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Oracle® Database Installation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1) for AIX Based Systems

B32076-07
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2 Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements

This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer. It includes information about the following tasks:

2.1 Logging In to the System as root

Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root user. To log in as the root user, complete one of the following procedures:

Note:

Unless you intend to complete a silent-mode installation, you must install the software from an X Window System workstation, an X terminal, or a PC or other system with X server software installed.

For more information about silent-mode installations, refer to Appendix A.

2.2 Checking the Hardware Requirements

The system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

2.2.1 Memory Requirements

The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • At least 1 GB of RAM

    To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/lsattr -E -l sys0 -a realmem
    

    If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

    Note:

    On AIX systems with 1 GB or more of memory, Oracle recommends that you set the paging space to an initial setting of half the size of RAM plus 4 GB, with an upper limit of 32 GB. During installation, to optimize paging, monitor the paging space use in a separate window. Use the command lsps -a to increase or decrease the paging space size. The output of lsps -a should indicate paging space use of less than 25 percent on a healthy system. Refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX for more information about configuring paging space.
  • The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the configured swap space requirement:

    RAM Swap Space
    Between 1024 MB and 2048 MB 1.5 times the size of RAM
    Between 2049 MB and 8192 MB Equal to the size of RAM
    More than 8192 MB 0.75 times the size of RAM

    To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/lsps -a
    

    If necessary, refer to the operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

Note:

Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is because the available RAM and swap space keep changing depending on the user interactions with the computer.

2.2.2 System Architecture

To determine whether the system architecture can run the software, enter the following command:

# /usr/bin/getconf HARDWARE_BITMODE

The expected output of this command is 64. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

To determine if the system is started in 64-bit mode, enter the following command:

# bootinfo -K

The result of this command must be 64, indicating that the 64-bit kernel is enabled.

Note:

Oracle Database 11g supports 64-bit kernel and does not provide support for 32-bit kernel applications.

2.2.3 Disk Space Requirements

The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • 240 MB of disk space in the /tmp directory

    To determine the amount of disk space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    # df -k /tmp
    

    If there is less than 240 MB of free disk space available in the /tmp directory, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment (described later).

    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the system administrator for information about extending file systems.

  • To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following command.

    • GPFS:

      # df -k
      
    • Raw Logical Volumes in Concurrent VG (HACMP); in the following example, the variable lv_name is the name of the raw logical volume whose space you want to verify:

      # lslv lv_name
      
    • Raw hard disks; in the following example, the variable rhdisk# is the raw hard disk number that you want to verify, and the variable size_mb is the size in megabytes of the partition that you want to verify:

      # lsattr -El rhdisk# -a size_mb
      
  • The following table describes the disk space requirements for software files for each installation type:

    Installation Type Requirement for Software Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 6.45
    Standard Edition 6.18
    Custom (maximum) 6.45

  • The following table describes the disk space requirements for each installation type:

    Installation Type Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
    Enterprise Edition 1.6
    Standard Edition 1.6
    Custom (maximum) 1.81

    Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Automatic Storage Management disk group is required for the flash recovery area if you choose to configure automated backups.

2.3 Checking the Software Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following software are installed on the system.

Note:

Oracle Universal Installer performs checks to verify that the system meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle Universal Installer.

2.3.1 Operating System Requirements

The following are the operating system requirements for Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • AIX 5L version 5.3, TL 05, Service Pack 06

  • AIX 6L version 6.1, TL 00, Service Pack 04 or later

The following operating system filesets:

  • bos.adt.base

  • bos.adt.lib

  • bos.adt.libm

  • bos.perf.libperfstat

  • bos.perf.perfstat

  • bos.perf.proctools

  • xlC.aix50.rte:8.0.0.7 or later (AIX 5.3)

  • xlC.rte:8.0.0.7 or later (AIX 5.3)

  • xlC.aix61.rte:9.0.0.1 or later (AIX 6.1)

  • xlC.rte:9.0.0.1 or later (AIX 6.1)

Note:

On AIX 5L operating system, if you set the value of LOCK_SGA parameter to true, then you must ensure that the CAP_BYPASS_RAC_VMM and CAP_PROPAGATE privileges are enabled for the operating system account that is used to start the respective database instances. Otherwise, setting the value of LOCK_SGA parameter to TRUE alone does not ensure startup of the database instance.
  1. To determine the distribution and version of AIX installed, enter the following command:

    # oslevel -s
    

    If the operating system version is lower than AIX 5.3.0.0 Technology Level 5 SP 6, then upgrade your operating system to this level. AIX 5L version 5.3 maintenance packages are available from the following Web site:

    http://www-912.ibm.com/eserver/support/fixes/

  2. To determine whether the required filesets are installed and committed, enter a command similar to the following:

    # lslpp -l bos.adt.base bos.adt.lib bos.adt.libm bos.perf.perfstat \
    bos.perf.libperfstat bos.perf.proctools
    
  3. To determine the supported kernel mode, enter a command similar to the following:

    # getconf KERNEL_BITMODE
    

    Note:

    • The expected output of this command is 64. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

    • Oracle Database 11g supports 64-bit kernel and does not provide support for 32-bit kernel applications.

