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Oracle® Database Net Services Reference
11g Release 1 (11.1)

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5 Profile Parameters (sqlnet.ora)

This chapter provides complete listing of the sqlnet.ora file configuration parameters.

This chapter includes the following topics:

Overview of Profile Configuration File

The sqlnet.ora file enables you to:

By default, sqlnet.ora is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\admin directory on Windows operating systems. sqlnet.ora can also be stored in the directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable.

sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters

This section lists and describes the following sqlnet.ora file parameters:

BEQUEATH_DETACH

Purpose

Use the parameter BEQUEATH_DETACH to turn signal handling on or off for UNIX systems.

Default

no

Values

  • yes to turn signal handling off

  • no to leave signal handling on

Example

BEQUEATH_DETACH=yes

DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE

Purpose

Use the parameter DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE to specify the session data unit (SDU) size, in bytes to connections.

Usage

Oracle recommends setting this parameter in both the client-side and server-side sqlnet.ora file to ensure the same SDU size is used throughout a connection. When the configured values of client and database server do not match for a session, the lower of the two values is used.

You can override this parameter for a particular client connection by specifying the SDU parameter in the connect descriptor for a client.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for complete SDU usage and configuration information

Default

8192 bytes (8 KB)

Values

512 to 32767 bytes

Example

DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE=4096

DISABLE_OOB

Purpose

If turned off, the parameter DISABLE_OOB enables Oracle Net to send and receive "break" messages using urgent data provided by the underlying protocol.

If turned on, disables the ability to send and receive "break" messages using urgent data provided by the underlying protocol. Once enabled, this feature applies to all protocols used by this client.

See Also:

Operating system-specific documentation to determine if the protocols you are using support urgent data requests. TCP/IP is an example of a protocol that supports this feature.

Default

off

Example

DISABLE_OOB=on

NAMES.DCE.PREFIX

Purpose

Use the parameter NAMES.DCE.PREFIX to specify the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) cell name (prefix) to use for name lookups.

Default

/.:/subsys/oracle/names

Example

 NAMES.DCE.PREFIX=/.:/subsys/oracle/names

NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN

Purpose

Use the parameter NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN to set the domain from which the client most often looks up names resolution requests. When this parameter is set, the default domain name is automatically appended to any unqualified net service name or service name.

For example, if the default domain is set to us.example.com, then the connect string CONNECT hr@sales gets searched as sales.us.example.com. If the connect string includes the domain extension, such as CONNECT hr@sales.example.com, the domain is not appended.

Default

None

Example

NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN=example.com

NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH

Purpose

Use the parameter NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH to specify the order of the naming methods used for client name resolution lookups.

Default

NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(tnsnames, ezconnect, ldap)

Values

Table 5-1 NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH Values

Naming Method Value Description

tnsnames (local naming naming method)

Set to resolve a net service name through the tnsnames.ora file on the client.

See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide

ldap (directory naming naming method)

Set to resolve a database service name, net service name, or net service alias through a directory server.

See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide

ezconnect or hostname (easy connect naming or host naming method)

Select to enable clients to use a TCP/IP connect identifier, consisting of a host name and optional port and service name.

See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide

cds (CDS external naming method)

Set to resolve an Oracle database name in a Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) environment.

See Also: Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide

nis (Network Information Service (NIS) external naming method)

Set to resolve service information through an existing NIS.

See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide


Example

NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(tnsnames)

NAMES.LDAP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND

Purpose

Use the NAMES.LADP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND parameter to specify whether the LDAP naming adapter should attempt to authenticate using a specified wallet when it connects to the LDAP directory to resolve the name in the connect string.

Usage

The parameter value is boolean. If set to TRUE, the LDAP connection will be authenticated using a wallet whose location must be specified in the WALLET_LOCATION parameter.

If the parameter is set to FALSE, the LDAP connection will be established using an anonymous bind.

Default

FALSE

Example

NAMES.LDAP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND=TRUE

NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION

Purpose

Use the NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION parameter to specify whether the LDAP naming adapter should leave the session with the LDAP server open after name lookup is complete.

Usage

The parameter value is boolean. If set to TRUE, the connection to the LDAP server will be left open after the name lookup is complete; the connection will effectively stay open for the duration of the process. If the connection is lost, it will be reestablished as needed.

If FALSE, the LDAP connection is terminated as soon as the name lookup completes. Every subsequent lookup opens the connection, performs the lookup, and closes the connection.

Default

FALSE

Example

NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION=TRUE

NAMES.NIS.META_MAP

Purpose

Use the NAMES.NIS.META_MAP parameter to specify the map file to be used to map Network Information Service (NIS) attributes to an NIS mapname.

Default

sqlnet.maps

Example

NAMES.NIS.META_MAP=sqlnet.maps

RECV_BUF_SIZE

Purpose

Use the RECV_BUF_SIZE parameter to specify the buffer space limit for receive operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL, and SDP protocols.

