Oracle® OLAP User's Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1) B2812403 


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Oracle OLAP provides an extensive set of analytic functions for enhancing your database with informationrich content. This chapter explains how you can use Analytic Workspace Manager to create calculated measures using templates and freeform calculations.
This chapter contains the following topics:
Calculated measures return values that are computed at runtime from data stored in one or more measures. Like relational views, calculated measures store queries against data stored in other objects. Because calculated measures do not store data, you can create dozens of them without increasing the size of the database. You can use them as the basis for defining other calculated measures, which adds depth to the types of calculations you can create using the templates in Analytic Workspace Manager.
As soon as you create a calculated measure, it appears as a column in a cube view. Because calculated measures do not contain data, they are not associated with a build process. You can create a calculated measure at any time, and it is available immediately for querying by SQL applications.
The library of functions for defining calculated measures contains these basic categories:
Arithmetic Operators: Perform calculations on the values of two measures.
Analytic Functions: Perform calculations on an ordered series or a range of values in a single measure or column.
SingleRow Functions: Perform calculations on a value in a single row.
You can perform the following arithmetic operations using two measures. The calculations in the cube are performed on a cellbycell basis at all levels of the dimension hierarchies.
Addition: Adds the values of two measures.
Subtraction: Subtracts the values of one measure from the values of another measure.
Multiplication: Multiplies the values of two measures.
Division or Ratio: Divides the values of one measure by the values of another measure.
Percent Difference: Calculates the percent difference between the values of two measures.
The arithmetic operations are available in Analytic Workspace Manager as templates. as described in "Using Calculation Templates".
The analytic functions provide the most powerful computations and fuel the most useful queries for business intelligence and similar applications. They include a variety of rank, share, time series, and other singlecolumn functions. The analytic functions enable analysts and decision makers to make comparisons and identify trends.
Analytic functions provided by Oracle OLAP leverage the knowledge associated with the dimensions about levels and family relationships. Time dimensions have additional information that enables them to support time series methods such as lags, leads, moving and cumulative calculations. Because the knowledge is stored with the dimension, you do not need to specify these relationships when creating a calculated measure.
The analytic functions are available in Analytic Workspace Manager as templates. They are described in "Using Calculation Templates".
Oracle OLAP supports most of the SQL singlerow functions including:
Numeric functions such as ABS
, CEIL
, FLOOR
, POWER
, ROUND
, and TRUNC
.
Character functions such as CONCAT
, LPAD
, RPAD
, LTRIM
, RTRIM
, REPLACE
, and SUBSTR
.
Datetime functions such as CURRENT_DAY
, MONTHS_BETWEEN
, NEXT_DAY
, and SYSTIMESTAMP
.
Comparison functions GREATEST
and LEAST
.
Conversion functions such as TO_CHAR
, TO_DATE
, TO_NUMBER
, and TO_TIMESTAMP
.
You can use these functions to manipulate the data values in a measure, typically as part of a more complex calculation. These functions are not available as templates, but you can use them in freeform calculations, as described in "Creating UserDefined Expressions".
Analytic Workspace Manager provides easytouse templates for creating calculated measures. You can create them in the same cube with the source measures, or you can create them in a separate cube.
Calculated measures are available for querying as additional columns in a cube view (such as UNITS_CUBE_VIEW
). They are not available through cube materialized views (such as CB$UNITS_CUBE
).
To create a calculated measure:
In the navigation tree, expand an existing cube or create a new cube.
Rightclick Calculated Measures, then choose Create Calculated Measure from the popup menu.
The Create Calculated Measure dialog box is displayed.
Enter a descriptive name.
Choose a calculation method.
Your choice of an arithmetic or analytic function dynamically changes the Calculation template.
Modify the calculation template.
Click Create.
The new calculated measure appears in the navigation tree in the Calculated Measures folder.
Figure 51 displays the Create Calculated Measure dialog box.
The calculation that you selected is presented as template, which is a description of the calculation with variable parts that enable you to customize it.
Figure 52 shows the template for calculating the prior period. You can view the choice lists by clicking the links.
Figure 52 Changing the Variable Parts of a Calculation
You can include all values of a measure in a calculation, or, for some types of calculations, you can filter the measure to include only a selection of values. To limit one or more dimensions to a single dimension member, click the ellipses (...
