the menu, select Start:

    • OracleCSService

    • OracleASMService+ASM

    To set the startup properties for these services, right-click Properties, and in the Properties dialog box, under Startup Type, select Automatic, Manual, or Disabled.

  3. Exit Services.

To stop Automatic Storage Management using the Services utility:

  1. From the Start menu, select Programs, then Administrative Tools, then Services.

  2. In the Services dialog box, Shut down any databases that use Automatic Storage Management. Names of Oracle databases are preceded with OracleService.

  3. Right-click the OracleCSService and Oracle ASMService+ASM services and from the menu, select Stop.

  4. Exit Services.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information on starting and stopping Automatic Storage Management instances by using SQL*Plus

5.4.2 Automatic Storage Management Utilities

To manage Automatic Storage Management, you can use the following tools:

  • asmcmd: This command-line tool lets you manage Automatic Storage Management disk group files and directories.

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control: If you have Oracle Enterprise Manager installed, you can use Grid Control to manage Automatic Storage Management functions such as migrating an existing database to Automatic Storage Management, checking the status of the Automatic Storage Management instance, checking the performance of the Automatic Storage Management disk groups, creating or dropping Automatic Storage Management disk groups, and so on.

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control: This utility lets you perform functions similar to Grid Control.

  • SQL*Plus: You can use Automatic Storage Management-specific commands from this tool. To connect to the Automatic Storage Management instance, you use the same methods that you use to connect to an Oracle Database instance.

See Also:

5.5 Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus

To issue SQL and PL/SQL statements to Oracle Database, you can use SQL*Plus. This tool enables you to perform the same database management operations, as well as to query, insert, update, or delete data directly in the database.

To start SQL*Plus:

  1. From the Start menu, select Programs, then Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Application Development, and then SQL Plus.

  2. In the Log On dialog box, enter the user name, password, and for the host string, the name of the database to which you want to connect.

Alternatively, at the command line, you can enter the following command at a Windows command prompt:

c:\> sqlplus /nolog
SQL> CONNECT user_name
Enter password: password 

For example, to log on as SYSTEM using the password password, you enter:

c:\> sqlplus /nolog
SQL> CONNECT SYSTEM
Enter password: password

If you are logging on as SYS, you would need to connect as SYSDBA:

c:\> sqlplus /nolog
SQL> CONNECT SYS AS SYSDBA
Enter password: password

5.6 Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer

To issue SQL and PL/SQL statements to Oracle Database, you can use SQL Developer. All SQL and PL/SQL commands are supported as they are passed directly from the SQL Worksheet to the Oracle Database.

To start SQL Developer:

  1. From the Start menu, select Programs, then Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Application Development, and then SQL Developer.

  2. Right-Click Connections. In the dialog box, enter a Connection name, username, password, and for the host string, the name of the database to which you want to connect and click Connect.

Once connected, you can view, create, modify, and delete the database objects using the Connection Navigator or issue any SQL or PL/SQL command using a SQL Worksheet (From the Tools menu, select SQL Worksheet).

SQL*Plus commands have to be interpreted by the SQL Worksheet before being passed to the database. The SQL Worksheet currently supports a number of SQL*Plus commands. SQL*Plus commands which are not supported by the SQL Worksheet are ignored and are not sent to the Oracle Database.

See Also:

"SQL*Plus Statements Supported and Not Supported in SQL Worksheet" in Oracle Database SQL Developer User's Guide

5.7 Reviewing User Accounts and Passwords

All databases created by Oracle Database Configuration Assistant include the SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP database accounts. In addition, Oracle provides several other administrative accounts. Before using these other accounts, you must unlock them and reset their passwords. Table 5-1 describes these accounts, listing their user names and passwords.

See Also:

5.7.1 Reviewing Administrative Accounts

Table 5-1 describes the administrative user names.

Table 5-1 Administrative Accounts

User Name Description See Also

ANONYMOUS

Allows HTTP access to Oracle XML DB.

Not applicable

BI

Owns the Business Intelligence schema included in the Oracle Sample Schemas. It is only available if you loaded the Sample Schemas.