2.3.2 Compiler Requirements

The following are the compiler requirements for Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, and Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK) with Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition V8.0 for AIX:

You can download this software from the following link:

http://www-1.ibm.com/support/

Note:

If you do not install the IBM XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition V8.0 compiler, then you need to install this compiler for AIX Runtime Environment Component. The runtime environment file sets can be downloaded with no license requirements from the following link:

http://www-1.ibm.com/support/

2.3.3 Patch Requirement

In addition, you need to verify that the following patches are installed on the system.

Note:

There may be more recent versions of the patches listed installed on the system. If a listed patch is not installed, then determine whether a more recent version is installed before installing the version listed.
Installation Type or Product Requirement
All installations Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 5L v5.3:
  • IY89080

  • IY92037

  • IY94343

  • IZ01060 or efix for IZ01060

  • IZ03260, or efix for IZ03260

File system If you use HACMP, then note the following additional requirements:
  • AIX: AIX 5.3 TL06 or newer (bosrte.lvm must be at least 5.3.0.60)

  • HACMP: Ensure the following versions are installed:

    • HACMP v. 5.3 with PTFS (APAR:IY94307) and cluster.es.clvm installed

    • HACMP APAR: IZ01809

APARs required for GPFS v3.1.0.10:

None


The following procedure describes how to check these requirements:

2.3.4 Additional Software Requirements

Depending on the components you want to use, you must ensure that the following software are installed:

2.3.4.1 Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers

You can use the following optional IBM JDK versions with the Oracle Java Database Connectivity and Oracle Call Interface drivers. However, they are not mandatory for the installation:

  • JDK 1.5 (32 bit)

  • JDK 1.5 (64 Bit)

Note:

IBM JDK 1.5 (64-bit) is installed with this release.

2.3.4.2 ODBC Drivers

ODBC driver is supported on the AIX operating system. To use ODBC, install gcc 3.4.5.

2.3.4.3 Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) with the following software:

IBM WebSphere MQ V6.0, client and server:

mqm.Client.Bnd
mqm.Server.Bnd

If you require a CSD for WebSphere MQ, then refer to the following Web site for download and installation information:

http://www-306.ibm.com/software/integration/wmq/support

2.3.4.4 Browser Requirements

Web browsers must support Java Script and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. The following browsers meet these requirements:

  • For Oracle Application Express:

    • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or later version

    • Firefox 1.0 or a later version

  • For Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control:

    • Netscape Navigator 7.2

    • Netscape Navigator 8.1

    • Mozilla version 1.7

    • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2

    • Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0

    • Firefox 1.0.4

    • Firefox 1.5

    • Firefox 2.0

2.4 Preinstallation Requirements for Oracle Configuration Manager

During the installation, you are prompted to provide information required to enable Oracle Configuration Manager. When you create a service request with Oracle Support, the configuration information can help to provide a rapid resolution to the service issue.

You can enable Oracle Configuration Manager during or after installation. To enable it during the installation, you must have the following information available:

Refer to My Oracle Support (https://support.oracle.com) if there is a registration failures and you are uncertain that the correct country code has been specified. You can find the country associated with the My Oracle Support account in the Profile section under the Licenses link.

2.5 Checking the Network Setup

Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to the network. The computer has local storage, to store the Oracle Database installation. It also contains a display monitor, and DVD drive. This section describes how to install Oracle Database on computers that do not meet the typical scenario. It covers the following cases:

2.5.1 Configuring Name Resolution

When you run Oracle Universal Installer, an error may occur if name resolution is not set up. To avoid this error, before you begin installation, you must ensure that host names are resolved only through the /etc/hosts file.

To ensure that host names are resolved only through the /etc/hosts file:

  1. Verify that the /etc/hosts file is used for name resolution. You can do this by checking the hosts file entry in the netsvc.conf file as follows:

    # cat /etc/netsvc.conf | grep hosts
    

    Ensure that the hosts keyword is configured properly for host name resolution in the environment.

  2. Verify that the host name has been set by using the hostname command as follows:

    # hostname
    

    The output of this command should be similar to the following:

    myhost.example.com
    
  3. Verify that the domain name has not been set dynamically by using the domainname command as follows:

    # domainname
    

    This command should not return any results.

  4. Verify that the hosts file contains the fully qualified host name by using the following command:

    # cat /etc/hosts | grep `eval hostname`
    

    The output of this command should contain an entry for the fully qualified host name and for localhost.

    For example:

    192.168.100.16    myhost.us.example.com   myhost
    127.0.0.1         localhost                 localhost.localdomain
    

    If the hosts file does not contain the fully qualified host name, then open the file and make the required changes in it.

2.5.2 Installing on DHCP Computers

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns dynamic IP addresses on a network. Dynamic addressing enables a computer to have a different IP address each time it connects to the network. In some cases, the IP address can change while the computer is still connected. You can have a mixture of static and dynamic IP addressing in a DHCP system.

In a DHCP setup, the software tracks IP addresses, which simplifies network administration. This lets you add a new computer to the network without having to manually assign that computer a unique IP address.

2.5.3 Installing on Multihomed Computers

You can install Oracle Database on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer is associated with multiple IP addresses. This is typically achieved by having multiple network cards on the computer. Each IP address is associated with a host name. In addition, you can set up aliases for the host name. By default, Oracle Universal Installer uses the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable setting to find the host name. If ORACLE_HOSTNAME is not set and you are installing on a computer that has multiple network cards, then Oracle Universal Installer determines the host name by using the first entry in the /etc/hosts file.