) next to the measure. The Qualify Measure dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 53.
Figure 53 Limiting a Dimension to a Single Member
Many calculations are performed over time periods at the same level in the hierarchy. In some types of calculations, you can control the range of time periods that are used in the same calculation. For example, you might want to calculate a running total of months for each fiscal year, not a running total that begins with the first month stored in the cube.
You can use the following methods for identifying the range of time periods that you want calculated together:
Level: Calculates all time periods at the same level, so that all months in the cube are included in one calculation, all quarters are included in another calculation, and so forth.
Parent: Calculates all time periods with the same parent, so that all months in Q107 are included in one calculation, all months in Q207 are included in another calculation, and so forth.
Ancestor at level: Calculates all time periods with the same ancestor at a specified level. For example, if the specified level is Year in a YearQuarterMonth hierarchy, then Q106 to Q406 are included in one calculation, Q107 to Q407 are included in another calculation, Jan06 to Dec06 are included in a third calculation, and so forth. Any levels higher in the hierarchy are not calculated.
Gregorian periods: The Gregorian periods  Year, Quarter, Month, and Week  impose the Gregorian calendar onto the selected hierarchy. This can be useful for analyzing data that uses nonstandard calendar hierarchies. For example, if you use Gregorian Year on a fiscal hierarchy that begins July 1 and ends June 30, then the last half of one fiscal year and the first half of the next fiscal year are calculated together. Time periods higher in the hierarchy than the specified Gregorian period are not calculated.
Analytic Workspace Manager provides templates for all of the calculations typically in demand for business intelligence applications. The following topics describe the types of calculations available as calculation templates in Analytic Workspace Manager.
Basic mathematical operations enable you to perform cellbycell calculations on two measures, as described in "Arithmetic Operators".
This template defines a calculated measure for the Global Price Cube using Percent Difference:
Percent difference between measure UNIT_PRICE and measure UNIT_COST.
A query against this calculated measure returns results like these. The PCT_CHG
column shows the percent change between PRICE
and COST
, which is calculated as PRICECOST/COST
.
PRODUCT PRICE COST PCT_DIFF     Envoy Ambassador 2892 2664 .09 Envoy Executive 2803 2644 .06 Envoy Standard 1662 1737 .04 Sentinel Financial 1755 1658 .06 Sentinel Multimedia 1770 1813 .02 Sentinel Standard 1552 1410 .1
An index is a mathematical operation calculated on a single measure. An index calculates the percentage difference between the values of a measure and a selected value that serves as a base number.
An index does not use a calculation template. Instead, it provides a list of dimension members for each dimension of the cube, from which you can choose one to use as an index, as shown in Figure 54.
This example creates an index on the Product dimension using Desktop PCs
as the index.
PRODUCT SALES PROD_INDEX    Desktop PCs 76682955 100 Portable PCs 18072328 24 CD/DVD 17302122 23 Modems/Fax 5565552 7 Memory 5347292 7 Monitors 3926632 5
Oracle OLAP provides several calculations for prior or future time periods:
Prior Period: Returns the value of a measure at an earlier time period.
Difference From Prior Period: Calculates the difference between values for the current time period and an earlier period.
Percent Difference From Prior Period: Calculates the percent difference between the values for the current time period and an earlier period.
Future Period: Returns the value of a measure at a later time period.
Difference From Future Period: Calculates the difference between the values for the current time period and a later period.
Percent Difference From Future Period: Calculates the percent difference between the values for the current time period and a later period.
When creating a calculation for prior or future time periods, you choose the measure, the time dimension, the hierarchy, and the number of periods from the current period.
This template defines a calculated measure using Prior Period:
Prior period for measure SALES in TIME dimension and TIME.CALENDAR hierarchy 1 period ago.
These are the results of a query against the calculated measure. The PRIOR_PERIOD
column shows the value of Sales for the preceding period at the same level in the Calendar hierarchy.
TIME TIME_LEVEL SALES PRIOR_PERIOD     2005 CALENDAR_YEAR 136986572 144290686 2006 CALENDAR_YEAR 140138317 136986572 Q1.05 CALENDAR_QUARTER 31381338 41988687 Q2.05 CALENDAR_QUARTER 37642741 31381338 Q3.05 CALENDAR_QUARTER 32617249 37642741 Q4.05 CALENDAR_QUARTER 35345244 32617249 Q1.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 36154815 35345244 Q2.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 36815657 36154815 Q3.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 32318935 36815657 Q4.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 34848911 32318935
