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Oracle® OLAP Java API Developer's Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1)

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7 Using a TransactionProvider

This chapter describes the Oracle OLAP Java API Transaction and TransactionProvider interfaces and describes how you use implementations of those interfaces in an application. You get a TransactionProvider from a DataProvider. You use the commitCurrentTransaction method of the TransactionProvider to save a metadata object in persistent storage in the database. You also use that method after creating a derived Source and before creating a Cursor for the Source. For examples of committing a Transaction after creating a metadata object, see Chapter 4.

This chapter includes the following topics:

About Creating a Query in a Transaction

The Oracle OLAP Java API is transactional. Creating metadata objects or Source objects for a query occurs in the context of a Transaction. A TransactionProvider provides Transaction objects to the application and commits or discards those Transaction objects.

The TransactionProvider ensures the following:

When you create a derived Source by calling a method of another Source, the derived Source is created in the context of the current Transaction. The Source is active in the Transaction in which you create it or in a child Transaction of that Transaction.

You get or set the current Transaction, or begin a child Transaction, by calling methods of a TransactionProvider. In a child Transaction you can alter the query, for example by changing the selection of dimension elements or by performing a different mathematical or analytical operation on the data, which changes the state of a Template that you created in the parent Transaction. By displaying the data specified by the Source produced by the Template in the parent Transaction and also displaying the data specified by the Source produced by the Template in the child Transaction, you can provide the end user of your application with the means of easily altering a query and viewing the results of different operations on the same set of data, or the same operations on different sets of data.

Types of Transaction Objects

The OLAP Java API has the following two types of Transaction objects:

  • A read Transaction. Initially, the current Transaction is a read Transaction. A read Transaction is required for creating a Cursor to fetch data from Oracle OLAP. For more information on Cursor objects, see Chapter 9.

  • A write Transaction. A write Transaction is required for creating a derived Source or for changing the state of a Template. For more information on creating a derived Source, see Chapter 5. For information on Template objects, see Chapter 10.

In the initial read Transaction, if you create a derived Source or if you change the state of a Template object, then a child write Transaction is automatically generated. That child Transaction becomes the current Transaction.

If you then create another derived Source or change the Template state again, then that operation occurs in the same write Transaction. You can create any number of derived Source objects, or make any number of Template state changes, in that same write Transaction. You can use those Source objects, or the Source produced by the Template, to define a complex query.

Before you can create a Cursor to fetch the result set specified by a derived Source, you must move the Source from the child write Transaction into the parent read Transaction. To do so, you commit the Transaction.

Committing a Transaction

To move a Source that you created in a child Transaction into the parent read Transaction, call the commitCurrentTransaction method of the TransactionProvider. When you commit a child write Transaction, a Source you created in the child Transaction moves into the parent read Transaction. The child Transaction disappears and the parent Transaction becomes the current Transaction. The Source is active in the current read Transaction and you can therefore create a Cursor for it.

In Example 7-1, commit() is a method that commits the current Transaction. In the example, dp is the DataProvider.

Example 7-1 Committing the Current Transaction

private void commit()
{
  try 
  {
    (dp.getTransactionProvider()).commitCurrentTransaction();
  } 
  catch (Exception ex) 
  {
    System.out.println("Could not commit the Transaction. " + ex);
  } 
}

About Transaction and Template Objects

Getting and setting the current Transaction, beginning a child Transaction, and rolling back a Transaction are operations that you use to allow an end user to make different selections starting from a given state of a dynamic query.

To present the end user with alternatives based on the same initial query, you do the following:

  1. Create a Template in a parent Transaction and set the initial state for the Template.

  2. Get the Source produced by the Template, create a Cursor to retrieve the result set, get the values from the Cursor, and then display the results to the end user.

  3. Begin a child Transaction and modify the state of the Template.

  4. Get the Source produced by the Template in the child Transaction, create a Cursor, get the values, and display them.

You can then replace the first Template state with the second one or discard the second one and retain the first.

Beginning a Child Transaction

To begin a child read Transaction, call the beginSubtransaction method of the TransactionProvider you are using. In the child read Transaction, if you change the state of a Template, then a child write Transaction begins automatically. The write Transaction is a child of the child read Transaction.