Clients must be able to access the computer either by using this host name or by using aliases for this host name. To verify this, ping the host name from the client computers using the short name (host name only) and the full name (host name and domain name). Both tests must be successful.

Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable

Use the following procedure to set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable. For example, if the fully qualified host name is somehost.us.example.com, then enter one of the following commands:

In Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

$ ORACLE_HOSTNAME=somehost.us.example.com
$ export ORACLE_HOSTNAME

In C shell:

% setenv ORACLE_HOSTNAME somehost.us.example.com

2.5.4 Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases

A computer with multiple aliases is registered with the naming service under a single IP but with multiple aliases. The naming service resolves any of those aliases to the same computer. Before installing Oracle Database on such a computer, set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable to the computer whose host name you want to use.

2.5.5 Installing on Non-Networked Computers

You can install Oracle Database on a non-networked computer. If the computer, such as a laptop, is configured for DHCP and you plan to connect the computer to the network after the Oracle Database installation, then use the ping command on the computer on which you want to install the database to check if the computer can connect to itself. Perform this step by first using only the host name and then using the fully qualified name, which should be in the /etc/hosts file.

Note:

When you run the ping command on the computer itself, the ping command should return the IP address of the computer.

If the ping command fails, then contact your network administrator.

Connecting the Computer to the Network after Installation

If you connect the computer to a network after installation, then the Oracle Database instance on your computer can work with other instances on the network. The computer can use a static IP or DHCP, depending on the network to which you are connected.

2.6 Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users

Depending on whether this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on this system and on the products that you are installing, you may need to create several operating system groups and users.

The following operating system groups and user are required if you are installing Oracle Database:

The following operating system group and user are required for all installations:

A single Oracle Inventory group is required for all installations of Oracle software on the system. After the first installation of Oracle software, you must use the same Oracle Inventory group for all subsequent Oracle software installations on that system. However, you can choose to create different Oracle software owner users, OSDBA groups, and OSOPER groups (other than oracle, dba, and oper) for separate installations. By using different groups for different installations, members of these different groups have DBA privileges only on the associated databases rather than on all databases on the system.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information on the OSDBA and OSOPER groups and the SYSDBA and SYSOPER privileges

Note:

The following sections describe how to create local users and groups. As an alternative to creating local users and groups, you can create the appropriate users and groups in a directory service, for example, Network Information Services (NIS). For information about using directory services, contact the system administrator or refer to the operating system documentation.

The following sections describe how to create the required operating system users and groups:

2.6.1 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle Inventory group and a software owner:

Determining Whether the Oracle Inventory Group Exists

When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (typically, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory. An oraInst.loc file has contents similar to the following:

To determine whether the Oracle Inventory group exists, enter the following command:

# more /etc/oraInst.loc
inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group

In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle Central Inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to write to the central inventory.

If you have an existing Oracle Inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.

To determine whether the Oracle Inventory group exists, enter the following command:

# more /etc/oraInst.loc

If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall

In the previous output example:

  • The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory

  • The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in this example, oinstall).

Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by using the following procedure:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the Oracle Inventroy group (oinstall) group.

    Note:

    In Oracle documentation, Oracle Inventory group is called oinstall. However, it is not mandatory to use the same name, you can enter a different name for the group.
  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.6.2 Creating the OSDBA Group

You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:

  • An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database administrative privileges in a new Oracle installation

If the OSDBA group does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name dba unless a group with that name already exists.

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the dba group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

Note:

The default OSDBA group name is dba.

2.6.3 Creating an OSOPER Group (Optional)

Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. If you want to use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:

  • If an OSOPER group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation

If you require a new OSOPER group, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists.

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the oper group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.6.4 Creating an OSASM Group

Create an OSASM group only if you want SYSASM as a system privilege that enables the separation of the SYSASM database administration privilege from the Automatic Storage Management storage administration privilege. If you want to use an OSASM group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:

  • If an OSASM group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • If an OSASM group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation

If you require a new OSOPER group, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists.

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the asmadmin group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.6.5 Creating the Oracle Software Owner User

You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle software on the system

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation

2.6.5.1 Determining Whether an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle exists, enter the following command:

# id oracle

If the oracle user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=440(oracle) gid=200(oinstall) groups=201(dba),202(oper)

If the user exists, then determine whether you want to use the existing user or create another oracle user. If you want to use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups. Refer to one of the following sections for more information:

Note:

If necessary, contact the system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.

2.6.5.2 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User

If the Oracle software owner user does not exist or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name already exists.

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the oracle user, specifying the following information:

    • In the Primary GROUP field, specify the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall.

    • In the Group SET field, specify the OSDBA group and if required, the OSOPER group. For example dba or oper.

      Note:

      The UID for the oracle user must be less than 65536.
  3. Press F10 to exit.

  4. Set the password of the oracle user:

    # passwd oracle
    

2.6.5.3 Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User

If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSOPER groups, then you can modify it as follows:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to modify the oracle user.

  3. In the Primary GROUP field, specify the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall.

  4. In the Group SET field, specify the required secondary groups, for example dba and oper.

  5. Press F10 to exit.

2.7 Configure Shell Limits and System Configuration Parameters

Note:

The parameter and shell limit values shown in this section are recommended values only. For production database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to optimize the performance of the system. See your operating system documentation for more information about tuning kernel parameters.

