2 Preinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle Universal Installer. It includes information about the following tasks:

2.1 Logging In to the System as root

Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root user. To log in as the root user, complete one of the following procedures:

Note:

Unless you intend to complete a silent-mode installation, you must install the software from an X Window System workstation, an X terminal, or a PC or other system with X server software installed.

For more information about silent-mode installations, refer to Appendix A.

  • If you are installing the software from an X Window System workstation or X terminal, then:

    1. Start a local terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).

    2. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter the following command to enable the remote host to display X applications on the local X server:

      $ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
      

      For example:

      $ xhost somehost.us.example.com
      
    3. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh, rlogin, or telnet command to connect to the system where you want to install the software:

      $ telnet fully_qualified_remote_host_name
      
    4. If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command to switch user to root:

      $ su -
      password:
      #
      
  • If you are installing the software from a PC or other system with X server software installed, then:

    Note:

    If necessary, refer to your X server documentation for more information about completing this procedure. Depending on the X server software that you are using, you may need to complete the tasks in a different order.
    1. Start the X server software.

    2. Configure the security settings of the X server software to permit remote hosts to display X applications on the local system.

    3. Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software and start a terminal session on that system, for example, an X terminal (xterm).

    4. If you are not logged in as the root user on the remote system, then enter the following command to switch user to root:

      $ su -
      password:
      #
      

2.2 Checking the Hardware Requirements

The system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

2.2.1 Memory Requirements

The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • At least 256 MB of RAM

    To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/lsattr -E -l sys0 -a realmem
    

    If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before continuing.

  • The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the configured swap space requirement:

    RAM Swap Space
    Between 257 MB and 512 MB Double the size of RAM
    Between 513 MB and 2048 MB 1.5 times the size of RAM
    Between 2049 MB and 8192 MB Equal to the size of RAM
    More than 8192 MB 0.75 times the size of RAM

    To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/lsps -a
    

    If necessary, refer to the operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap space.

Note:

Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is because the available RAM and swap space keep changing depending on the user interactions with the computer.

2.2.2 System Architecture

To determine whether the system architecture can run the software, enter the following command:

# /usr/bin/getconf HARDWARE_BITMODE

Note:

The expected output of this command is 64. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.

To determine if the system is started in 64-bit mode, enter the following command:

# bootinfo -K

The result of this command must be 64, indicating that the 64-bit kernel is enabled.

2.2.3 Disk Space Requirements

The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • The minimum disk space requirement for a client install in the /tmp directory is 190 MB

    To determine the amount of disk space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:

    # df -m /tmp
    

    If there is less than 190 MB of free disk space available in the /tmp directory, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user's environment (described later).

    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the system administrator for information about extending file systems.

  • To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following command:

    • GPFS:

      # df -m
      
    • Raw Logical Volumes in Concurrent VG (HACMP); in the following example, the variable lv_name is the name of the raw logical volume whose space you want to verify:

      # lslv lv_name
      
    • Raw hard disks; in the following example, the variable rhdisk# is the raw hard disk number that you want to verify, and the variable size_mb is the size in megabytes of the partition that you want to verify:

      # lsattr -El rhdisk# -a size_mb
      
    Installation Type Requirement for Software Files (MB)
    Instant Client 340
    Administrator 3.5 (GB)
    Runtime 2.3 (GB)
    Custom (maximum) 3.7 (GB)

2.3 Checking the Software Requirements

Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following software are installed on the system.

Note:

Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on the system to verify that it meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle Universal Installer.