Periodtodate functions perform a calculation over time periods with the same parent up to the current period. These functions calculate periodtodate:
Period to Date: Calculates the values up to the current time period.
Period to Date Period Ago: Calculates the data values up to a prior time period.
Difference From Period to Date Period Ago: Calculates the difference in data values up to the current time period compared to the same calculation up to a prior period.
Percent Difference From Period To Date Period Ago: Calculates the percent difference in data values up to the current time period compared to the same calculation up to a prior period.
When creating a periodtodate calculation, you can choose from these aggregation methods:
Sum
Average
Maximum
Minimum
You also choose the measure, the time dimension, and the hierarchy.
This template defines a calculated measure using Period to Date.
Gregorian Year to date for SALES in the TIME dimension and TIME.CALENDAR hierarchy. Aggregate using MINIMUM from the beginning of the period.
These are the results of a query against the calculated measure. The MIN_TO_DATE
column displays the current minimum SALES
value within the current level and year.
TIME TIME_LEVEL SALES MIN_TO_DATE     Q1.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 36154815 36154815 Q2.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 36815657 36154815 Q3.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 32318935 32318935 Q4.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 34848911 32318935 JAN06 MONTH 13119235 13119235 FEB06 MONTH 11441738 11441738 MAR06 MONTH 11593842 11441738 APR06 MONTH 11356940 11356940 MAY06 MONTH 13820218 11356940 JUN06 MONTH 11638499 11356940 JUL06 MONTH 9417316 9417316 AUG06 MONTH 11596052 9417316 SEP06 MONTH 11305567 9417316 OCT06 MONTH 11780401 9417316 NOV06 MONTH 10653184 9417316 DEC06 MONTH 12415325 9417316
Share calculates the ratio of a measure's value for the current dimension member to the value for a related member of the same dimension. You can choose whether the related member is:
Top of hierarchy: Calculates the ratio of each member to the total.
Member's parent: Calculates the ratio of each member to its parent.
Member's ancestor at level: Calculates the ratio of each member to its ancestor, that is, a member at a specified level higher in the hierarchy.
When creating a share calculation, you can choose the measure, dimension, and hierarchy. You also have the option of multiplying the results by 100 to get percentages instead of fractions.
This template defines a calculated measure using SHARE
:
Share of measure SALES in PRODUCT.PRIMARY hierarchy of the PRODUCT dimension as a ratio of top of hierarchy.
These are the results of a query against the calculated measure. The TOTAL_SHARE
column displays the percent share of the total for the selected products.
PRODUCT PROD_LEVEL SALES TOTAL_SHARE     Total Product TOTAL 144290686 100 Hardware CLASS 130145388 90 Desktop PCs FAMILY 78770152 55 Portable PCs FAMILY 19066575 13 CD/DVD FAMILY 16559860 11 Software/Other CLASS 14145298 10 Accessories FAMILY 6475353 4 Operating Systems FAMILY 5738775 4 Memory FAMILY 5430466 4 Modems/Fax FAMILY 5844185 4 Monitors FAMILY 4474150 3 Documentation FAMILY 1931170 1
Rank orders the values of a dimension based on the values of the selected measure. When defining a rank calculation, you choose the dimension, a hierarchy, and the measure.
You can choose a method for handling identical values:
Rank: Assigns the same minimum rank to identical values. For example, it may return 1
, 2
, 3
, 3
, 5
for a series of five dimension members.
Dense Rank: Assigns the same rank to identical values, so there may be fewer ranks than there are members. For example, it may return 1
, 2
, 3
, 3
, 4
for a series of five dimension members.
Average Rank: Assigns the same average rank to identical values. For example, it may return 1
, 2
, 3.5
, 3.5
, 5
for a series of five dimension members.
You can also choose the group in which the dimension members are ranked:
Member's level: Ranks members at the same level.
Member's parent: Ranks members with the same parent.
Member's ancestor at level: Ranks members with the same ancestor at a specified level higher in the hierarchy.
This template defines a calculated measure using Rank:
Rank members of the PRODUCT dimension and PRODUCT.PRIMARY hierarchy based on measure SALES. Calculate rank using RANK method with member's parent in order lowest to highest. Rank NA (null) values nulls last.
These are the results of a query against the calculated measure in which the products are ordered by RANK
:
PRODUCT SALES RANK    Monitors 4474150 1 Memory 5430466 2 Modems/Fax 5844185 3 CD/DVD 16559860 4 Portable PCs 19066575 5 Desktop PCs 78770152 6
Parallel periods are at the same level as the current time period, but have different parents in an earlier period. For example, you may want to compare current sales with sales for the prior year.
Oracle OLAP provides several functions for parallel periods:
Parallel Period: Calculates the value of the parallel period.
