This preface introduces you to the Oracle Database SQLJ Developer's Guide and Reference, discussing the intended audience and conventions of this document. A list of related Oracle documents is also provided.


This manual is intended for anyone with an interest in SQLJ programming but assumes at least some prior knowledge of the following:

Although general knowledge of SQL is sufficient, any knowledge of JDBC and Oracle-specific SQL features would be helpful as well.

Documentation Accessibility

Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program Web site at

Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace.

Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation

This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.

TTY Access to Oracle Support Services

Oracle provides dedicated Text Telephone (TTY) access to Oracle Support Services within the United States of America 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. For TTY support, call 800.446.2398. Outside the United States, call +1.407.458.2479.

Related Documents

Also available from the Oracle Java Platform group are the following Oracle resources:

The following documents are from the Oracle Server Technologies group:


Oracle error message documentation is available in HTML only. If you have access to the Oracle Documentation CD only, you can browse the error messages by range. Once you find the specific range, use the "find in page" feature of your browser to locate the specific message. When connected to the Internet, you can search for a specific error message using the error message search feature of the Oracle online documentation.

For documentation of SQLJ standard features and syntax, refer to the following ANSI specification:

Information Technology - Database Languages - SQL - Part 10: Object Language Bindings (SQL/OLB)

You can obtain this from ANSI through the following Web site:

(Click "eStandards Store" and search for the specification number.)

The following location has SQLJ sample applications:


This section describes the conventions used in the text and code examples of this documentation set. It describes:


Also note that command-line examples are for a UNIX environment with a system prompt of "%". This is only by convention and can be adjusted as appropriate for your operating system.

Conventions in Text

There are various conventions in text to help you more quickly identify special terms. The following table describes those conventions and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
Italics Italic typeface indicates book titles or emphasis, or terms that are defined in the text. Oracle Database Concepts

Ensure that the recovery catalog and target database do not reside on the same disk.

UPPERCASE monospace (fixed-width) font Uppercase monospace typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. Such elements include parameters, privileges, data types, RMAN keywords, SQL keywords, SQL*Plus or utility commands, packages and methods, as well as system-supplied column names, database objects and structures, usernames, and roles. You can specify this clause only for a NUMBER column.

You can back up the database by using the BACKUP command.

Query the TABLE_NAME column in the USER_TABLES data dictionary view.


lowercase monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase monospace typeface indicates executables, filenames, directory names, and sample user-supplied elements. Such elements include computer and database names, net service names, and connect identifiers, as well as user-supplied database objects and structures, column names, packages and classes, usernames and roles, program units, and parameter values.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

Enter sqlplus to open SQL*Plus.

The password is specified in the orapwd file.

Back up the data files and control files in the /disk1/oracle/dbs directory.

The department_id, department_name, and location_id columns are in the hr.departments table.

Set the QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED initialization parameter to true.

Connect as oe user.

The JRepUtil class implements these methods.

lowercase italic monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase italic monospace font represents place holders or variables. You can specify the parallel_clause.

Run old_release.SQL where old_release refers to the release you installed prior to upgrading.

Conventions in Code Examples

Code examples illustrate SQL, PL/SQL, SQL*Plus, or other command-line statements. They are displayed in a monospace (fixed-width) font and separated from standard text as shown in this example:

SELECT username FROM dba_users WHERE username = 'MIGRATE';

The following table describes typographic conventions used in code examples and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
< > In this document, angle brackets are used instead of regular brackets to enclose one or more optional items. Do not enter the angle brackets. (Regular brackets are not used due to SQLJ syntax considerations.) DECIMAL (digits < , precision >)
| A vertical bar represents a choice of two or more options within brackets or braces. Enter one of the options. Do not enter the vertical bar. {ENABLE | DISABLE}


... Horizontal ellipsis points indicate either:
  • Omission of parts of the code that are not directly related to the example

  • That you can repeat a portion of the code

CREATE TABLE ... AS subquery;

SELECT col1, col2, ... , coln FROM employees;

Other notation You must enter symbols other than brackets, braces, vertical bars, and ellipsis points as shown. acctbal NUMBER(11,2);

acct CONSTANT NUMBER(4) := 3;

Italics Italicized text indicates place holders or variables for which you must supply particular values. CONNECT SYSTEM

Enter password: password

DB_NAME = database_name

UPPERCASE Uppercase typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. These terms are in uppercase to distinguish them from terms you define. Unless terms appear in brackets, enter them in the order and with the spelling shown. However, because these terms are not case-sensitive, you can enter them in lowercase. SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;


DROP TABLE hr.employees;

lowercase Lowercase typeface indicates programmatic elements that you supply. For example, lowercase indicates names of tables, columns, or files.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;

sqlplus hr/hr