Oracle Database Sample Schemas

CTXSYS

The Oracle Text account.

Oracle Text Reference

DBSNMP

Used by Management Agent of Oracle Enterprise Manager to monitor and manage the database. This account is created only if you configure the database to use Database Control.

Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic Configuration

DIP

Used by Directory Integration Platform (DIP) to synchronize the changes in Oracle Internet Directory with the applications in the database.

None

EXFSYS

Owns the Expression Filter schema.

None

FLOWS_030000

The account owns the Oracle Application Express schema and metadata.

Oracle Database Application Express User's Guide

FLOWS_FILES

The account owns the Oracle Application Express uploaded files.

Oracle Database Application Express User's Guide

APEX_PUBLIC_USER

The minimally privileged account used for Oracle Application Express configuration with Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql.

Oracle Database Application Express User's Guide

HR

Owns the Human Resources schema included in the Oracle Sample Schemas. It is available only if you loaded the Sample Schemas.

Oracle Database Sample Schemas

IX

Owns the Information Transport schema included in the Oracle Sample Schemas. This account is available only if you loaded the Sample Schemas.

Oracle Database Sample Schemas

LBACSYS

The Oracle Label Security administrator account.

Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide

MDDATA

Used by Oracle Spatial for storing Geocoder and router data.

Oracle Spatial Developer's Guide

MDSYS

The Oracle Spatial and Oracle Multimedia Locator administrator account.

Oracle Spatial Developer's Guide

MGMT_VIEW

Used by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.

None

OE

Owns the Order Entry schema included in the Oracle Sample Schemas. This account is available only if you loaded the Sample Schemas.

Oracle Database Sample Schemas

ORDPLUGINS

The Oracle Multimedia user. Plug-ins supplied by Oracle and third party plug-ins are installed in this schema.

Oracle Multimedia Reference

ORDSYS

The Oracle Multimedia administrator account.

Oracle Multimedia Reference

OUTLN

Centrally manages metadata associated with stored outlines. Supports plan stability, which enables maintenance of the same execution plans for the same SQL statements.

Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide

ORACLE_OCM

This account contains the instrumentation for configuration collection used by the Oracle Configuration Manager.

Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration Guide

OWBSYS

The account used by Oracle Warehouse Builder as its default repository. You must unlock this account subsequent to installing the Oracle Database and prior to launching the Warehouse Builder Repository Assistant.

Oracle Warehouse Builder Installation and Administration Guide

PM

Owns the Product Media schema included in the Oracle Sample Schemas. This account is created only if you loaded the Sample Schemas.

Oracle Database Sample Schemas

SCOTT

An account used by Oracle sample programs and examples.

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide

SH

Owns the Sales History schema included in the Oracle Sample Schemas. This account is available only if you loaded the Sample Schemas during an Enterprise Edition installation

Oracle Database Sample Schemas

SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA

Stores the information views for the SQL/MM Still Image Standard.

Oracle Multimedia Reference

SYS

Used for performing database administration tasks.

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide

SYSMAN

The account used to perform Oracle Enterprise Manager database administration tasks.This account is created only if you configure the database to use the Database Control.

Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic Configuration

SYSTEM

Used for performing database administration tasks.

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide

WMSYS

The account used to store the metadata information for Oracle Workspace Manager.

Oracle Database Workspace Manager Developer's Guide

WKPROXY

The Ultra Search proxy user.

Oracle Ultra Search Administrator's Guide

WK_TEST

The default Ultra Search instance schema.

Oracle Ultra Search Administrator's Guide

WKSYS

The account used to store Ultra Search system dictionaries and PL/SQL packages.

Oracle Ultra Search Administrator's Guide

XDB

Used for storing Oracle XML DB data and metadata.

Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide

DVSYS

There are two roles associated with this account. Database Vault owner role manages the Database Vault roles and configurations. The Database Vault Account Manager is used to manage database user accounts.

Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user interface text is stored in database tables in the DVSYS schema. By default, only the English language is loaded into these tables. You can use Oracle Database Vault Configuration Assistant to add more languages to Oracle Database Vault. For the necessary steps, see Appendix C in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide

Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide


See Also:

5.7.2 Unlocking and Changing Passwords

Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a locked account, you must unlock it and reset its password. If you created a starter database during the installation, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant displays a screen with your database information and the Password Management button. Use the Password Management button to unlock only the user names you will use.

