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Oracle® Database Client Installation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1) for Solaris Operating System

B32069-04
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2 Preinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer. It includes information about the following tasks:

2.1 Logging In to the System as root

Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root user. To log in as the root user, complete one of the following procedures:

Note:

Unless you intend to complete a silent-mode installation, you must install the software from an X Window System workstation, an X terminal, or a PC or other system with X server software installed.

For more information about silent-mode installations, refer to Appendix A.

2.2 Checking the Hardware Requirements

The system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

2.2.1 Memory Requirements

The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • At least 256 MB of RAM.

    To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/prtconf | grep "Memory size"
    

    If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

  • The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the configured swap space requirement:

    Available RAM Swap Space Required
    Between 257 MB and 512 MB Double the size of RAM
    Between 513 MB and 2048 MB 1.5 times the size of RAM
    Between 2049 MB and 8192 MB Equal to the size of RAM
    More than 8192 MB 0.75 times the size of RAM

    To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/swap -l
    

    Note:

    The output of this command shows the total/available swap blocks, where each block equals 512 bytes and not 1 KB.

    If necessary, refer to the operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

  • To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command:

    # sar -r i n
    

    where, n is the number of seconds to delay for the next iterations and i is the number of iterations you want to test.

Note:

Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the available RAM and swap space before finalizing on a value. This is because the available RAM and swap space keep changing depending on the user interactions with the computer.

2.2.2 System Architecture

To determine whether the system architecture can run the software, enter the following command:

# /bin/isainfo -kv

Note:

This command displays the processor type. Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release that you want to install. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

2.2.3 Disk Space Requirements

The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • The minimum disk space requirement for a client install in the /tmp directory is 150 MB.

    To determine the amount of disk space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    On Solaris 10:

    # df -h /tmp
    

    Other Solaris Platforms:

    # df -k /tmp
    

    If there is less than 400 MB of free disk space available in the /tmp directory, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment.

    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the system administrator for information about extending file systems.

  • To determine the amount of free disk space available, enter the following command:

    On Solaris 10:

    # df -h
    

    Other Solaris Platforms:

    # df -k
    
    Installation Type Requirement for Software Files (MB)
    Instant Client 476
    Administrator 2.12 (GB)
    Runtime 1.49 (GB)
    Custom (maximum) 1.74 (GB)

2.3 Checking the Software Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following softwares are installed on the system.

Note:

Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on the system to verify that it meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle Universal Installer.

2.3.1 Operating System Requirements

The following are the operating sytem requirements for Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • Solaris 9 Update 7 or later

  • Solaris 10

To determine the distribution and version of Solaris installed, enter the following command:

# uname -r
5.9

In this example, the version shown is Solaris 9 (5.9). If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about upgrading the operating system.

2.3.2 Package Requirements

The following are the list of packages required for Oracle Database 11g release 1.

Item Requirement
Packages The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
SUNWarc
SUNWbtool
SUNWhea
SUNWlibC
SUNWlibm
SUNWlibms
SUNWsprot
SUNWtoo
SUNWi1of
SUNWi1cs
SUNWi15cs
SUNWxwfnt
SUNWsprox

Note: The SUNWsprox package is not supported on Solaris 10.

You may also require additional font packages for Java, depending on your locale. Refer to the following Web site for more information:

http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/font-requirements.html

To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter a command similar to the following:

# pkginfo -i SUNWarc SUNWbtool SUNWhea SUNWlibm SUNWlibms SUNWsprot \
 SUNWsprox SUNWtoo SUNWi1of SUNWi1cs SUNWi15cs SUNWxwfnt

If a package is not installed, then install it. Refer to your operating system or software documentation for information about installing packages.

2.3.3 Compiler Requirements

Starting with Oracle Database 11g release 1, Sun Studio 11, and gcc 3.4.2 are the supported compilers for Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, and Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK).