Note:

Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain operating systems. Refer to operating-system specific documentation for information about additional protocols that support this parameter.

See Also:

Oracle Net Services Administrator's Guide for information about configuring this parameter

Default

The default value for this parameter is operating-system specific. The default for the Solaris 2.6 Operating System is 32768 bytes (32 KB).

Usage

You can override this parameter for a particular client connection by specifying the RECV_BUF_SIZE parameter in the connect descriptor for a client.

Example

RECV_BUF_SIZE=11784

SDP.PF_INET_SDP

Purpose

Use the SDP.PF_INET_SDP parameter to specify the protocol family or address family constant for the SDP protocol on your system.

Default

27

Values

Any positive integer

Example

SDP.PF_INET_SDP=30

SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER

Purpose

Use the SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER parameter to specify a text file containing the banner contents that warn the user about possible user action auditing. The complete path of the text file must be specified in the sqlnet.ora file on the server. OCI applications can make use of OCI features to retrieve this banner and display it to the user.

Default

None

Values

Name of the file for which the database owner has read permissions

Example

SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER=/opt/oracle/admin/data/auditwarning.txt

SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER

Purpose

Use the SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER parameter to specify a text file containing the banner contents that warn the user about unauthorized access to the database. The complete path of the text file must be specified in the sqlnet.ora file on the server. OCI applications can make use of OCI features to retrieve this banner and display it to the user.

Default

None

Values

Name of the file for which the database owner has read permissions

Example

SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER=/opt/oracle/admin/data/unauthwarning.txt

SEND_BUF_SIZE

Purpose

Use the SEND_BUF_SIZE parameter to specify the buffer space limit for send operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL, and SDP protocols.

Note:

Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain operating systems. Refer to operating-system specific documentation for information about additional protocols that support this parameter.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information about configuring this parameter

Default

The default value for this parameter is operating-system specific. The default for the Solaris 2.6 Operating System is 8192 bytes (8 KB).

Usage

You can override this parameter for a particular client connection by specifying the SEND_BUF_SIZE parameter in the connect descriptor for a client.

Example

SEND_BUF_SIZE=11784

SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION

Purpose

To set the minimum authentication protocol allowed when connecting to Oracle Database instances. The term VERSION in the parameter name refers to the version of the authentication protocol, not the Oracle Database release.

If the client release does not meet or exceed the value defined by this parameter, then authentication fails with an ORA-28040: No matching authentication protocol error or an ORA-03134: Connections to this server version are no longer supported error.

Usage Notes

A setting of 8 permits most password versions, and allows any combination of the DBA_USERS.PASSWORD_VERSIONS values 10G, and 11G.

A greater value means the server is less compatible in terms of the protocol that clients must understand in order to authenticate. The server is also more restrictive in terms of the password version that must exist to authenticate any specific account. The ability for a client to authenticate depends on the DBA_USERS.PASSWORD_VERSIONS value on the server for that account.

Note the following implications of setting the value to 12:

  • To take advantage of the password protections introduced in Oracle Database 11g, users must change their passwords. The new passwords are case sensitive. When an account password is changed, the earlier 10G case-insensitive password version is automatically removed.

  • Releases of OCI clients before Oracle Database 10g and all versions of JDBC thin clients cannot authenticate to the Oracle database using password-based authentication.

  • If the client uses Oracle9i Database, then the client will receive an ORA-03134 error message. To allow the connection, remove the SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION setting to return to the default. Ensure the DBA_USERS.PASSWORD_VERSIONS value for the account contains the value 10G. It may be necessary to reset the password for that account.

The client must support certain abilities of an authentication protocol before the server will authenticate. If the client does not support a specified authentication ability, then the server rejects the connection with an ORA-28040: No matching authentication protocol error message.

The following is the list of all client abilities. Some clients do not have all abilities. Clients that are more recent have all the capabilities of the older clients, but older clients tend to have less abilities than more recent clients.

  • O5L_NP: The ability to perform the Oracle Database 10g authentication protocol using the 11G password version, and generating a session key encrypted for critical patch update CPUOct2012.

  • O5L: The ability to perform the Oracle Database 10g authentication protocol using the 10G password version.

  • O4L: The ability to perform the Oracle9i database authentication protocol using the 10G password version.

  • O3L: The ability to perform the Oracle8i database authentication protocol using the 10G password version.

A higher ability value is more recent and secure than a lower ability value. Clients that are more recent have all the capabilities of the older clients.

The following table describes the allowed values, password versions, and descriptions:

Value of the ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION Parameter Generated Password Version Ability Required of the Client Meaning for Clients
12Foot 1  11G O5L_NP Only clients which have applied critical patch update CPUOct2012 or later can connect to the server.
11 10G, 11G O5L Clients using Oracle Database 10g and later can connect to the server.