Difference From Parallel Period: Calculates the difference in values between the current period and the parallel period.
Percent Difference From Parallel Period: Calculates the percent difference in values between the current period and the parallel period.
To identify the parallel period, you specify a level and the number of periods before the current period. You can also decide what happens when two periods do not exactly match, such as comparing daily sales for February (28 days) with January (31 days).
You also choose the measure, the time dimension, and the hierarchy.
This template defines a calculated measure using Parallel Period.
Parallel period for SALES in the TIME dimension and TIME.CALENDAR hierarchy 1 TIME.CALENDAR.QUARTER ago based on position from beginning to ending of period.
These are the results of a query against the calculated measure, which lists the months for two calendar quarters. The parallel month has the same position within the previous quarter. The prior period for JUL06
is APR06,
for AUG06
is MAY06
, and for SEP06
is JUN06
.
TIME PARENT SALES LAST_QTR     APR06 CY2006.Q2 11356940 13119235 MAY06 CY2006.Q2 13820218 11441738 JUN06 CY2006.Q2 11638499 11593842 JUL06 CY2006.Q3 9417316 11356940 AUG06 CY2006.Q3 11596052 13820218 SEP06 CY2006.Q3 11305567 11638499
Moving calculations are performed over the time periods surrounding the current period. Oracle OLAP provides several aggregation methods for moving calculations:
Moving Average: Calculates the average value for a measure over a fixed number of time periods.
Moving Maximum: Calculates the maximum value for a measure over a fixed number of time periods.
Moving Minimum: Calculates the minimum value for a measure over a fixed number of time periods.
Moving Total: Returns the total value for a measure over a fixed number of time periods.
You can choose the measure, the time dimension, and the hierarchy. You can also select the range, as described in "Choosing a Range of Time Periods", and the number of time periods before and after the current period to include in the calculation.
This template defines a calculated measure using Moving Minimum.
Moving minimum of SALES in the TIME dimension and TIME.CALENDAR hierarchy. Include 1 preceding and 1 following members within level.
These are the results of a query against the calculated measure, which displays values for the descendants of calendar year 2004. Each value of Minimum Sales is the smallest among the current value and the values immediately before and after it. The calculation is performed over all members of a level in the cube.
TIME TIME_LEVEL SALES MIN_SALES     Q1.04 CALENDAR_QUARTER 32977874 32977874 Q2.04 CALENDAR_QUARTER 35797921 32977874 Q3.04 CALENDAR_QUARTER 33526203 33526203 Q4.04 CALENDAR_QUARTER 41988687 31381338 JAN04 MONTH 11477898 10982016 FEB04 MONTH 10982016 10517960 MAR04 MONTH 10517960 10517960 APR04 MONTH 11032057 10517960 MAY04 MONTH 11432616 11032057 JUN04 MONTH 13333248 11432616 JUL04 MONTH 12070352 11108893 AUG04 MONTH 11108893 10346958 SEP04 MONTH 10346958 10346958 OCT04 MONTH 14358605 10346958 NOV04 MONTH 12757560 12757560 DEC04 MONTH 14872522 12093518
Cumulative calculations start with the first time period and calculate up to the current member, or start with the last time period and calculate back to the current member. Oracle OLAP provides several aggregation methods for cumulative calculations:
Cumulative Average: Calculates a running average across time periods.
Cumulative Maximum: Calculates the maximum value across time periods.
Cumulative Minimum: Calculates the minimum value across time periods.
Cumulative Total: Calculates a running total across time periods.
You can choose the measure, the time dimension, and the hierarchy. You can also select the range, as described in "Choosing a Range of Time Periods", and whether you want to start the calculation with the first period and calculate forward, or start with the last period and calculate back.
Cumulative Calculation Example
This template defines a calculated measure using Cumulative Minimum.
Cumulative minimum of SALES in the TIME dimension and TIME.CALENDAR hierarchy within ancestor at level TIME.CALENDAR_YEAR. Total from beginning to current member.
These are the results of a query against the calculated measure, which displays values for the descendants of calendar year 2004. The minimum value for quarters begins with Q104 and ends with Q404, and for months begins with Jan04 and ends with Dec04.
TIME TIME_LEVEL SALES MIN_SALES     Q1.04 CALENDAR_QUARTER 32977874 32977874 Q2.04 CALENDAR_QUARTER 35797921 32977874 Q3.04 CALENDAR_QUARTER 33526203 32977874 Q4.04 CALENDAR_QUARTER 41988687 32977874 JAN04 MONTH 11477898 11477898 FEB04 MONTH 10982016 10982016 MAR04 MONTH 10517960 10517960 APR04 MONTH 11032057 10517960 MAY04 MONTH 11432616 10517960 JUN04 MONTH 13333248 10517960 JUL04 MONTH 12070352 10517960 AUG04 MONTH 11108893 10517960 SEP04 MONTH 10346958 10346958 OCT04 MONTH 14358605 10346958 NOV04 MONTH 12757560 10346958 DEC04 MONTH 14872522 10346958
You can extend the variety of functions available through the templates by using a calculated measure as the basis for another calculated measure.
For example, Analytic Workspace Manager has templates for Moving Average and for Difference From Prior Period. You can create a calculated measure that calculates a moving average, then calculate the difference between the current and the previous moving averages.