2.3.4 Instant Client Light Requirements

In addition to the requirements described in the preceding section, if you plan to use Instant Client Light, then the applications must use the following languages and character sets:

  • Language: Any language that is supported by Oracle

  • Territory: Any territory that is supported by Oracle

  • Character sets:

    • Single byte

      • US7ASCII

      • WE8DEC

      • WE8MSWIN1252

      • WE8ISO8859P1

    • Unicode

      • UTF8

      • AL16UTF16

      • AL32UTF8

      Instant Client Light can connect to databases having one of the following database character sets:

      • US7ASCII

      • WE8DEC

      • WE8MSWIN1252

      • WE8ISO8859P1

      • WE8EBCDIC37C

      • WE8EBCDIC1047

      • UTF8

      • AL32UTF8

The language, territory, and character sets are determined by the NLS_LANG environment variable.

2.3.5 Additional Software Requirements

Depending on the components you want to use, you must ensure that the following software are installed:

2.3.5.1 Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers

You can use the following optional JDK versions with the Oracle JDBC/OCI drivers. However, these are not mandatory for the installation:

Sun JDK 1.5.0

2.3.5.2 Browser Requirements

Web browsers must support Java Script and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. The following browsers meet these requirements. The following Web browsers are supported for Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control:

  • Netscape Navigator 7.2

  • Netscape Navigator 8.1

  • Mozilla version 1.7

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 Beta or later

  • Firefox 1.0.4

  • Firefox 1.5

2.3.5.3 Programming languages

The following products are certified for use with:

  • Pro*COBOL

    Micro Focus Cobol 5.0

  • Pro*FORTRAN

    Sun Studio 11 (Fortran 95)

2.3.6 Patch Requirements

The following are the list of patches required for Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

2.3.6.1 Operating system-specific patches

Installation Type or Product Requirement
All installations Patches for Solaris 9:
  • 112233-11, SunOS 5.9: Kernel Patch

  • 118558-22 SunOS 5.9 : Kernel Patch

  • 111722-04, SunOS 5.9: Math Library (libm) patch

  • 112874-39 SunOS 5.9 : libc patch

The following additional patches are required for Numa Systems:

  • 115675-01, SunOS 5.9: liblgrp API

  • 113471-08, SunOS 5.9: Miscellaneous SunOS Commands Patch

  • 115675-01, SunOS 5.9: /usr/lib/liblgrp.so Patch

Patches for Solaris 10:

  • 127111-02 SunOS 5.10: libc patch

  • 137111-04 SunOS 5.10 : kernel patch

Pro*C/C++, Pro*FORTRAN, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK) Patches for Solaris 10:
  • 117837-05: C++ compiler optimizer patch

  • 117846-08: C++ compiler Optimization patch

  • 118682-01


Note:

The following patches are not required for silent installations:
  • 108652-66, X11 6.4.1: Xsun patch

  • 108773-18, SunOS 5.8: IIIM and X I/O Method patch

  • 108921-16, CDE 1.4: dtwm patch

For more information about silent installations, refer to Appendix A.

To determine whether an operating system patch is installed, enter a command similar to the following:

# /usr/sbin/patchadd -p | grep patch_number(without version number)

For example, to determine if any version of the 111713 patch is installed, use the following command:

# /usr/sbin/patchadd -p | grep 111713

If an operating system patch is not installed, then download it from the following Web site and install it:

http://sunsolve.sun.com

2.4 Creating Required Operating System Group and User

Depending on whether this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on this system and on the products that you are installing, you must create the following operating system group and user:

A single Oracle Inventory group is required for all installations of Oracle software on the system. After the first installation of Oracle software, you must use the same Oracle Inventory group for all subsequent Oracle software installations on that system. However, you can choose to create different Oracle software owner users for separate installations.

Note:

The following sections describe how to create local users and groups. As an alternative to creating local users and groups, you could create the appropriate users and groups in a directory service, for example, Network Information Services (NIS). For information about using directory services, contact the system administrator or refer to the operating system documentation.

The following sections describe how to create the required operating system users and groups:

2.4.1 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

You must create the Oracle Inventory group if it does not already exist. The following subsections describe how to determine the Oracle Inventory group name, if it exists, and how to create it if necessary.

Determining Whether the Oracle Inventory Group Exists

When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory.

To determine whether the Oracle Inventory group exists, enter the following command:

# more /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc

If the output of this command shows the oinstall group name, then the group already exists.

If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

inventory_loc=/u01/app/oracle/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall

The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group, oinstall.

Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then enter the following command to create the Oracle Inventory group:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd oinstall

2.4.2 Creating the Oracle Software Owner User

You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle software on the system

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user

2.4.2.1 Determining Whether an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle exists, enter the following command:

# id oracle

If the oracle user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=440(oracle) gid=200(oinstall) groups=201(dba),202(oper)

If the user exists, then determine whether you want to use the existing user or create another oracle user. To use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group. Refer to one of the following sections for more information:

2.4.2.2 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User

If the Oracle software owner user does not exist or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name already exists.

  1. To create the oracle user, enter a command similar to the following:

    # /usr/sbin/useradd -g oinstall[ -G dba]oracle
    

    In this command:

    • The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall

    • The -G option specifies optional secondary groups, the OSOPER group.For example dba.

  2. Set the password of the oracle user:

    # passwd oracle
    

Refer to the "Identifying Required Software Directories" section to continue.

2.4.2.3 Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User

If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall, then enter a command similar to the following to modify it. Specify the primary group using the -g option and any required secondary group using the -G option.

2.5 Identifying Required Software Directories

You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:

2.5.1 Oracle Base Directory

The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. It is analogous to the C:\Oracle directory used for Oracle software installations on Microsoft Windows systems. On Solaris systems, the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:

/mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner

In this example:

  • mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that will contain the Oracle software.

    The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory. However, you could choose another mount point directory, such as /oracle or /opt/oracle.

  • oracle_sw_owner is the operating system user name of the Oracle software owner, for example oracle.

You must specify the ORACLE_BASE folder that contains all Oracle products.

Note:

If you have an existing ORACLE_BASE, then you can select it from the Use existing drop down box. By default, the drop down box contains the existing value for ORACLE_BASE selected. Refer to "Installing the Oracle Client Software" for further information.

If you do not have an ORACLE_BASE, then you can create a new one by editing the text in the list.

You can use the same Oracle base directory for more than one installation or you can create separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory. The following example Oracle base directories could all exist on the same system:

/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser
/opt/oracle/app/oracle

The following sections describe how to identify existing Oracle base directories that may be suitable for the installation and how to create an Oracle base directory if necessary.

Regardless of whether you create an Oracle base directory or decide to use an existing one, you must set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the full path to this directory.

2.5.2 Oracle Inventory Directory

The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software installed on the system. It is required by, and shared by, all Oracle software installations on a single system.

Note:

If the Oracle base variable is set prior to starting any database installation, then oraInventory is created under Oracle_base by default.

The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to specify the path to this directory. Oracle recommends that you choose the following path:

oracle_base/oraInventory

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct owner, group, and permissions for it. You must not create it.

Note:

All Oracle software installations rely on this directory. Ensure that you back it up regularly.

Do not delete this directory unless you have completely removed all Oracle software from the system.

2.5.3 Oracle Home Directory

The Oracle home directory is the directory where you choose to install the software for a particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products, or different releases of the same Oracle product, in separate Oracle home directories. When you run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory, and a name that identifies it. The directory that you specify must be a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the following for the Oracle home directory:

oracle_base/product/11.1.0/client_1

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You must not create this directory.

Caution:

During installation, you must not specify an existing directory that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle home directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure due to file and group ownership permission errors.

2.6 Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base directory or if required, create one. This section contains information about the following:

Note:

You can choose to create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle base directories exist on the system.

2.6.1 Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory

Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that comply with OFA guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle Inventory directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify the Oracle base directories, as follows:

  • Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory

    Enter the following command to view the contents of the oraInst.loc file:

    # more /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc
    

    If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

    inventory_loc=/u01/app/oracle/oraInventory
    inst_group=oinstall
    

    The inventory_loc parameter identifies the Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory). The parent directory of the oraInventory directory is typically an Oracle base directory. In the previous example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory.