2.3.1 Operating System Requirements

The following is the operating stem requirements for Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • AIX 5L version 5.3, TL 05, Service Pack 06

  • AIX 6L version 6.1, TL 00, Service Pack 04 or later

The following operating system filesets are required for Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

  • bos.adt.base

  • bos.adt.lib

  • bos.adt.libm

  • bos.perf.libperfstat

  • bos.perf.perfstat

  • bos.perf.proctools

  • xlC.aix50.rte:8.0.0.7 or later (AIX 5.3)

  • xlC.rte:8.0.0.7 or later (AIX 5.3)

  • xlC.aix61.rte:9.0.0.1 or later (AIX 6.1)

  • xlC.rte:9.0.0.1 or later (AIX 6.1)

  1. To determine the distribution and version of AIX installed, enter the following command:

    # oslevel -s
    

    If the operating system version is lower than AIX 5.3.0.0 Technology Level 5 SP 6, then upgrade your operating system to this level. AIX 5L version 5.3 maintenance packages are available from the following Web site:

    http://www-912.ibm.com/eserver/support/fixes/

  2. To determine whether the required filesets are installed and committed, enter a command similar to the following:

    # lslpp -l bos.adt.base bos.adt.lib bos.adt.libm bos.perf.perfstat \
    bos.perf.libperfstat bos.perf.proctools
    

2.3.2 Compiler Requirements

The following are the compiler requirements for Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, and Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK) with Oracle Database 11g Release 1:

XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition V8.0 for AIX:

You can download this software from the following link:

http://www-1.ibm.com/support/

Note:

If you do not install the IBM XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition V8.0 compiler, then you need to install this compiler for AIX Runtime Environment Component. The runtime environment file sets can be downloaded with no license requirements from the following link:

http://www-1.ibm.com/support/

2.3.3 Patch Requirement

In addition, you need to verify that the following patches are installed on the system.

Note:

There may be more recent versions of the patches listed installed on the system. If a listed patch is not installed, then determine whether a more recent version is installed before installing the version listed.

Authorized Problem Analysis Reports (APARs) for AIX 5L v5.3:

  • IY89080

  • IY92037

  • IY94343

  • IZ01060 or efix for IZ01060

  • IZ03260, or efix for IZ03260

The following procedure describes how to check these requirements:

2.3.4 Instant Client Light Requirements

In addition to the requirements described in the preceding section, if you plan to use Instant Client Light, then the applications must use the following languages and character sets:

  • Language: Any language that is supported by Oracle

  • Territory: Any territory that is supported by Oracle

  • Character sets:

    • Single byte

      • US7ASCII

      • WE8DEC

      • WE8MSWIN1252

      • WE8ISO8859P1

    • Unicode

      • UTF8

      • AL16UTF16

      • AL32UTF8

      Instant Client Light can connect to databases having one of the following database character sets:

      • US7ASCII

      • WE8DEC

      • WE8MSWIN1252

      • WE8ISO8859P1

      • WE8EBCDIC37C

      • WE8EBCDIC1047

      • UTF8

      • AL32UTF8

The language, territory, and character sets are determined by the NLS_LANG environment variable.

2.3.5 Additional Software Requirements

Depending on the components you want to use, you must ensure that the following software are installed:

2.3.5.1 Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers

You can use the following optional IBM JDK versions with the Oracle Java Database Connectivity and Oracle Call Interface drivers. However, they are not mandatory for the installation:

  • JDK 1.5 (32 bit)

  • JDK 1.5 (64 Bit)

Note:

IBM JDK 1.5 (64-bit) is installed with this release.

2.3.5.2 ODBC Drivers

ODBC driver is supported on the AIX operating system. To use ODBC, install gcc 3.4.5.

2.3.5.3 Programming languages

The following products are certified for use with:

  • Pro*COBOL

    Micro Focus Cobol 5.0

  • Pro*FORTRAN

    IBM XL Fortran V9.1

  • SQL*Module for Ada

    OC Systems PowerAda 5.3 or later

Note:

For more information about OC Systems and PowerAda 5.3, refer to http://www.ocsystems.com/contact.html

2.3.5.4 Browser Requirements

Web browsers must support Java Script and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. The following browsers meet these requirements:

  • Netscape Navigator 7.2

  • Netscape Navigator 8.1

  • Mozilla version 1.7

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0

  • Firefox 1.0.4

  • Firefox 1.5

  • Firefox 2.0

2.4 Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users

Depending on whether this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on this system and on the products that you are installing, you may need to create several operating system groups and users.

