Preface

Welcome to the Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide for the 11g Release 1 (11.1) of Oracle Advanced Security.

Oracle Advanced Security contains a comprehensive suite of security features that protect enterprise networks and securely extend them to the Internet. It provides a single source of integration with multiple network encryption and authentication solutions, single sign-on services, and security protocols.

The Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide describes how to implement, configure and administer Oracle Advanced Security.

This preface contains these topics:

Audience

The Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide is intended for users and systems professionals involved with the implementation, configuration, and administration of Oracle Advanced Security including:

  • Implementation consultants

  • System administrators

  • Security administrators

  • Database administrators (DBAs)

Documentation Accessibility

For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program website at http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.

Access to Oracle Support

Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired.

Organization

This document contains the following chapters:

Part I, "Getting Started with Oracle Advanced Security"

Chapter 1, "Introduction to Oracle Advanced Security"

This chapter provides an overview of Oracle Advanced Security features provided with this release.

Chapter 2, "Configuration and Administration Tools Overview"

This chapter provides an introduction and overview of Oracle Advanced Security GUI and command-line tools.

Part II, "Data Encryption and Integrity"

Chapter 3, "Securing Stored Data Using Transparent Data Encryption"

This chapter provides an overview of the transparent data encryption feature introduced in Oracle Advanced Security 11g Release 1 (11.1). It describes how to configure and use transparent data encryption services.

Chapter 4, "Configuring Network Data Encryption and Integrity for Oracle Servers and Clients"

This chapter describes how to configure data encryption and integrity within an existing Oracle Net Services 11g Release 1 (11.1) network.

Chapter 5, "Configuring Network Authentication, Encryption, and Integrity for Thin JDBC Clients"

This chapter provides an overview of the Java implementation of Oracle Advanced Security, which lets Thin Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) clients securely connect to Oracle Database databases.

Part III, "Oracle Advanced Security Strong Authentication"

Chapter 6, "Configuring RADIUS Authentication"

This chapter describes how to configure Oracle for use with RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). It provides an overview of how RADIUS works within an Oracle environment, and describes how to enable RADIUS authentication and accounting. It also introduces the challenge-response user interface that third party vendors can customize to integrate with third party authentication devices.

Chapter 7, "Configuring Kerberos Authentication"

This chapter describes how to configure Oracle for use with MIT Kerberos and provides a brief overview of steps to configure Kerberos to authenticate Oracle users. It also includes a brief section that discusses interoperability between the Oracle Advanced Security Kerberos adapter and a Microsoft KDC.

Chapter 8, "Configuring Secure Sockets Layer Authentication"

This chapter describes how Oracle Advanced Security supports a public key infrastructure (PKI). It includes a discussion of configuring and using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), certificate validation, and hardware security module support features of Oracle Advanced Security.

Chapter 9, "Using Oracle Wallet Manager"

This chapter describes how to use Oracle Wallet Manager to manage Oracle wallets and PKI credentials.

Chapter 10, "Configuring Multiple Authentication Methods and Disabling Oracle Advanced Security"

This chapter describes the authentication methods that can be used with Oracle Advanced Security, and how to use conventional user name and password authentication. It also describes how to configure the network so that Oracle clients can use a specific authentication method, and Oracle servers can accept any method specified.

Part IV, "Appendixes"

Appendix A, "Data Encryption and Integrity Parameters"

This appendix describes Oracle Advanced Security data encryption and integrity configuration parameters.

Appendix B, "Authentication Parameters"

This appendix describes Oracle Advanced Security authentication configuration file parameters.

Appendix C, "Integrating Authentication Devices Using RADIUS"

This appendix explains how third party authentication device vendors can integrate their devices and customize the graphical user interface used in RADIUS challenge-response authentication.

Appendix D, "Oracle Advanced Security FIPS 140-1 Settings"

This appendix describes the sqlnet.ora configuration parameters required to comply with the FIPS 140-1 Level 2 evaluated configuration.

Appendix E, "Oracle Advanced Security FIPS 140-2 Settings"

This appendix describes the configuration parameters required to comply with the FIPS 140-2 Level 2 evaluated configuration.