Clients that have not applied critical patch update CPUOct2012 or later patches must use the 10G password version.

10 10G, 11G O5L Clients using Oracle Database 10g and later can connect to the server.

Clients that have not applied critical patch update CPUOct2012 or later patches must use the 10G password version.

9 10G, 11G O4L Oracle9i Database or later clients can connect to the server.
8 10G, 11G O3L Oracle8i Database and later clients can connect to the server.

Footnote 1 This is considered "Exclusive Mode" because it excludes the use of the 10G password version.

Allowed Values

  • 12 for the critical patch updates CPUOct2012 and later Oracle Database 11g authentication protocols (recommended)

  • 11 for Oracle Database 11g authentication protocols

  • 10 for Oracle Database 10g authentication protocols

  • 9 for Oracle9i Database authentication protocols

  • 8 for Oracle8i Database authentication protocols (default)

Default

8

Example

If both Oracle Database 11g and Oracle Database 10g are present, then set the parameter as follows:

SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION=10

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE to define the name of the service used to obtain a Kerberos service ticket.

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE=oracle

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES to enable one or more authentication services. If authentication has been installed, it is recommended that this parameter be set to either none or to one of the authentication methods.

Default

None

Note:

When installing the database with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), this parameter may be set to nts in the sqlnet.ora file.

Values

Authentication Methods Available with Oracle Net Services: 

  • none for no authentication methods, including Windows native operating system authentication (to use Windows native operating system authentication, set this parameter to nts). When SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES is set to none, a valid user name and password can be used to access the database.

  • all for all authentication methods

  • nts for Windows native operating system authentication

Authentication Methods Available with Oracle Advanced Security:  

Example

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES=(kerberos5)

SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION to set a unique identifier for this client computer. This identifier is passed to the listener with any connection request and is included in the Audit Trail. The identifier can be any alphanumeric string up to 128 characters long.

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION=1432

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT to specify the checksum behavior for the client.

Default

accepted

Values

  • accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side

  • rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side

  • requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it

  • required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other side is not enabled for the security service

Example

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT=accepted

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER to specify the checksum behavior for the database server.

Default

accepted

Values

  • accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side

  • rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side

  • requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it

  • required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other side is not enabled for the security service

Example

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER=accepted

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT to specify a list of crypto-checksum algorithms for the client to use.

Default

all available algorithms

Values

  • md5 for the RSA Data Security's MD5 algorithm

  • sha1 for the Secure Hash algorithm

Example

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT=(MD5)

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER to specify a list of crypto-checksum algorithms for the database server to use.

Default

all available algorithms

Values

  • md5 for the RSA Data Security's MD5 algorithm

  • sha1 for the Secure Hash algorithm

Example

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER=(md5)

SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED to specify the characters used when generating cryptographic keys. The more random the characters are, the stronger the keys are. The string should be 10-70 random characters. This optional parameter is required for when encryption or checksumming are turned on. Encryption is turned on if the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT parameter is specified for the client and the SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER parameter is specified for the database server; checksumming is turned on if the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT parameter is specified for the client and the SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER parameter is specified for the database server.

Default

qwertyuiopasdfghjkl;zxcvbnm,.s1

Example

SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED="qwertyuiopasdfghjkl;zxcvbnm,.s1"

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT to turn encryption on for the client.

Default

accepted

Values

  • accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side

  • rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side

  • requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it

  • required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other side is not enabled for the security service

Example

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT=accepted

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER to turn encryption on for the database server.

Default

accepted

Values

  • accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side

  • rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side

  • requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it

  • required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other side is not enabled for the security service

Example

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER=accepted

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT to specify a list of encryption algorithms for the client to use.

Default

All available algorithms.

Values

One or more of the following:

  • 3des112 for triple DES with a two-key (112 bit) option

  • 3des168 for triple DES with a three-key (168 bit) option

  • des for standard 56 bit key size

  • des40 for 40 bit key size

  • rc4_40 for 40 bit key size

  • rc4_56 for 56 bit key size

  • rc4_128 for 128 bit key size

  • rc4_256 for 256 bit key size

Example

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT=(rc4_56)

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER to specify a list of encryption algorithms for the database server to use.

Default

All available algorithms

Values

One or more of the following:

  • 3des112 for triple DES with a two-key (112 bit) option

  • 3des168 for triple DES with a three-key (168 bit) option

  • des for standard 56 bit key size

  • des40 for 40 bit key size

  • rc4_40 for 40 bit key size

  • rc4_56 for 56 bit key size

  • rc4_128 for 128 bit key size

  • rc4_256 for 256 bit key size

Example

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER=(rc4_56, des, ...)

SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME

Purpose

Use parameter SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME to specify a time interval, in minutes, to send a probe to verify that client/server connections are active. Setting a value greater than 0 ensures that connections are not left open indefinitely, due to an abnormal client termination. If the probe finds a terminated connection, or a connection that is no longer in use, it returns an error, causing the server process to exit. This parameter is primarily intended for the database server, which typically handles multiple connections at any one time.

Limitations on using this terminated connection detection feature are:

  • It is not allowed on bequeathed connections.

  • Though very small, a probe packet generates additional traffic that may downgrade network performance.

  • Depending on which operating system is in use, the server may need to perform additional processing to distinguish the connection probing event from other events that occur. This can also result in degraded network performance.

Default

0

Minimum Value

0

Recommended Value

10

Example

SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME=10

SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT

Purpose

Use the SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to specify the time, in seconds, for a client to connect with the database server and provide the necessary authentication information.

If the client fails to establish a connection and complete authentication in the time specified, then the database server terminates the connection. In addition, the database server logs the IP address of the client and an ORA-12170: TNS:Connect timeout occurred error message to the sqlnet.log file. The client receives either an ORA-12547: TNS:lost contact or an ORA-12637: Packet receive failed error message.

The default value of this parameter is appropriate for typical usage scenarios. However, if you need to explicitly set a different value, Oracle recommends setting this parameter in combination with the INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name parameter in the listener.ora file. When specifying the values for these parameters, note the following recommendations:

  • Set both parameters to an initial low value.

  • Set the value of the INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name parameter to a lower value than the SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter.

For example, you can set INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name to 2 seconds and SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to 3 seconds. If clients are unable to complete connections within the specified time due to system or network delays that are normal for the particular environment, then increment the time as needed.

See Also:

Default

60 seconds

Example

SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=3

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME to specify the complete path name to the Kerberos credentials cache file.

Default

/usr/tmp/krbcache on UNIX operating systems and c:\tmp\krbcache on Windows operating systems

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME=/usr/tmp/krbcache

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW to specify how many seconds can pass before a Kerberos credential is considered out of date.

Default

300

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW=1200

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF to specify the complete path name to the Kerberos configuration file, which contains the realm for the default Key Distribution Center (KDC) and maps realms to KDC hosts. The KDC maintains a list of user principals and is contacted through the kinit program for the user's initial ticket.

Default

/krb5/krb.conf on UNIX operating systems and c:\krb5\krb.conf on Windows operating systems

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF=/krb5/krb.conf

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB to specify the complete path name to the Kerberos principal/secret key mapping file, which is used to extract keys and decrypt incoming authentication information.

Default

/etc/v5srvtab on UNIX operating systems and c:\krb5\v5srvtab on Windows operating systems

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB=/etc/v5srvtab

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS to specify the complete path name to the Kerberos realm translation file, which provides a mapping from a host name or domain name to a realm.

Default

/krb5/krb.realms on UNIX operating systems and c:\krb5\krb.realms on Windows operating systems

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS=/krb5/krb.realms

SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT

Purpose

Use the SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to specify the time, in seconds, for a client to establish an Oracle Net connection to the database instance.

If an Oracle Net connection is not established in the time specified, the connect attempt is terminated. The client receives an ORA-12170: TNS:Connect timeout occurred error.

The outbound connect timeout interval is a superset of the TCP connect timeout interval, which specifies a limit on the time taken to establish a TCP connection. Additionally, the outbound connect timeout interval includes the time taken to be connected to an Oracle instance providing the requested service.

Without this parameter, a client connection request to the database server may block for the default TCP connect timeout duration (approximately 8 minutes on Linux) when the database server host system is unreachable.

The outbound connect timeout interval is only applicable for TCP, TCP with SSL, and IPC transport connections.

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=10

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE

Purpose

Use the SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE parameter to specify an alternate RADIUS server to use in case the primary server is unavailable. The value can be either the IP address or host name of the server.

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE=radius2

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT to specify the listening port of the alternate RADIUS server.

Default

1645

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT=1667

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES to specify the number of times the database server should resend messages to the alternate RADIUS server.

Default

3

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES=4

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION to specify the location of the primary RADIUS server, either by its host name or IP address.

Default

Local host

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENETICATION=officeacct

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE to specify the class containing the user interface used to interact with the user.

Default

DefaultRadiusInterface

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE=DefaultRadiusInterface

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT to specify the listening port of the primary RADIUS server.

Default

1645

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT= 1667

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES to specify the number of times the database server should resend messages to the primary RADIUS server.

Default

3

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES=4

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT to specify the time, in seconds, that the database server should wait for a response from the primary RADIUS server.

Default

5

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT=10

SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE to turn challenge response on or off.

Default

off

Values

on | off

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE=on

SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET

Purpose:

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET to specify the location of the RADIUS secret key.