Oracle recommends that you set shell limits and system configuration parameters as described in this section.

2.7.1 Configure Shell Limits

For AIX, it is the ulimit settings that determine process memory related resource limits. Verify that the shell limits displayed in the following table are set to the values shown:

Shell Limit (As Shown in smit) Recommended Value
Soft FILE size -1 (Unlimited)
Soft CPU time -1 (Unlimited)

Note: This is the default value.

Soft DATA segment -1 (Unlimited)
Soft STACK size -1 (Unlimited)
Soft Real Memory size -1 (Unlimited)

To display the current value specified for these shell limits, and to change them if necessary perform the following steps:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit chuser
    
  2. In the User NAME field, enter the user name of the Oracle software owner, for example oracle.

  3. Scroll down the list and verify that the value shown for the soft limits listed in the previous table is -1.

    If necessary, edit the existing value. To edit the values, you can use the smit utility. However, to set the value of Soft Real Memory size, you must edit the file /etc/security/limits. If you have permissions to run smit utility, then you automatically have the permissions to edit the limits file.

  4. When you have finished making changes, press F10 to exit.

2.7.2 Configure System Configuration Parameters

The following procedure describes how to verify and set the values.

  • To verify that the maximum number of processes allowed per user is set to 2048 or greater, use the following steps:

    Note:

    For production systems, this value should be at least 128 plus the sum of the PROCESSES and PARALLEL_MAX_SERVERS initialization parameters for each database running on the system.
    1. Enter the following command:

      # smit chgsys
      
    2. Verify that the value shown for Maximum number of PROCESSES allowed per user is greater than or equal to 2048.

      If necessary, edit the existing value.

    3. When you have finished making changes, press F10 to exit.

  • To verify that long commands can be executed from shell, use the following steps:

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you set the ncargs system attribute to a value greater than or equal to 128. The ncargs attribute determines the maximum number of values that can be passed as command line arguments.
    1. Enter the following command:

      # smit chgsys
      
    2. Verify that the value shown for ARG/ENV list size in 4K byte blocks is greater than or equal to 128.

      If necessary, edit the existing value.

    3. When you have finished making changes, press F10 to exit.

2.8 Identifying Required Software Directories

You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:

2.8.1 Oracle Base Directory

The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. On Unix systems, the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:

/mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner

In this example:

  • mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that will contain the Oracle software.

    The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory. However, you can choose another mount point directory, such as /oracle or /opt/oracle.

  • oracle_sw_owner is the operating system user name of the Oracle software owner, for example oracle.

You need to specify the ORACLE_BASE folder that contains all Oracle products.

Note:

If you have an existing ORACLE_BASE, then you can select it from the Use existing list. By default, the list contains the existing value for ORACLE_BASE preselected. Refer to "Installing the Oracle Database Software" for further information.

If you do not have an ORACLE_BASE, then you can create one by editing the text in the list box.

You can use the same Oracle base directory for more than one installation or you can create separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory. The following are the examples of Oracle base directories that can exist on the same system:

/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser
/opt/oracle/app/oracle

2.8.2 Oracle Inventory Directory

The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.

The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer checks if you have created an OFA-compliant directory structure with the format u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app, and that the user running the installation has permissions to write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory similar to /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:

/u01/app/oraInventory

If you have set the environment variable ORACLE_BASE for the oracle user, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory similar to $ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to /opt/oracle/11, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created similar to /opt/oracle/oraInventory.

If you have neither created an OFA-compliant (Optimal Flexible Architecture) path nor set ORACLE_BASE, then the Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is performing the installation. For example:

/home/oracle/oraInventory

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not need to create it.

Note:

  • All Oracle software installations rely on this directory. Ensure that you back it up regularly.

  • Do not delete this directory unless you have completely removed all Oracle software from the system.

2.8.3 Oracle Home Directory

The Oracle home directory is the directory where you choose to install the software for a particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories. When you run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory and a name that identifies it. The directory that you specify must be a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the following for the Oracle home directory:

oracle_base/product/11.1.0/db_1

Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not need to create this directory.

Note:

During installation, you must not specify an existing directory that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle home directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure due to file and group ownership permission errors.

2.9 Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base directory or if required, create one. This section contains information about the following:

Note:

You can choose to create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle base directories exist on the system.

2.9.1 Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory

Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that comply with OFA guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle Inventory directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify the Oracle base directories, as follows:

  • Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory. Refer to Creating the Oracle Inventory Group for more information.

  • Identifying existing Oracle home directories

    Enter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:

    # more /etc/oratab
    

    If the oratab file exists, then it contains lines similar to the following:

    *:/u03/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1:N
    *:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
    *:/oracle/9.2.0:N
    

    The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories. Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner that you want to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user to install the software, then you can choose one of the following directories listed in the previous example:

    /u03/app/oracle
    /oracle
    

    Note:

    If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one (/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.

Before deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure that it satisfies the following conditions:

  • It should not be on the same file system as the operating system.

  • The Oracle base directory requires 7.5 GB of free disk space for software files.

    To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory is located, enter the following command:

    # df -k oracle_base_path
    

To continue:

  • If an Oracle base directory exists and you want to use it, then refer to the "Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files" section.