When prompted for a password, follow these guidelines:

  • Make the password between 8 and 30 characters long.

  • Use the database character set for the password's characters, which can include the underscore (_), dollar ($), and pound sign (#) characters.

  • Do not start passwords with a numeral.

  • Do not use a user name for a password.

  • Do not use Oracle reserved words for the password.

  • Do not use change_on_install for the SYS account password.

  • Do not use manager for the SYSTEM account password.

  • Do not use sysman for the SYSMAN account password.

  • Do not use dbsnmp for the DBSNMP account password.

  • If you choose to use the same password for all the accounts, do not use change_on_install, manager, sysman, or dbsnmp as a password.

  • Have the password include at least 1 alphabetic, 1 numeric, and 1 punctuation mark character

  • Do not use simple or obvious words, such as welcome, account, database, and user for the password.

If you created a starter database during the installation, but you did not unlock the required account, unlock the account using one of the following methods:

Note:

To permit unauthenticated access to your data through HTTP, unlock the ANONYMOUS account.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about:
  • Unlocking and changing passwords after installation

  • Oracle security procedures

  • Security best practices

5.7.2.1 Using SQL*Plus to Unlock and Change Passwords

Use SQL*Plus to unlock accounts and change passwords any time after the installation process.

To change a password after installation:

  1. Start SQL*Plus:

    c:\> sqlplus /nolog
    
  2. Connect as SYSDBA:

    SQL> CONNECT SYS AS SYSDBA
    Enter password: SYS_password 
    
  3. Enter a command similar to the following, where account is the user account that you want to unlock and password is the new password:

    SQL> PASSWORD account UNLOCK;
    Changing password for account
    New password: password
    Retype new password: password
    

    In this example, the account UNLOCK clause unlocks the account.

5.7.2.2 Using Enterprise Manager Database Control to Unlock and Change Passwords

To unlock and reset user account passwords with Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control:

  1. Log in to Database Control.

  2. Click Schema.

  3. In the Users and Privileges section of the Schema page, click Users.

    Enterprise Manager displays a table containing all database accounts. The Account Status column indicates whether the account is locked and whether the password is expired.

  4. Select the user account you want to modify, then click Edit.

  5. Use the General page of the Users property sheet to change the password and lock or unlock the selected account. Click Help for additional information.

5.8 Identifying Databases

The Oracle Database 11g software identifies a database by its global database name. A global database name consists of the database name and database domain. Usually, the database domain is the same as the network domain, but it need not be. The global database name uniquely distinguishes a database from any other database in the same network. You specify the global database name when you create a database during the installation, or when using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant. For example:

sales.us.mycompany.com

In this example:

The DB_NAME parameter and the DB_DOMAIN name parameter combine to create the global database name value assigned to the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the initialization parameter file.

The system identifier (SID) identifies a specific database instance. The SID uniquely distinguishes the instance from any other instance on the same computer. Each database instance requires a unique SID and database name.

For example, if the SID and database name for an Oracle database are ORCL, then each database file is located in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\orcl directory, and the initialization parameter file is located in the ORACLE_BASE\admin\orcl\pfile directory.

5.9 Locating the Server Parameter File

The starter database contains one database initialization parameter file. The initialization parameter file, init.ora.xxxxx, must exist for an instance to start. A parameter file is a text file that contains a list of instance configuration parameters. The starter database init.ora file has preconfigured parameters. You do not need to edit this file to use the starter database.

The server parameter file (SPFILE) is created from the initialization parameter file, then the initialization parameter file is renamed. The SPFILE file name is spfileSID.ora and is located in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\database directory.

You can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view the location of the server parameter file and list all of the initialization parameters, as follows:

  1. Log in to Database Control.

  2. Click Server.

  3. In the Database Configuration section of the Server page, click All Initialization Parameters.

    Database Control displays a table listing the current value of each initialization parameter.