Appendix F, "orapki Utility"

This appendix provides the syntax for the orapki command line utility. This utility must be used to manage certificate revocation lists (CRLs). You can also use this utility to create and manage Oracle wallets; create certificate requests, signed certificates, and user certificates for testing purposes; and to export certificates and certificate requests from Oracle wallets.

Appendix G, "Entrust-Enabled SSL Authentication"

This appendix describes how to configure and use Entrust-enabled Oracle Advanced Security for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) authentication.

Glossary

Related Documentation

For more information, refer to these Oracle resources:

  • Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide

  • Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Administrator's Guide

  • Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide and Reference

  • Oracle Internet Directory Administrator's Guide

  • Oracle Database Administrator's Guide

  • Oracle Database Security Guide

Many books in the documentation set use the sample schemas of the seed database, which is installed by default when you install Oracle. Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.

Printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at

https://oraclestore.oracle.com/OA_HTML/ibeCZzpHome.jsp

To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register online before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/index.html

For security-specific information on OTN, visit

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/security/whatsnew/index.html

For the latest version of the Oracle documentation, including this guide, visit

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/documentation/index.html

For information from third-party vendors, refer to:

  • ACE/Server Administration Manual, from Security Dynamics

  • ACE/Server Client for UNIX, from Security Dynamics

  • ACE/Server Installation Manual, from Security Dynamics

  • RADIUS Administrator's Guide

  • Notes about building and installing Kerberos from Kerberos version 5 source distribution

  • Entrust/PKI for Oracle

  • Administering Entrust/PKI on UNIX

  • Application Environment Specification/Distributed Computing

For conceptual information about the network security technologies supported by Oracle Advanced Security, you can refer to the following third-party publications:

  • Applied Cryptography, Second Edition: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C by Bruce Schneier. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

  • SSL & TLS Essentials: Securing the Web by Stephen A. Thomas. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

  • Understanding and Deploying LDAP Directory Services by Timothy A. Howes, Ph.D., Mark C. Smith, and Gordon S. Good . Indianapolis: New Riders Publishing, 1999.

  • Understanding Public-Key Infrastructure: Concepts, Standards, and Deployment Considerations by Carlisle Adams and Steve Lloyd. Indianapolis: New Riders Publishing, 1999.

Conventions

This section describes the conventions used in the text and code examples of this documentation set. It describes:

Conventions in Text

We use various conventions in text to help you more quickly identify special terms. The following table describes those conventions and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
Bold Bold typeface indicates terms that are defined in the text or terms that appear in a glossary, or both. When you specify this clause, you create an index-organized table.
Italics Italic typeface indicates book titles or emphasis. Oracle Database Concepts

Ensure that the recovery catalog and target database do not reside on the same disk.

UPPERCASE monospace (fixed-width) font Uppercase monospace typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. Such elements include parameters, privileges, data types, RMAN keywords, SQL keywords, SQL*Plus or utility commands, packages and methods, as well as system-supplied column names, database objects and structures, user names, and roles. You can specify this clause only for a NUMBER column.

You can back up the database by using the BACKUP command.

Query the TABLE_NAME column in the USER_TABLES data dictionary view.

Use the DBMS_STATS.GENERATE_STATS procedure.

lowercase monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase monospace typeface indicates executables, filenames, directory names, and sample user-supplied elements. Such elements include computer and database names, net service names, and connect identifiers, as well as user-supplied database objects and structures, column names, packages and classes, user names and roles, program units, and parameter values.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

Enter sqlplus to open SQL*Plus.

The password is specified in the orapwd file.

Back up the data files and control files in the /disk1/oracle/dbs directory.

The department_id, department_name, and location_id columns are in the hr.departments table.

Set the QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED initialization parameter to true.

Connect as oe user.

The JRepUtil class implements these methods.

lowercase italic monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase italic monospace font represents placeholders or variables. You can specify the parallel_clause.

Run Uold_release.SQL where old_release refers to the release you installed prior to upgrading.