  • Identifying existing Oracle home directories

    Enter the following command to view the contents of the oratab file:

    # more /var/opt/oracle/oratab
    

    If the oratab file exists, then it contains lines similar to the following:

    *:/u03/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1:N
    *:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
    *:/oracle/9.2.0:N
    

    The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories. Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner that you want to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user to install the software, then you could choose one of the following directories from the previous example:

    /u03/app/oracle
    /oracle
    

    Note:

    If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first (/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.
  • Identifying existing Oracle base directories

    After you have located the Oracle home directory you can issue the following command to confirm the location of Oracle base:

    cat inventory/ContentsXML/oraclehomeproperties.xml
    

To continue:

  • If an Oracle base directory exists and you want to use it, then refer to the "Configuring the oracle User's Environment" section.

    When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the directory you chose.

  • If an Oracle base directory does not exist on the system or to create an Oracle base directory, then refer to the following section.

2.6.2 Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file system with disk space

To identify an appropriate file system:

  1. To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the following command:

    # df -k 
    
  2. From the display, identify a file system that has appropriate free space.

  3. Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.

To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and permissions for it:

  1. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    # mkdir -p /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    # chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
    

    For example, if the mount point you identify is /u01 and oracle is the user name of the Oracle software owner, then the recommended Oracle base directory path is as follows:

    /u01/app/oracle
    
  2. When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you have created.

2.7 Configuring the oracle User's Environment

You run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle account. However, before you start Oracle Universal Installer you must configure the environment of the oracle user. To configure the environment, you must:

Note:

Ensure that the PATH variable contains $ORACLE_HOME/bin before /usr/X11R6/bin.

To set the oracle user's environment:

  1. Start a new terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).

  2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on this system:

    $ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
    

    For example:

    $ xhost somehost.us.example.com
    
  3. If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the software, then log in to that system as the oracle user.

  4. If you are not logged in as the oracle user, then switch user to oracle:

    $ su - oracle
    
  5. To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:

    $ echo $SHELL
    
  6. Open the oracle user's shell startup file in any text editor:

    C shell (csh or tcsh):

    % vi .login
    
  7. Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode creation mask:

    umask 022
    
  8. If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set in the file, then remove the appropriate lines from the file.

  9. Save the file, and exit from the editor.

  10. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:

    • Bash shell:

      $ . ./.bash_profile
      
    • Bourne or Korn shell:

      $ . ./.profile
      
    • C shell:

      % source ./.login
      
  11. If you are not installing the software on the local computer, then run the following command on the remote computer to set the DISPLAY variable:

    • Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:

      $ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0      
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
      

    In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the local computer that you want to use to display Oracle Universal Installer.

    Run the following command on the remote computer to check if the shell and the DISPLAY environmental variable are set correctly:

    echo $SHELL
    echo $DISPLAY
    

    Now to enable X applications, run the following commands on the local computer:

    $ xhost + fully_qualified_remote_host_name
    

    To verify that X applications display is set properly, run a X11 based program that comes with the operating system such as xclock:

    $ xclock_path
    

    In this example, xclock_path is the directory path. For example, you can find xclock at /usr/X11R6/bin/xclocks. If the DISPLAY variable is set properly, then you can see xclock on your computer screen.

    See Also:

    PC-X Server or Operating System vendor documents for further assistance.
  12. If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 400 MB of free disk space, then identify a file system with at least 400 MB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:

    1. To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system, use the following command:

      # df -k 
      
    2. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate permissions on the directory:

      $ sudo mkdir /mount_point/tmp
      $ sudo chmod a+wr /mount_point/tmp
      # exit
      
    3. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables:

      • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

        $ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
        $ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
        $ export TMP TMPDIR
        
      • C shell:

        % setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
        % setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
        
  13. Enter commands similar to the following to set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
      $ export ORACLE_BASE
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_BASE /u01/app/oracle
      

    In these examples, /u01/app/oracle is the Oracle base directory that you created or identified earlier.

  14. Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME and TNS_ADMIN environment variables are not set:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ unset ORACLE_HOME
      $ unset TNS_ADMIN
      
    • C shell:

      % unsetenv ORACLE_HOME
      % unsetenv TNS_ADMIN
      

    Note:

    If the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set, then Oracle Universal Installer uses the value that it specifies as the default path for the Oracle home directory. However, if you set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable, then Oracle recommends that you unset the ORACLE_HOME environment variable and choose the default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer.
  15. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following commands:

    $ umask
    $ env | more
    

    Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and the environment variables that you set in this section have the correct values.