Default

The $ORACLE_HOME/network/security/radius.key file on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\security\radius.key file on Windows.

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET=oracle/bin/admin/radiuskey

SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING to turn accounting on and off. If enabled, packets are sent to the active RADIUS server at listening port plus one. The default port is 1646.

Default

off

Values

on | off

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING=on

SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT to specify the time, in seconds, for a database server to wait for client data after connection establishment. A client must send some data within the time interval.

For environments in which clients shut down on occasion or abnormally, setting this parameter is recommended. If a client does not send any data in time specified, then the database server logs an ORA-12535: TNS:operation timed out and ORA-12609: TNS: Receive timeout occurred to the sqlnet.log file. Without this parameter, the database server may continue to wait for data from clients that may be down or are experiencing difficulties.

You can also set this parameter on the client-side to specify the time, in seconds, for a client to wait for response data from the database server after connection establishment. Without this parameter, the client may wait for a long period of time for a response from a database server saturated with requests.

Set the value for this parameter to an initial low value and adjust according to system and network capacity. If necessary, use this parameter in conjunction with the SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT parameter.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information about configuring these parameters

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT=3

SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT

Purpose

Use to specify the time, in seconds, for a database server to complete a send operation to clients after connection establishment.

For environments in which clients shut down on occasion or abnormally, setting this parameter is recommended. If the database server is unable to complete a send operation in the time specified, then it logs an ORA-12535: TNS:operation timed out and ORA-12608: TNS: Send timeout occurred to the sqlnet.log file. Without this parameter, the database server may continue to send responses to clients that are unable to receive data due to a downed computer or a busy state.

You can also set this parameter on the client-side to specify the time, in seconds, for a client to complete send operations to the database server after connection establishment. Without this parameter, the client may continue to send requests to a database server already saturated with requests.

Set the value for this parameter to an initial low value and adjust according to system and network capacity. If necessary, use this parameter in conjunction with the SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT parameter.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information about configuring these parameters

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT=3

SSL_CERT_REVOCATION

Purpose

Use the SSL_CRT_REVOCATION parameter to configure a revocation check for a certificate.

Default

none

Values

  • none to turn off certificate revocation checking

  • requested to perform certificate revocation in case a Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is available. Reject SSL connection if the certificate is revoked. If no appropriate CRL is found to determine the revocation status of the certificate and the certificate is not revoked, then accept the SSL connection

  • required to perform certificate revocation when a certificate is available. If a certificate is revoked and no appropriate CRL is found, then reject the SSL connection If no appropriate CRL is found to ascertain the revocation status of the certificate and the certificate is not revoked. then accept the SSL connection.

Example

SSL_CERT_REVOCATION=required

SSL_CERT_FILE

Purpose

Use the parameter SSL_CRL_FILE to specify the name of the file where you can assemble the CRL of CAs for client authentication.

This file contains the PEM-encoded CRL files, in order of preference. You can use this file alternatively or in additional to the SSL_CERT_PATH parameter. This parameter is only valid if SSL_CERT_REVOCATION is set to either requested or required.

Default

None

SSL_CERT_PATH

Purpose

Use the parameter SSL_CRL_PATH to specify the destination directory of the CRL of CA. The files in this directory are hashed symbolic links created by Oracle Wallet Manager. This parameter is only valid if SSL_CERT_REVOCATION is set to either requested or required.

Default

None

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES

Purpose

Use the parameter SSL_CIPHER_SUITES to control what combination of encryption and data integrity is used by the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

Default

None

Values

See Also:

Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide for further information about cipher suite values

Example

SSL_CIPHER_SUITE=(ssl_rsa_with_rc4_138_md5)

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION

Purpose

Use the parameter SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION to specify whether or not a client—in addition to the database server—is authenticated using SSL.

Default

true

Values

true | false

Example

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=true

SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH

Purpose

Use the parameter SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH to enforce that the distinguished name (DN) for the database server matches its service name. If you enforce the match verifications, then SSL ensures that the certificate is from the server. If you select to not enforce the match verification, then SSL performs the check but allows the connection, regardless if there is a match. Not enforcing the match allows the server to potentially fake its identify.

Default

no

Values

  • yes | on | true to specify to enforce a match. If the DN matches the service name, then the connection succeeds. If the DN does not match the service name, then the connection fails.

  • no | off | false to specify to not enforce a match. If does not match the service name, then the connection is successful, but an error is logged to the sqlnet.log file.

Usage Notes

In addition to the sqlnet.ora file, configure the tnsnames.ora parameter SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN to enable server DN matching.

Example

SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH=yes

SSL_VERSION

Purpose

Use the parameter SSL_VERSION to force the version of the SSL connection.

Clients and database servers must use a compatible version.