This template creates a moving average for Units named UNITS_MOVING_AVG
:
Moving average of UNITS in the TIME dimension and TIME.CALENDAR hierarchy. Include 1 preceding and 1 following members within level.
The next template creates a Difference From Prior Period calculation from UNITS_MOVING_AVG
.
Difference from prior period for UNITS_MOVING_AVG in TIME dimension and TIME.CALENDAR hierarchy 1 period ago.
These are the results of a query against the Units measure and the two calculated measures. The MOVING_AVG
column shows the moving average, and the DIFF
column shows the difference between the current moving average and the prior period's.
TIME TIME_LEVEL UNITS MOVING_AVG DIFF      JAN06 MONTH 47776 48520 66 FEB06 MONTH 47695 48940 419 MAR06 MONTH 51348 48683 257 APR06 MONTH 47005 50387 1705 MAY06 MONTH 52809 48411 1976 JUN06 MONTH 45419 48872 461 JUL06 MONTH 48388 47546 1326 AUG06 MONTH 48830 47857 312 SEP06 MONTH 46354 47532 326 OCT06 MONTH 47411 46869 663 NOV06 MONTH 46842 49768 2899 DEC06 MONTH 55052 50947 1179 2006 CALENDAR_YEAR 584929 575324 4032 Q1.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 146819 145705 2093 Q2.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 145233 145208 497 Q3.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 143572 146037 829 Q4.06 CALENDAR_QUARTER 149305 146439 402
Among the calculation types is a userdefined expression. It enables you to create calculations using the OLAP expression syntax, which includes the analytic functions, arithmetic operators, and singlerow functions described in this chapter. The OLAP syntax is an extension of the SQL syntax. If you have used SQL analytic functions or singlerow functions, this syntax will be familiar to you.
The easiest way to formulate an expression is to let Analytic Workspace Manager do the work for you. You can use the templates to create a similar calculation, and cutandpaste the syntax into an expression.
Open the Create Calculated Measure dialog box.
Select the calculation type that most closely matches the one you want to define.
Modify the template as desired.
Cutandpaste the calculation from the Calculation box into a text editor.
Repeat these steps if your calculation uses two or more functions.
Modify the calculation as desired in the text editor. You can combine numeric operators, analytic functions, and singlerow functions in a single calculation.
From the Calculation Types list, select Expression.
Cutandpaste the calculation from the text editor into the Calculation box.
Click Create.
See Also:
Analytic Workspace Manager Help for information about the OLAP expression syntaxExpression Example Using an Arithmetic Operator
This template for Multiplication generates a calculation using Units Sold and Unit Cost.
Multiply measure UNITS by measure UNIT_COST.
The template generates this calculation using the multiplication operator (*). It is displayed in the Calculation box. Note that UNITS is in the Units Cube and UNIT_COST is in the Price Cube.
UNITS_CUBE.UNITS * PRICE_CUBE.UNIT_COST
The syntax of this calculation is so simple that you only need the template to obtain the qualified name of the measure.
Following is a freeform calculation that calculates a 2% increase in units sold:
UNITS_CUBE.UNITS * 1.02
These are the results of a query against this calculated measure:
PRODUCT UNITS TARGET    Envoy Ambassador 2116 2158 Envoy Executive 2481 2531 Envoy Standard 3300 3366 Sentinel Financial 30513 31123 Sentinel Multimedia 7948 8107 Sentinel Standard 7302 7448
FreeForm Calculation Example Using an Analytic Function
This template for Cumulative Average generates a calculation for the average number of units sold:
Cumulative average of UNITS in the TIME dimension and TIME.CALENDAR hierarchy within level. Total from beginning to following member.
The template generates this calculation using the AVG
function.
AVG(UNITS_CUBE.UNITS) OVER HIERARCHY (TIME.CALENDAR BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING WITHIN LEVEL)
Following is a freeform calculation that computes the percent difference between current units sold and the cumulative average. It uses the AVG
function and the subtraction (
), division (/
) and multiplication (*
) operators.
((UNITS_CUBE.UNITS  AVG(UNITS_CUBE.UNITS) OVER HIERARCHY (TIME.CALENDAR BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING WITHIN LEVEL)) / AVG(UNITS_CUBE.UNITS) OVER HIERARCHY (TIME.CALENDAR BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING WITHIN LEVEL)) * 100
These are the results of a query against this calculated measure.
TIME UNITS CUM_AVG PCT_DIFF     Q1.06 146819 107965 36 Q2.06 145233 109062 33 Q3.06 143572 110048 30 Q4.06 149305 111138 34
Note that you could create this calculation using templates:
Calculate the cumulative average of UNITS
with the Cumulative Average template.
Calculate the percent difference between current UNITS
and the cumulative average with the Percent Difference template.
Table 51 describes the analytic functions that you can use to create freeform calculations. For the syntax of these functions, refer to Analytic Workspace Manager Help.
Table 51 OLAP Analytic Functions
Function  Description 