To get the data specified by the Source produced by the Template, you commit the write Transaction into the parent read Transaction. You can then create a Cursor to fetch the data. The changed state of the Template is not visible in the original parent. The changed state does not become visible in the parent until you commit the child read Transaction into the parent read Transaction.

After beginning a child read Transaction, you can begin a child read Transaction of that child, or a grandchild of the initial parent Transaction. For an example of creating child and grandchild Transaction objects, see Example 7-3.

About Rolling Back a Transaction

You roll back, or undo, a Transaction by calling the rollbackCurrentTransaction method of the TransactionProvider you are using. Rolling back a Transaction discards any changes that you made during that Transaction and makes the Transaction disappear.

Before rolling back a Transaction, you must close any CursorManager objects you created in that Transaction. After rolling back a Transaction, any Source objects that you created or Template state changes that you made in the Transaction are no longer valid. Any Cursor objects you created for those Source objects are also invalid.

Once you roll back a Transaction, you cannot commit that Transaction. Likewise, once you commit a Transaction, you cannot roll it back.

Example 7-2 Rolling Back a Transaction

The following example uses the TopBottomTemplate and SingleSelectionTemplate classes that are described in Chapter 10, "Creating Dynamic Queries". In creating the TopBottomTemplate and SingleSelectionTemplate objects, the example uses the same code that appears in Example 10-4, "Getting the Source Produced by the Template". Example 7-2 does not show that code. This example sets the state of the TopBottomTemplate. It begins a child Transaction that sets a different state for the TopBottomTemplate and then rolls back the child Transaction. The println method displays text through a CursorPrintWriter object and the getContext method gets a Context11g object that has methods that create Cursor objects and display their values through the CursorPrintWriter. The CursorPrintWriter and Context11g classes are used by the example programs in this documentation.

// The current Transaction is a read Transaction, t1.
// Create a TopBottomTemplate using a hierarchy of the Product dimension
// as the base and dp as the DataProvider.
TopBottomTemplate topNBottom = new TopBottomTemplate(prodHier, dp);

// Changing the state of a Template requires a write Transaction, so a
// write child Transaction, t2, is automatically started.
topNBottom.setTopBottomType(TopBottomTemplate.TOP_BOTTOM_TYPE_TOP);
topNBottom.setN(10);
topNBottom.setCriterion(singleSelections.getSource());

// Get the TransactionProvider and commit the Transaction t2.
TransactionProvider tp = dp.getTransactionProvider();
try
{
  tp.commitCurrentTransaction();           // t2 disappears
}
catch(Exception e)
{
  println("Cannot commit the Transaction. " + e);
}

// The current Transaction is now t1.
// Get the dynamic Source produced by the TopBottomTemplate.
Source result = topNBottom.getSource();

// Create a Cursor and display the results
println("\nThe current state of the TopBottomTemplate" +
        "\nproduces the following values:\n");
getContext().displayTopBottomResult(result);

// Start a child Transaction, t3. It is a read Transaction.
tp.beginSubtransaction();          // t3 is the current Transaction

// Change the state of topNBottom. Changing the state requires a 
// write Transaction so Transaction t4 starts automatically.
topNBottom.setTopBottomType(TopBottomTemplate.TOP_BOTTOM_TYPE_BOTTOM);
topNBottom.setN(15);

// Commit the Transaction.
try
{
  tp.commitCurrentTransaction();           // t4 disappears
}
catch(Exception e)
{
  println("Cannot commit the Transaction. " + e);
}

// Create a Cursor and display the results. // t3 is the current Transaction
println("\nIn the child Transaction, the state of the" +
        "\nTopBottomTemplate produces the following values:\n");
getContext().displayTopBottomResult(result);
// The displayTopBottomResult method closes the CursorManager for the
// Cursor created in t3.

// Undo t3, which discards the state of topNBottom that was set in t4.
tp.rollbackCurrentTransaction();        // t3 disappears

// Transaction t1 is now the current Transaction and the state of
// topNBottom is the one defined in t2.