Default

undetermined

Values

undetermined | 2.0 | 3.0

Example

SSL_VERSION=2.0

TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT

Purpose

Use the TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to specify the time, in seconds, for a client to establish a TCP connection to the database server.

If a TCP connection to the database host is not established in the time specified, the connect attempt is terminated. The client receives an ORA-12170: TNS:Connect timeout occurred error.

Without this parameter, a client connection request to the database server can block for the default duration of the TCP connect timeout (approximately 8 minutes on Linux) when the database server host system is unreachable.

This parameter only applies to TCP connections (PROTOCOL=tcp in the TNS connect address).

Default

None

Example

TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT=10

TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES

Purpose

Use the parameter TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES to specify which clients are denied access to the database.

Syntax

TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES=(hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address, ...)

Example

TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES=(finance.us.example.com, mktg.us.example.com, 192.0.2.25)

TCP.INVITED_NODES

Purpose

Use the parameter TCP.INVITED_NODES to specify which clients are allowed access to the database. This list takes precedence over the TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES parameter if both lists are present.

Syntax

TCP.INVITED_NODES=(hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address, ...)

Example

TCP.INVITED_NODES=(sales.us.example.com, hr.us.example.com, 192.0.2.73)

TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING

Purpose

The TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING parameter creates a hard failure when any of the host names in the invited/excluded list fail to resolve to an IP address. This is to ensure that a customer's desired configuration is enforced, meaning that valid node checking cannot take place unless the host names are resolvable to IP addresses.

This is important especially in the context of the TCP.INVITED_NODES parameter, because it requires that every one of the client nodes be listed in the server's sqlnet.invited_nodes list. When one of the clients is decommissioned, and thus removed from the host name database, it becomes unresolvable, and will cause the listener to fail to start.

Note:

In order to utilize the TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING parameter's invited nodes, the host name database must be kept in sync with the sqlnet.invited_node list.

Default

no

Values

yes | no

Example

TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING=yes

TCP.NODELAY

Purpose

Use the parameter TCP.NODELAY to preempt delays in buffer flushing within the TCP/IP protocol stack.

Default

yes

Values

yes | no

Example

TCP.NODELAY=yes

TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY

Purpose

Use the parameter TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY to specify the destination directory for the TNSPING utility trace file, tnsping.trc.

Default

The $ORACLE_HOME/network/trace directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\trace directory on Windows operating systems

Example

TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY=/oracle/traces

TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL

Purpose

Use the parameter TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL to turn TNSPING utility tracing on, at a specific level, or off.

Default

off

Values

  • off for no trace output

  • user for user trace information

  • admin for administration trace information

  • support for Oracle Support Services trace information

Example

TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL=admin

USE_CMAN

Purpose

If set to true, the parameter USE_CMAN routes the client to a protocol address for an Oracle Connection Manager.

The following example shows two address lists. While the first address list routes the client to an Oracle Connection Manager, the second address list routes the client directly to a listener.

sales=
 (DESCRIPTION= 
   (LOAD_BALANCE=on) 
   (FAILOVER=on)
   (ADDRESS_LIST= 
     (SOURCE_ROUTE=yes) 
     (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host1)(PORT=1630)) 
     (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host2)(PORT=1521)))
   (ADDRESS_LIST= 
     (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host3)(PORT=1521)))
   (CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))

Without USE_CMAN=true, the client picks one of the address lists at random and fails over to the other address list if the chosen ADDRESS_LIST fails. With USE_CMAN=true, the client always uses the first address list.

If no Oracle Connection Manager addresses are available, connections are routed through any available listener address.

Default

false

Values

true | false

Example

USE_CMAN=true

USE_DEDICATED_SERVER

Purpose

If set to on, the parameter USE_DEDICATED_SERVER automatically appends (SERVER=dedicated) to the connect data for a connect descriptor. This way connections from this client use a dedicated server process, even if shared server is configured.

This parameter adds (SERVER=dedicated) to the CONNECT_DATA section of the connect descriptor used by the client. It overrides the current value of the SERVER parameter in the tnsnames.ora file.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for complete configuration information

Default

off

Values

  • on to append (SERVER=dedicated)

  • off to hand off requests to existing server processes

Example

USE_DEDICATED_SERVER=on

WALLET_LOCATION

Purpose

Use the parameter WALLET_LOCATION to specify the location of wallets. Wallets are certificates, keys, and trustpoints processed by SSL.

Syntax

Oracle wallets on the file system:

WALLET_LOCATION=
  (SOURCE=
    (METHOD=file)
    (METHOD_DATA=
       (DIRECTORY=directory)
       [(PKCS11=TRUE/FALSE)]))

Microsoft certificate store:

WALLET_LOCATION=
  (SOURCE=
     (METHOD=mcs))

Oracle wallets in the Windows registry:

WALLET_LOCATION=
   (SOURCE=
      (METHOD=reg)
      (METHOD_DATA=
         (KEY=registry_key)))

Entrust wallets:

WALLET_LOCATION=
   (SOURCE=
      (METHOD=entr)
      (METHOD_DATA=
         (PROFILE=file.epf)
         (INIFILE=file.ini)))

Subparameters

WALLET_LOCATION supports the following subparameters:

SOURCE: Specify the type of storage for wallets and storage location.