    When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the directory you chose.

  • If an Oracle base directory does not exist on the system or if you want to create an Oracle base directory, then refer to the following section.

2.9.2 Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file system with sufficient free disk space.

To identify an appropriate file system:

  1. To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the following command:

    # df -k 
    
  2. From the display, identify a file system that has appropriate free space.

    The file system that you identify can be a local file system, a cluster file system, or an NFS file system on a certified NAS device.

  3. Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.

To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and permissions for it:

  1. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    # mkdir -p /mount_point/app
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app
    # chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/
    

    For example:

    # mkdir -p /u01/app
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app
    # chmod -R 775 /u01/app/
    
  2. When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you have created.

2.10 Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files

Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage option that you want to use for Oracle Database files. If you want to enable automated backups during the installation, then you must also choose the storage option that you want to use for recovery files (the flash recovery area). You do not have to use the same storage option for each file type.

Note:

Database files and Recovery files are supported on file systems and Automatic Storage Management.

Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options that you want to use for each file type:

For information about how to configure disk storage before you start the installation, refer to one of the following sections depending on your choice:

2.11 Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files

This section contains the following topics:

2.11.1 Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System

If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following guidelines when deciding where to place them:

  • The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.

  • You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the database files:

    • If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical device that is dedicated to the database.

      For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume on more than one physical device and implement the stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology.

    • If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.

      This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also enables you to fully implement the OFA guidelines described in Appendix D, "Optimal Flexible Architecture". You must choose either the Advanced database creation option or the Custom installation type during the installation to implement this method.

  • If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 1.2 GB of free disk space.

    For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement depending on the use that you want to make of the database.

  • For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose should be on physical devices that are used only by the database.

  • The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that you specify.

2.11.2 Creating Required Directories

Note:

You must perform this procedure only if you want to place the Oracle Database or recovery files on a separate file system to the Oracle base directory.

To create directories for the Oracle database, or recovery files on separate file systems to the Oracle base directory:

  1. Use the df -k command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file system.

  2. From the display, identify the file systems that you want to use:

    File Type File System Requirements
    Database files Choose either:
    • A single file system with at least 1.2 GB of free disk space

    • Two or more file systems with at least 1.2 GB of free disk space in total

    Recovery files Choose a file system with at least 2.4 GB of free disk space.

    If you are using the same file system for more than one type of file, then add the disk space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.

  3. Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you identified.

  4. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    • Database file directory:

      # mkdir /mount_point/oradata
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
      

      The default location for Database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/oradata.

    • Recovery file directory (flash recovery area):

      # mkdir /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
      # chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
      

    The default flash recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/flash_recovery_area. However, Oracle recomends that you keep the flash recovery area on a separate physical disk than that of the database file directory. This will enable you use the flash recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is unusable due to any reasons.

  5. If you also want to use Automatic Storage Management for storage, then refer to one of the following sections:

2.12 Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation

This section describes how to configure disks for use with Automatic Storage Management. Before you configure the disks, you must determine the number of disks and the amount of free disk space that you require. The following sections describe how to identify the requirements and configure the disks on each platform:

2.12.1 General Steps for Configuring Automatic Storage Management

The following are the general steps to configure Automatic Storage Management:

  1. Identify the storage requirements of the site.

  2. Optionally, use an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group.

  3. If you are creating an Automatic Storage Management disk group, create partitions for DAS or SAN disks.

  4. Use one of the following methods to complete the Automatic Storage Management configuration:

    • If you plan to install Oracle Database using interactive mode, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the Automatic Storage Management disk configuration information during the installation.

    • If you plan to install Oracle Database using noninteractive mode, you should manually configure the disks before performing the installation.

2.12.2 Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management

To identify the storage requirements for using Automatic Storage Management, you must determine the number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this task:

  1. Determine whether you want to use Automatic Storage Management for Oracle Database files, recovery files, or both.

    Note:

    You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for data files and recovery files. You can use the file system for one file type and Automatic Storage Management for the other. If you plan to use Automatic Storage Management for both data files and recovery files, then you should create separate Automatic Storage Management disk groups for the data files and the recovery files.

    If you plan to enable automated backups during the installation, then you can choose Automatic Storage Management as the storage mechanism for recovery files by specifying an Automatic Storage Management disk group for the flash recovery area. Depending on how you choose to create a database during the installation, you have the following options:

    • If you select an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in an interactive mode, by choosing the Advanced database configuration option for example, then you can decide whether you want to use the same Automatic Storage Management disk group for database files and recovery files, or you can choose to use different disk groups for each file type. Ideally, you should create separate Automatic Storage Management disk groups for data files and for recovery files.

      The same choice is available to you if you use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after the installation to create a database.

    • If you select an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in noninteractive mode, then you must use the same Automatic Storage Management disk group for data files and recovery files.

  2. Choose the Automatic Storage Management redundancy level that you want to use for each Automatic Storage Management disk group that you create.

    The redundancy level that you choose for the Automatic Storage Management disk group determines how Automatic Storage Management mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of disks and amount of disk space that you require, as follows:

    • External redundancy

      An external redundancy disk group requires a minimum of one disk device. The effective disk space in an external redundancy disk group is the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.