  • The Oracle Inventory group (oinstall)

    You must create this group the first time you install Oracle software on the system. The usual name chosen for this group is oinstall. This group owns the Oracle inventory, which is a catalog of all Oracle software installed on the system.

    Note:

    If Oracle software is already installed on the system, then the existing Oracle Inventory group must be the primary group of the operating system user that you use to install new Oracle software.
  • The Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle)

    You must create this user the first time you install Oracle software on the system. This user owns all of the software installed during the installation. This user must have the Oracle Inventory group as its primary group. It must also have the OSDBA and OSOPER groups as secondary groups.

    Note:

    In Oracle documentation, this user is referred to as the oracle user.

A single Oracle Inventory group is required for all installations of Oracle software on the system. After the first installation of Oracle software, you must use the same Oracle Inventory group for all subsequent Oracle software installations on that system. However, you can choose to create different Oracle software owner users for separate installations.

Note:

The following sections describe how to create local users and groups. As an alternative to creating local users and groups, you could create the appropriate users and groups in a directory service, for example, Network Information Services (NIS). For information about using directory services, contact the system administrator or refer to the operating system documentation.

The following sections describe how to create the required operating system users and groups:

2.4.1 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle Inventory group and a software owner:

Determining Whether the Oracle Inventory Group Exists

When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (typically, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory.

If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

# more /etc/oraInst.loc
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall

In the previous output example:

  • The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory

  • The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in this example, oinstall).

Creating the Oracle Inventory Group

If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by using the following procedure:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the oinstall group.

  3. Press F10 to exit.

2.4.2 Creating the Oracle Software Owner User

You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle software on the system

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation

2.4.2.1 Determining Whether an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle exists, enter the following command:

# id oracle

If the oracle user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=440(oracle) gid=200(oinstall) groups=201(dba),202(oper)

If the user exists, then determine whether you want to use the existing user or create another oracle user. If you want to use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups. Refer to one of the following sections for more information:

Note:

If necessary, contact the system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.

2.4.2.2 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User

If the Oracle software owner user does not exist or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name already exists.

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to create the oracle user, specifying the following information:

    • In the Primary GROUP field, specify the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall.

    • In the Group SET field, specify the OSDBA group and if required, the OSOPER group. For example, dba or dba,oper.

      Note:

      The UID for the oracle user must be less than 65536.
  3. Press F10 to exit.

  4. Set the password of the oracle user:

    # passwd oracle
    

2.4.2.3 Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User

If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSOPER groups, then you can modify it as follows:

  1. Enter the following command:

    # smit security
    
  2. Choose the appropriate menu items to modify the oracle user.

  3. In the Primary GROUP field, specify the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall.

  4. In the Group SET field, specify the required secondary groups, for example dba and oper.

  5. Press F10 to exit.

2.5 Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base directory or if required, create one. This section contains information about the following:

Note:

You can choose to create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle base directories exist on the system.

2.5.1 Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory

Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that comply with OFA guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle Inventory directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify the Oracle base directories, as follows:

  • Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory

    Enter the following command to view the contents of the oraInst.loc file:

    # more /etc/oraInst.loc
    

    If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

    inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
    inst_group=oinstall
    

    The inventory_loc parameter identifies the Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory). The parent directory of the oraInventory directory is typically an Oracle base directory. In the previous example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory.

  • Identifying existing Oracle home directories

    Enter the following command to view the contents of the oratab file:

    # more /etc/oratab
    

    If the oratab file exists, then it contains lines similar to the following:

    *:/u03/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1:N
    *:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
    *:/oracle/9.2.0:N
    

    The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories. Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner that you want to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user to install the software, then you could choose one of the following directories from the previous example:

    /u03/app/oracle
    /oracle
    

    Note:

    If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first (/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.