METHOD: Specify the type of storage.

METHOD_DATA: Specify the storage location.

DIRECTORY: Specify the location of Oracle wallets on file system.

KEY: Specify the wallet type and location in the Windows registry.

PROFILE: Specify the Entrust profile file (.epf).

INIFILE: Specify the Entrust initialization file (.ini).

Default

None

Usage Notes

  • The key/value pair for Microsoft's certificate store (MCS) omits the METHOD_DATA parameter because MCS does not use wallets. Instead, Oracle PKI (public key infrastructure) applications obtain certificates, trustpoints and private keys directly from the user's profile.

  • If an Oracle wallet is stored in the Windows registry and the wallet's key (KEY) is SALESAPP, the storage location of the encrypted wallet is HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\WALLETS\SALESAPP\EWALLET.P12. The storage location of the decrypted wallet is HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\WALLETS\SALESAPP\CWALLET.SSO.

Values

true | false

Examples

Oracle wallets on file system:

WALLET_LOCATION=  
  (SOURCE=
      (METHOD=file)
      (METHOD_DATA=  
         (DIRECTORY=/etc/oracle/wallets/databases)))

Microsoft certificate store:

WALLET_LOCATION=
   (SOURCE=
     (METHOD=mcs))
   

Oracle Wallets in the Windows registry:

WALLET_LOCATION=
   (SOURCE=
     (METHOD=REG)
     (METHOD_DATA=
        (KEY=SALESAPP)))

Entrust Wallets:

WALLET_LOCATION=
   (SOURCE=
     (METHOD=entr)
     (METHOD_DATA=
       (PROFILE=/etc/oracle/wallets/test.epf)
       (INIFILE=/etc/oracle/wallets/test.ini)))

WALLET_OVERRIDE

Purpose

This parameter determines whether the client should override the strong authentication credential with the password credential in the secret store to log in to the database.

Syntax

None.

Subparameters

None.

Usage Notes

  • Users may have batch jobs that require logging into the database. There may be scripts that access databases and are shared by administrators. This project provides a way for them to use CONNECT / instead of specifying the user name and password explicitly. It simplifies the maintenance of the scripts and secures the password management for the applications.

  • Middle-tier applications create an Oracle Applications wallet at install time to store the application's specific identity. The password may be randomly generated rather than hardcoded. When an Oracle application accesses the database, it sets appropriate values for SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES and WALLET_LOCATION. The new wallet-based password authentication code uses the password credential in the Oracle Applications wallet to log on to the database.

Examples

New commands will be implemented for mkstore to manage the entries in the secret store.

To create a wallet:

mkstore -wrl wallet_location –create

To create an entry:

mkstore –wrl wallet_location –createCredential alias user_name password

To modify an entry:

mkstore -wrl wallet_location –modifyCredential alias user_name password

To delete an entry:

mkstore -wrl wallet_location –deleteCredential alias

To list all entries:

mkstore -wrl wallet_location –listCredential

Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora

Beginning with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Database includes an advanced fault diagnosability infrastructure for preventing, detecting, diagnosing, and resolving problems. The problems that are targeted in particular are critical errors such as those caused by database code bugs, metadata corruption, and customer data corruption.

When a critical error occurs, it is assigned an incident number, and diagnostic data for the error (traces, dumps, and more) are immediately captured and tagged with this number. The data is then stored in the automatic diagnostic repository (ADR)—a file based repository outside the database—where it can later be retrieved by incident number and analyzed.

ADR is enabled by default. The use of the following parameters depends on whether ADR is enabled.

This section is divided into those parameters used when ADR is enabled (when DIAG_ADR_ENABLED is set to on) and those used when ADR is disabled (when DIAG_ADR_ENABLED is set to off). Non-ADR parameters listed in the sqlnet.ora file are ignored when ADR is enabled.

This section includes the following topics:

ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora

This section lists the parameters used when ADR is enabled (when DIAG_ADR_ENABLED is set to on):

ADR_BASE

Purpose

Use the ADR_BASE parameter to specify the base directory into which tracing and logging incidents are stored when ADR is enabled.

Default

The default is $ORACLE_BASE, or $ORACLE_HOME/log on the server side, if $ORACLE_BASE is not defined.

See Also:

Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for the default on the client side

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

ADR_BASE=/oracle/network/trace

DIAG_ADR_ENABLED

Purpose

The DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter indicates whether ADR tracing is enabled.