      If you select this option, Automatic Storage Management does not mirror the contents of the disk group. Choose this redundancy level under any one of the following conditions:

      • When the disk group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own data protection

      • The use of the database does not require uninterrupted access to data, for example, in a development environment where you have a suitable backup strategy

    • Normal redundancy

      In a normal redundancy disk group, by default Automatic Storage Management uses two-way mirroring for datafiles and three-way mirroring for control files, to increase performance and reliability. Alternatively, you can use two-way mirroring or no mirroring. A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two failure groups (or two disk devices) if you are using two-way mirroring. The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.

      For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy disk groups.

    • High redundancy

      The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure groups (a minimum of 3 devices).

      Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices before deciding to use this redundancy level.

  3. Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files and recovery files.

    Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum disk space requirements for the installation:

    Redundancy Level Minimum Number of Disks Data Files Recovery Files Both File Types
    External 1 1.15 GB 2.3 GB 3.45 GB
    Normal 2 2.3 GB 4.6 GB 6.9 GB
    High 3 3.45 GB 6.9 GB 10.35 GB

    If an Automatic Storage Management instance is already running on the system, then you can use an existing disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the installation.

    The following step describes how to identify existing disk groups and determine the free disk space that they contain.

  4. Optionally, identify failure groups for the Automatic Storage Management disk group devices.

    Note:

    You need to perform this step only when you intend to use an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in an interactive mode. For example, if you intend to choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database configuration option. Other installation types do not enable you to specify failure groups.

    If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its failure group. However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.

    To avoid failures of this type, you can use two SCSI controllers, each with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller.

    Note:

    If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
  5. If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Apply the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:

    • All the devices in an Automatic Storage Management disk group should be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.

    • Do not specify more than one partition on a single physical disk as a disk group device. Automatic Storage Management expects each disk group device to be on a separate physical disk.

    • Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Automatic Storage Management disk group, Oracle does not recommend its use. Logical volume managers can hide the physical disk architecture. This would prevent Automatic Storage Management from optimizing I/O across the physical devices.

    See Also:

    "Step 4: Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management" for information about completing this task

2.12.3 Step 2: Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group

Note:

This is an optional step.

If you want to store either database or recovery files in an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group, then you have the following choices, depending on the installation method that you select:

  • If you select an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode (for example, choosing the Advanced database configuration option), then you can decide whether you want to create a disk group or use an existing one.

    The same choice is available to you if you use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after the installation to create a database.

  • If you select an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in noninteractive mode, then you must choose an existing disk group for the new database; you cannot create a disk group. However, you can add disk devices to an existing disk group if it has insufficient free space for your requirements.

Note:

The Automatic Storage Management instance that manages the existing disk group can be running in a different Oracle home directory.

To determine whether an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group exists, or to determine whether there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control or Database Control. Alternatively, you can use the following procedure:

  1. View the contents of the oratab file to determine whether an Automatic Storage Management instance is configured on the system:

    # more /etc/oratab
    

    If an Automatic Storage Management instance is configured on the system, then the oratab file should contain a line similar to the following:

    +ASM:oracle_home_path:N
    

    In this example, +ASM is the system identifier (SID) of the Automatic Storage Management instance and oracle_home_path is the Oracle home directory where it is installed. By convention, the SID for an Automatic Storage Management instance begins with a plus sign.

  2. Open a shell prompt and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Automatic Storage Management instance that you want to use.

    For example, if the Automatic Storage Management SID is named OraDB11g+ASM and is located in the asm subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following commands to create the required settings:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_SID=OraDB11g+ASM
      $ export ORACLE_SID
      $ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
      $ export ORACLE_HOME
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_SID OraDB11g+ASM
      % setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
      
  3. By using SQL*Plus, connect to the Automatic Storage Management instance as the SYS user with SYSASM privilege and start the instance if necessary:

    # $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus 
    SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSASM
    Enter password: SYS_password 
    SQL> STARTUP
    
  4. Enter the following command to display the existing disk groups, their redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:

    SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
    
  5. From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and note the free space that it contains.

  6. If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the storage requirements listed in the previous section.

    Note:

    If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then Oracle recommends that you use devices that have the same size and performance characteristics as the existing devices in that disk group.

2.12.4 Step 3: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Automatic Storage Management

To use a DAS or SAN disk in Automatic Storage Management, the disk must have a partition table. Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk containing the entire disk.

Note:

You can use any physical disk for Automatic Storage Management, as long as it is a raw-partitioned disk.

2.12.5 Step 4: Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management

To configure disks for use with Automatic Storage Management:

  1. If necessary, install the disks that you intend to use for the Automatic Storage Management disk group and restart the system.

  2. To ensure that the disks are available, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/lsdev -Cc disk
    

    The output from this command is similar to the following:

    hdisk0 Available 1A-09-00-8,0  16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
    hdisk1 Available 1A-09-00-9,0  16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
    hdisk2 Available 17-08-L       SSA Logical Disk Drive
    
  3. If a disk is not listed as available, then enter the following command to configure the new disks:

    # /usr/sbin/cfgmgr
    
  4. Enter the following command on any node to identify the device names for the physical disks that you want to use:

    # /usr/sbin/lspv | grep -i none
    

    This command displays information similar to the following for each disk that is not configured in a volume group:

    hdisk2     0000078752249812   None
    

    In this example, hdisk2 is the device name of the disk and 0000078752249812 is the physical volume ID (PVID). The disks that you want to use may have a PVID, but they must not belong to a volume group.