Conventions in Code Examples

Code examples illustrate SQL, PL/SQL, SQL*Plus, or other command-line statements. They are displayed in a monospace (fixed-width) font and separated from normal text as shown in this example:

SELECT username FROM dba_users WHERE username = 'MIGRATE';

The following table describes typographic conventions used in code examples and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
[ ]
Brackets enclose one or more optional items. Do not enter the brackets.
DECIMAL (digits [ , precision ])
{ }
Braces enclose two or more items, one of which is required. Do not enter the braces.
{ENABLE | DISABLE}
|
A vertical bar represents a choice of two or more options within brackets or braces. Enter one of the options. Do not enter the vertical bar.
{ENABLE | DISABLE}
[COMPRESS | NOCOMPRESS]
...
Horizontal ellipsis points indicate either:
  • That we have omitted parts of the code that are not directly related to the example

  • That you can repeat a portion of the code

CREATE TABLE ... AS subquery;

SELECT col1, col2, ... , coln FROM employees;
 .
 .
 .
Vertical ellipsis points indicate that we have omitted several lines of code not directly related to the example.
SQL> SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE;
NAME
------------------------------------
/fsl/dbs/tbs_01.dbf
/fs1/dbs/tbs_02.dbf
.
.
.
/fsl/dbs/tbs_09.dbf
9 rows selected.
Other notation You must enter symbols other than brackets, braces, vertical bars, and ellipsis points as shown.
acctbal NUMBER(11,2);
acct    CONSTANT NUMBER(4) := 3;
Italics
Italicized text indicates placeholders or variables for which you must supply particular values.
CONNECT SYSTEM/system_password
DB_NAME = database_name
UPPERCASE
Uppercase typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. We show these terms in uppercase in order to distinguish them from terms you define. Unless terms appear in brackets, enter them in the order and with the spelling shown. However, because these terms are not case sensitive, you can enter them in lowercase.
SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;
SELECT * FROM USER_TABLES;
DROP TABLE hr.employees;
lowercase
Lowercase typeface indicates programmatic elements that you supply. For example, lowercase indicates names of tables, columns, or files.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;
sqlplus hr/hr
CREATE USER mjones IDENTIFIED BY ty3MU9;

Conventions for Windows Operating Systems

The following table describes conventions for Windows operating systems and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
Select Start How to start a program. To start the Database Configuration Assistant, Select Start, Programs, Oracle - HOME_NAME, Configuration and Migration Tools, Database Configuration Assistant.
File and directory names File and directory names are not case sensitive. The following special characters are not allowed: left angle bracket (<), right angle bracket (>), colon (:), double quotation marks ("), slash (/), pipe (|), and dash (-). The special character backslash (\) is treated as an element separator, even when it appears in quotes. If the file name begins with \\, then Windows assumes it uses the Universal Naming Convention.
c:\winnt"\"system32 is the same as C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32
C:\> Represents the Windows command prompt of the current hard disk drive. The escape character in a command prompt is the caret (^). Your prompt reflects the subdirectory in which you are working. Referred to as the command prompt in this manual.
C:\oracle\oradata>
Special characters The backslash (\) special character is sometimes required as an escape character for the double quotation mark (") special character at the Windows command prompt. Parentheses and the single quotation mark (') do not require an escape character. Refer to your Windows operating system documentation for more information on escape and special characters.
C:\>exp scott/tiger TABLES=emp QUERY=\"WHERE job='SALESMAN' and sal<1600\"
C:\>imp SYSTEM/password FROMUSER=scott TABLES=(emp, dept)
HOME_NAME
Represents the Oracle home name. The home name can be up to 16 alphanumeric characters. The only special character allowed in the home name is the underscore.
C:\> net start OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener
ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_BASE In releases prior to Oracle8i release 8.1.3, when you installed Oracle components, all subdirectories were located under a top level ORACLE_HOME directory. For Windows, the default location was C:\orant.

This release complies with Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. All subdirectories are not under a top level ORACLE_HOME directory. There is a top level directory called ORACLE_BASE that by default is C:\oracle. If you install the latest Oracle release on a computer with no other Oracle software installed, then the default setting for the first Oracle home directory is C:\oracle\orann, where nn is the latest release number. The Oracle home directory is located directly under ORACLE_BASE.

All directory path examples in this guide follow OFA conventions.

Refer to Oracle Database Platform Guide for Windows for additional information about OFA compliances and for information about installing Oracle products in non-OFA compliant directories.

Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\rdbms\admin directory.