Usage

When the DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter is set to OFF, non-ADR file tracing is used.

Default

on

Values

on or off

Example

DIAG_ADR_ENABLED=on

TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the parameter TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT to turn client tracing on, at a specific level, or off. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

Default

off or 0

Values

  • off or 0 for no trace output

  • user or 4 for user trace information

  • admin or 10 for administration trace information

  • support or 16 for Oracle Support Services trace information

Example

TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT=user

TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER

Purpose

Use the TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER parameter to turn server tracing on, at a specific level, or off. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

Default

off or 0

Values

  • off or 0 for no trace output

  • user or 4 for user trace information

  • admin or 10 for administration trace information

  • support or 16 for Oracle Support Services trace information

Example

TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER=admin

TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT parameter to add a time stamp in the form of dd-mon-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil to every trace event in the client trace file, which has a default name of sqlnet.trc. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

Default

on

Values

on or true | off or false

Example

TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER=true

TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER

Purpose

Use the TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER parameter to add a time stamp in the form of dd-mon-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil to every trace event in the database server trace file, which has a default name of svr_pid.trc. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

Default

on

Values

on or true | off or false

Example

TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER=true

Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora

This section lists the parameters used when ADR is disabled (when DIAG_ADR_ENABLED is set to off):

Notes:

LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT parameter to specify the destination directory for the client log file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

$ORACLE_HOME/network/log

Values

Any valid directory path.

Example

LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT=/oracle/network/log

LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER

Purpose

Use the LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER parameter to specify the destination directory for the database server log file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

$ORACLE_HOME/network/trace

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER=/oracle/network/trace

LOG_FILE_CLIENT

Purpose

The LOG_FILE_CLIENT parameter specifies the name of the log file for the client. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

$ORACLE_HOME/network/log/sqlnet.log

Values

The default value cannot be changed.

LOG_FILE_SERVER

Purpose

Use the LOG_FILE_SERVER parameter to specify the name of the log file for the database server. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

sqlnet.log

Example

LOG_FILE_SERVER=svr.log

TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the parameter TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT to specify the destination directory for the client trace file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

The current working directory

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT=/oracle/traces

TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER

Purpose

Use the TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER parameter to specify the destination directory for the database server trace file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

The $ORACLE_HOME/network/trace directory on UNIX operating systems and the %ORACLE_HOME%\network\trace directory on Windows

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER=/oracle/traces

TRACE_FILE_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the TRACE_FILE_CLIENT parameter to specify the name of the client trace file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Values

Any valid file name.

Default

$ORACLE_HOME/network/trace/cli.trc

Example

TRACE_FILE_CLIENT=clientsqlnet.trc

TRACE_FILE_SERVER

Purpose

Use the TRACE_FILE_SERVER parameter to specify the name of the file to which the execution trace of the server program is written. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

$ORACLE_HOME/network/trace/svr_pid.trc

Values

Any valid file name.

Example

TRACE_FILE_SERVER=svrsqlnet.trc

TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT parameter to specify the size of the client trace files in kilobytes (KB). When the size is met, the trace information is written to the next file. The number of files is specified with the TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT parameter. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Example

TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT=100

TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER

Purpose

Use the TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER parameter to specify the size of the database server trace files in kilobytes (KB). When the size is met, the trace information is written to the next file. The number of files is specified with the TRACE_FILENO_SERVER parameter. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Example

TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER=100

TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT parameter to specify the number of trace files for client tracing. When this parameter is set along with the TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled first, then the second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is re-used, and so on.

The trace file names are distinguished from one another by their sequence number. For example, if the default trace file of sqlnet.trc is used, and this parameter is set to 3, the trace files would be named sqlnet1.trc, sqlnet2.trc and sqlnet3.trc.

In addition, trace events in the trace files are preceded by the sequence number of the file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

None

Example

TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT=3

TRACE_FILENO_SERVER

Purpose

Use the TRACE_FILENO_SERVER parameter to specify the number of trace files for database server tracing. When this parameter is set along with the TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled first, then the second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is re-used, and so on.

The trace file names are distinguished from one another by their sequence number. For example, if the default trace file of svr_pid.trc is used, and this parameter is set to 3, the trace files would be named svr1_pid.trc, svr2_pid.trc and svr3_pid.trc.

In addition, trace events in the trace files are preceded by the sequence number of the file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

None

Example

TRACE_FILENO_SERVER=3

TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT

Purpose

Use the TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT parameter to specify whether or not a unique trace file is created for each client trace session. When the value is set to on, a process identifier is appended to the name of each trace file, enabling several files to coexist. For example, trace files named sqlnetpid.trc are created if default trace file name sqlnet.trc is used. When the value is set to off, data from a new client trace session overwrites the existing file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

on

Values

on or off

Example

TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT=on