  4. Click SPFile.

    Database Control displays a table listing the value of each initialization parameter specified in the server parameter file. The location of the server parameter file is displayed before the table.

See Also:

5.10 Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files

An Oracle Database is divided into smaller logical areas of space known as tablespaces. Each tablespace corresponds to one or more physical data files. Data files contain the contents of logical database structures such as tables and indexes. A data file can be associated with only one tablespace and database.

Note:

The SYSAUX and SYSTEM tablespaces must be present in all Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) databases.

Table 5-2 list the tablespaces and data files in the Oracle Database. By default, the data files are located in the ORACLE_BASE\oradata\DB_NAME directory.

Table 5-2 Tablespaces and Data Files

Tablespace Data File Description

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE01.DBF

Stores the Sample Schemas, if you included them.

SYSAUX

SYSAUX01.DBF

Serves as an auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace. Some products and options that previously used the SYSTEM tablespace now use the SYSAUX tablespace to reduce the load on the SYSTEM tablespace.

SYSTEM

SYSTEM01.DBF

Stores the data dictionary, including definitions of tables, views, and stored procedures needed by the Oracle Database. Information in this area is maintained automatically.

TEMP

TEMP01.DBF

Stores temporary tables and indexes created during the processing of your SQL statement. If you are running a SQL statement that involves a lot of sorting, such as the constructs GROUP BY, ORDER BY, or DISTINCT, then you may need to expand this tablespace.

UNDOTBS

UNDOTBS01.DBF

Stores undo information. The undo tablespace contains one or more undo segments that maintain transaction history that is used to roll back, or undo, changes to the database.

All starter databases are configured to run in automatic undo management mode.

USERS

USERS01.DBF

Stores database objects created by database users.


To use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view the list of datafiles currently available in your database:

  1. Log in to Database Control.

  2. Click Server.

  3. In the Storage section of the Server page, click Datafiles.

    Enterprise Manager displays a table listing each data file, and the tablespace with which it is associated. For more information about using Database Control to view, modify, and create tablespaces, click Help.

See Also:

5.11 Locating Redo Log Files

A redo log can be either an online redo log or an archived redo log. The online redo log is a set of two or more redo log groups that records all changes made to Oracle data files and control files. An archived redo log is a copy of an online redo log that has been copied to an offline destination. If the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode and automatic archiving is enabled, then the archive process or processes copy each online redo log to one or more archive log destinations after it is filled.

The starter database and the custom database each contain three redo log files located in the ORACLE_BASE\oradata\DB_NAME directory. Redo log files hold a record of all changes made to data in the database buffer cache. If an instance fails, then Oracle Database uses the redo log files to recover the modified data in memory.

To use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view or modify the redo log files for your starter database:

  1. Start your Web browser and log in to Database Control.

  2. Click Server.

  3. In the Storage section of the Server page, click Redo Log Groups.

    Enterprise Manager displays a table containing the control files currently defined for this database instance.

  4. To view the name and location of the redo log file associated with a particular group, select that group then click View.

    For more information about using Database Control to view, modify, and create tablespaces, click Help.

5.12 Locating Control Files

The starter database and the custom database contain three control files located in the ORACLE_BASE\oradata\DB_NAME directory. Oracle recommends that you keep at least three control files (on separate physical drives) for each database, and set the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter to list each control file.

A control file is an administrative file required to start and run the database. The control file records the physical structure of the database. For example, a control file contains the database name, and the names and locations of the database data files and redo log files.

To use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view or modify the control files for your starter database:

  1. Log in to Database Control.

  2. Click Server.

  3. In the Storage section of the Server page, click Control files.

    Enterprise Manager displays a table containing the control files currently defined for this database instance. For more information about using control files and backing up control files, click Help.

See Also:

"Managing Control Files" of Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about setting this initialization parameter value

5.13 Understanding Oracle Database Services on Windows

Two main Oracle services are automatically started after installation when you create a database:

If you installed Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control, then the OracleDBConsoleSID service is automatically started. In you configured Automatic Storage Management, the OracleCSService and OracleASMService+ASM services are listed as well. However, other services for networking or other individual components may not automatically start.