To continue:

  • If an Oracle base directory exists and you want to use it, then refer to the "Configuring the oracle User's Environment" section.

    When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the directory you chose.

  • If an Oracle base directory does not exist on the system or if you want to create an Oracle base directory, then refer to the following section.

2.5.2 Creating an Oracle Base Directory

Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file system with disk space.

To identify an appropriate file system:

  1. Use the df -m command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file system.

  2. From the display, identify a file system that has appropriate free space.

  3. Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.

To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and permissions for it:

  1. Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:

    # mkdir -p /mount_point/app
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app
    # chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app
    

    For example:

    # mkdir -p /u01/app
    # chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app
    # chmod -R 775 /u01/app
    
    /u01/app/oracle
    
  2. When you configure the oracle user's environment later in this chapter, set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you have created.

2.6 Configuring the oracle User's Environment

You run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle account. However, before you start Oracle Universal Installer you must configure the environment of the oracle user. To configure the environment, you must:

  • Set the default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file.

  • Set the DISPLAY environment variable.

To set the oracle user's environment:

  1. Start a new terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).

  2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on this system:

    $ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
    

    For example:

    $ xhost somehost.us.example.com
    
  3. If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the software, then log in to that system as the oracle user.

  4. If you are not logged in as the oracle user, then switch user to oracle:

    $ su - oracle
    
  5. To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:

    $ echo $SHELL
    
  6. Open the oracle user's shell startup file in any text editor:

    C shell (csh or tcsh):

    % vi .profile
    
  7. Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode creation mask:

    umask 022
    
  8. If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set in the file, then remove the appropriate lines from the file.

  9. Save the file, and exit from the editor.

  10. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:

    • Bash shell:

      $ . ./.bash_profile
      
    • Bourne or Korn shell:

      $ . ./.profile
      
    • C shell:

      % source ./.login
      
  11. If you are not installing the software on the local computer, then run the following command on the remote computer to set the DISPLAY variable:

    • Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:

      $ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0      
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
      

    In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the local computer that you want to use to display Oracle Universal Installer.

    Run the following command on the remote computer to check if the shell and the DISPLAY environmental variable are set correctly:

    echo $SHELL
    echo $DISPLAY
    

    Now to enable X applications, run the following commands on the local computer:

    $ xhost + fully_qualified_remote_host_name
    

    To verify that X applications display is set properly, run a X11 based program that comes with the operating system such as xclock:

    $ xclock_path
    

    In this example, xclock_path is the directory path. For example, you can find xclock at /usr/X11R6/bin/xclocks. If the DISPLAY variable is set properly, then you can see xclock on your computer screen.

    See Also:

    PC-X Server or Operating System vendor documents for further assistance.
  12. If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 400 MB of free disk space, then identify a file system with at least 400 MB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:

    1. Use the df -m command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free space.

    2. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate permissions on the directory:

      $ sudo mkdir /mount_point/tmp
      $ sudo chmod a+wr /mount_point/tmp
      # exit
      
    3. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables:

      • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

        $ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
        $ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
        $ export TMP TMPDIR
        
      • C shell:

        % setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
        % setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
        
  13. Enter commands similar to the following to set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
      $ export ORACLE_BASE
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_BASE /u01/app/oracle
      

    In these examples, /u01/app/oracle is the Oracle base directory that you created or identified earlier.

  14. Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME and TNS_ADMIN environment variables are not set:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ unset ORACLE_HOME
      $ unset TNS_ADMIN
      
    • C shell:

      % unsetenv ORACLE_HOME
      % unsetenv TNS_ADMIN
      

    Note:

    If the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set, then Oracle Universal Installer uses the value that it specifies as the default path for the Oracle home directory. However, if you set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable, then Oracle recommends that you unset the ORACLE_HOME environment variable and choose the default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer.
  15. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following commands:

    $ umask
    $ env | more
    

    Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and the environment variables that you set in this section have the correct values.