  5. Enter commands similar to the following to clear the PVID from each disk device that you want to use:

    # /usr/sbin/chdev -l hdiskn -a pv=clear
    
  6. Enter commands similar to the following to change the owner, group, and permissions on the character file for each disk that you want to add to the disk group:

    # chown oracle:dba /dev/rhdiskn
    # chmod 660 /dev/rhdiskn
    

    Note:

    If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Automatic Storage Management, then ensure that you set the permissions only on the correct logical device name for the disk.

2.12.6 Identifying Required Raw Partitions for Database Files

Table 2-1 lists the number and size of the raw partitions that you must configure for database files.

Table 2-1 Raw Partitions Required for Database Files on AIX

Number Partition Size (MB) Purpose and Sample Alternative Device File Name

1

500

SYSTEM tablespace: dbname_system_raw_500m

1

300+ (Number of instances * 250)

SYSAUX tablespace: dbname_sysaux_raw_800m

Number of instances

500

UNDOTBSn tablespace (One tablespace for each instance, where n is the number of the instance): dbname_undotbsn_raw_500m

1

250

TEMP tablespace: dbname_temp_raw_250m

1

160

EXAMPLE tablespace: dbname_example_raw_160m

1

120

USERS tablespace: dbname_users_raw_120m

2 * number of instances

120

Two online redo log files for each instance (where n is the number of the instance and m is the log number, 1 or 2): dbname_redon_m_raw_120m

2

110

First and second control files: dbname_control{1|2}_raw_110m

1

5

Server parameter file (SPFILE): dbname_spfile_raw_5m

1

5

Password file: dbname_pwdfile_raw_5m


2.12.7 Configuring Database File Storage for Automatic Storage Management and Raw Devices

To configure disks for use with Automatic Storage Management on AIX, follow these steps:

  1. On AIX-based systems, you must apply Program Technical Fix (PTF) U496549 or higher to your system before you use Automatic Storage Management.

  2. If necessary, install the disk that you intend to use for the Automatic Storage Management disk group and restart the system.

  3. To make sure that the disk is available, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/lsdev -Cc disk
    

    The output from this command is similar to the following:

    hdisk0 Available 1A-09-00-8,0  16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
    hdisk1 Available 1A-09-00-9,0  16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
    hdisk2 Available 17-08-L       SSA Logical Disk Drive
    
  4. Enter the following command on any node to identify the device names for the physical disks that you want to use:

    # /usr/sbin/lspv | grep -i none
    

    This command displays information similar to the following for each disk that is not configured in a volume group:

    hdisk2     0000078752249812   None
    

    In this example, hdisk2 is the device name of the disk and 0000078752249812 is the physical volume ID (PVID). The disks that you want to use might have a PVID, but they must not belong to a volume group.

  5. Enter commands similar to the following to clear the PVID from each disk device that you want to use:

    # /usr/sbin/chdev -l hdiskn -a pv=clear 
    

    Note:

    If the disk device has a PVID, then Automatic Storage Management fails to mount the diskgroup created on the disk device.
  6. Enter a command similar to the following to identify the device name associated with PVID:

    # /usr/sbin/lspv | grep -i 0000078752249812
    

    The output from this command should be similar to the following:

    hdisk18        0000078752249812        None  
    

    Depending on how each node is configured, the device names may differ between nodes. Note that you will clear PVIDs later in this procedure.

  7. Enter commands similar to the following to change the owner, group, and permissions on the character raw device files for the disk devices:

    • OCR device:

      # chown root:oinstall /dev/rhdiskn
      # chmod 640 /dev/rhdiskn
      
    • Other devices:

      # chown oracle:dba /dev/rhdiskn
      # chmod 660 /dev/rhdiskn
      

      For the new device files, choose an alternative device file name that identifies the purpose of the disk device. Table 2-1 suggests alternative device file names for each file. For database files, replace dbname in the alternative device file name with the name that you chose for the database.

  8. Enter commands similar to the following on any local node to clear the PVID from each disk device that you want to use:

    # /usr/sbin/chdev -l hdiskn -a pv=clear
    
  9. Enter commands similar to the following on local node to change the owner, group, and permissions on the character raw device file for each disk that you want to add to the disk group:

    # chown oracle:dba /dev/rhdiskn
    # chmod 660 /dev/rhdiskn
    

    Note:

    If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Automatic Storage Management, then ensure that you set the permissions only on the correct logical device name for the disk.

    The device name associated with a disk may be different on other nodes. Ensure that you specify the correct device name on each node.

2.13 Stopping Existing Oracle Processes

Caution:

If you are installing additional Oracle Database 11g products in an existing Oracle home, then stop all processes running in the Oracle home. You must complete this task to enable Oracle Universal Installer to relink certain executables and libraries.

If you choose to create a database during the installation, then most installation types configure and start a default Oracle Net listener using TCP/IP port 1521 and the IPC key value EXTPROC. However, if an existing Oracle Net listener process is using the same port or key value, Oracle Universal Installer can only configure the new listener; it cannot start it. To ensure that the new listener process starts during the installation, you must shut down any existing listeners before starting Oracle Universal Installer.