Orders the members of a dimension based on the values of an expression. The function returns the sequence numbers of the dimension members, and assigns the same average rank to identical values. 

Returns the average of a selection of values calculated over time. 


Tallies the number of data values identified by a selection of dimension members. 
Orders dimension members based on the values of an expression. The function returns the sequence numbers of the dimension members, and assigns the same minimum rank to identical values. 

Returns an ancestor at a particular level of a hierarchy for either all members in the hierarchy or a particular member. 

Returns the number of children of either all dimension members in a hierarchy or a particular member. 

Returns a number representing the level depth of either all members of a hierarchy or a particular member, where 0 is the top level. 

Returns the level of either all members of a hierarchy or a particular member. 

Returns the parent of either all dimension members in a hierarchy or a particular member. 

Returns the topmost ancestor of either all members of a hierarchy or a particular member. 

Returns the value of an expression at a specified number of time periods before the current period. 

Returns the difference between values for the current time period and a prior period. 

Returns the percent different between values for the current time period and a prior period. 

Returns the value of an expression at a specified number of time periods after the current period. 

Returns the difference between values for the current time period and a future period. 

Returns the percent different between values for the current time period and a future period. 

Returns the largest of a selection of data values calculated over a particular dimension. 

Returns the smallest of a selection of data values calculated over a particular dimension. 


Executes an expression in the OLAP DML language. 
Orders the members of a dimension based on the values of an expression. The function returns the sequence numbers of the dimension members, and assigns the same rank to identical values. 

Orders the members of a dimension based on the values of an expression. The function returns the sequence numbers of the dimension members, and assigns a unique and arbitrary rank to identical values. 

Calculates the ratio of an expression's value for the current dimension member to the value for a related member of the same dimension. 

Returns the total of a selection of values calculated over a particular dimension. 