To determine whether an existing listener process is running and to shut it down, if necessary:

  1. Switch user to oracle:

    # su - oracle
    
  2. Enter the following command to determine whether a listener process is running and to identify its name and the Oracle home directory in which it is installed:

    $ ps -ef | grep tnslsnr
    

    This command displays information about the Oracle Net listeners running on the system:

    ... oracle_home1/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inherit
    

    In this example, oracle_home1 is the Oracle home directory where the listener is installed and LISTENER is the listener name.

    Note:

    If no Oracle Net listeners run, then refer to the "Configuring the oracle User's Environment" section to continue.
  3. Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the appropriate Oracle home directory for the listener:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_HOME=oracle_home1
      $ export ORACLE_HOME
      
    • C or tcsh shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_HOME oracle_home1
      
  4. Enter the following command to identify the TCP/IP port number and IPC key value that the listener is using:

    $ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl status listenername
    

    Note:

    If the listener uses the default name LISTENER, then you do not have to specify the listener name in this command.
  5. Enter a command similar to the following to stop the listener process:

    $ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop listenername
    
  6. Repeat this procedure to stop all listeners running on this system.

2.14 Configuring the oracle User's Environment

You run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle account. However, before you start Oracle Universal Installer you must configure the environment of the oracle user. To configure the environment, you must:

To set the oracle user's environment:

  1. Start a new terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).

  2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on this system:

    $ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
    

    For example:

    $ xhost somehost.us.example.com
    
  3. If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the software, then log in to that system as the oracle user.

  4. If you are not logged in as the oracle user, then switch user to oracle:

    $ su - oracle
    
  5. To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:

    $ echo $SHELL
    
  6. Open the oracle user's shell startup file in any text editor:

    • C shell (csh or tcsh):

      % vi .login
      
  7. Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode creation mask:

    umask 022
    
  8. If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set in the file, then remove the appropriate lines from the file.

  9. Add one of the following lines to the file to set the AIXTHREAD_SCOPE environment variable to S (system-wide thread scope):

    • Bourne shell (sh), Bash shell (bash), or Korn shell (ksh):

      AIXTHREAD_SCOPE=S; export AIXTHREAD_SCOPE
      
    • C shell (csh or tcsh):

      setenv AIXTHREAD_SCOPE S
      

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX for more information about this environment variable
  10. Save the file, and exit from the editor.

  11. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:

    • Bash shell:

      $ . ./.bash_profile
      
    • Bourne or Korn shell:

      $ . ./.profile
      
    • C shell:

      % source ./.login
      
  12. If you are not installing the software on the local computer, then run the following command on the remote machine to set the DISPLAY variable:

    • Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:

      $ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0      
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
      

    In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the local computer that you want to use to display Oracle Universal Installer.

    Run the following command on the remote machine to check if the shell and the DISPLAY environmental variable are set correctly:

    echo $SHELL
    echo $DISPLAY
    

    Now to enable X applications, run the following commands on the local computer:

    $ xhost + fully_qualified_remote_host_name
    

    To verify that X applications display is set properly, run a X11 based program that comes with the operating system such as xclock:

    $ xclock_path
    

    In this example, xclock_path is the directory path. For example, you can find xclock at /usr/X11R6/bin/xclocks. If the DISPLAY variable is set properly, then you can see xclock on your computer screen.

    See Also:

    PC-X Server or Operating System vendor documents for further assistance.
  13. If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 400 MB of free disk space, then identify a file system with at least 400 MB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:

    1. Use the df -k command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free space.

    2. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate permissions on the directory:

      $ sudo mkdir /mount_point/tmp
      $ sudo chmod a+wr /mount_point/tmp
      # exit
      
    3. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables:

      • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

        $ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
        $ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
        $ export TMP TMPDIR
        
      • C shell:

        % setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
        % setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
        
  14. Enter commands similar to the following to set the ORACLE_BASE and ORACLE_SID environment variables:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
      $ ORACLE_SID=sales
      $ export ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_SID
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_BASE /u01/app/oracle
      % setenv ORACLE_SID sales
      

    In these examples, /u01/app/oracle is the Oracle base directory that you created or identified earlier and sales is the name that you want to call the database (typically no more than five characters).

  15. Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME and TNS_ADMIN environment variables are not set:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ unset ORACLE_HOME
      $ unset TNS_ADMIN
      
    • C shell:

      % unsetenv ORACLE_HOME
      % unsetenv TNS_ADMIN
      

    Note:

    If the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set, then Oracle Universal Installer uses the value that it specifies as the default path for the Oracle home directory. However, if you set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable, then Oracle recommends that you unset the ORACLE_HOME environment variable and choose the default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer.
  16. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following commands:

    $ umask
    $ env | more
    

    Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and the environment variables that you set in this section have the correct values.

2.15 Running the rootpre.sh Script

Note:

Do not run the rootpre.sh script if you have a later release of the Oracle Database software already installed on this system.

Run the rootpre.sh script:

  1. Switch user to root:

    $ su -
    password:
    #
    
  2. Complete one of the following steps, depending on the location of the installation files:

    • If the installation files are on disc, enter a command similar to the following, where directory_path is the disc mount point directory or the path of the db directory on the DVD:

      # /directory_path/rootpre/rootpre.sh 
      
    • If the installation files are on the hard disk, change directory to the Disk1 directory and enter the following command:

      # ./rootpre.sh
      
  3. Exit from the root account:

    # exit