// To show the current state of the TopNBottom template Source, commit
// the Transaction, create a Cursor, and display the Cursor values.
try
{
  tp.commitCurrentTransaction();
}
catch(Exception e)
{
  println("Cannot commit the Transaction. " + e);
}

println("\nAfter rolling back the child Transaction, the state of"
        + "\nthe TopBottomTemplate produces the following values:\n");
getContext().displayTopBottomResult(result);

Example 7-2 produces the following output.

The current state of the TopBottomTemplate
produces the following values:
 
 1. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::TOTAL_PRODUCT::TOTAL
 2. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::CLASS::SFT
 3. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::ACC
 4. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::CLASS::HRD
 5. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::MOD
 6. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::OS
 7. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::DISK
 8. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::MOUSE PAD
 9. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS 1 USER
10. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::DLX MOUSE
 
In the child Transaction, the state of the
TopBottomTemplate produces the following values:
 
 1. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::EXT CD ROM
 2. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC ITA
 3. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC SPA
 4. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::INT CD USB
 5. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::ENVY EXT KBD
 6. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::19 SVGA
 7. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC FRE
 8. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC GER
 9. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::ENVY ABM
10. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::INT CD ROM
11. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::ENVY EXE
12. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC KAN
13. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::ENVY STD
14. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::1GB USB DRV
15. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::SENT MM
 
After rolling back the child Transaction, the state of
the TopBottomTemplate produces the following values:
 
 1. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::TOTAL_PRODUCT::TOTAL
 2. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::CLASS::SFT
 3. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::ACC
 4. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::CLASS::HRD
 5. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::MOD
 6. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::OS
 7. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::DISK
 8. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::MOUSE PAD
 9. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS 1 USER
10. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::DLX MOUSE

Getting and Setting the Current Transaction

You get the current Transaction by calling the getCurrentTransaction method of the TransactionProvider you are using, as in the following example.

Transaction t1 = tp.getCurrentTransaction();

To make a previously saved Transaction the current Transaction, you call the setCurrentTransaction method of the TransactionProvider, as in the following example.

tp.setCurrentTransaction(t1);

Using TransactionProvider Objects

In the Oracle OLAP Java API, a DataProvider provides an implementation of the TransactionProvider interface. The TransactionProvider provides Transaction objects to your application.

As described in "Committing a Transaction", you use the commitCurrentTransaction method to make a derived Source that you created in a child write Transaction visible in the parent read Transaction. You can then create a Cursor for that Source.

If you are using Template objects in your application, then you might also use the other methods of TransactionProvider to do the following:

Example 7-3 demonstrates the use of Transaction objects to modify dynamic queries. Like Example 7-2, this example uses the same code to create TopBottomTemplate and SingleSelectionTemplate objects as does Example 10-4, "Getting the Source Produced by the Template". This example does not show that code.

To help track the Transaction objects, this example saves the different Transaction objects with calls to the getCurrentTransaction method. In the example, tp object is the TransactionProvider. The println method displays text through a CursorPrintWriter and the getContext method gets a Context11g object that has methods that create Cursor objects and display their values through the CursorPrintWriter. The commit method is the method from Example 7-1.

Example 7-3 Using Child Transaction Objects

// The parent Transaction is the current Transaction at this point.
// Save the parent read Transaction as parentT1.
Transaction parentT1 = tp.getCurrentTransaction();

// Get the dynamic Source produced by the TopBottomTemplate.
Source result = topNBottom.getSource();

// Create a Cursor and display the results.
println("\nThe current state of the TopBottomTemplate" +
        "\nproduces the following values:\n");
getContext().displayTopBottomResult(result);

// Begin a child Transaction of parentT1.
tp.beginSubtransaction();  // This is a read Transaction.

// Save the child read Transaction as childT2.
Transaction childT2 = tp.getCurrentTransaction();

// Change the state of the TopBottomTemplate. This starts a
// write Transaction, a child of the read Transaction childT2.
topNBottom.setN(12);
topNBottom.setTopBottomType(TopBottomTemplate.TOP_BOTTOM_TYPE_BOTTOM);

// Save the child write Transaction as writeT3.
Transaction writeT3 = tp.getCurrentTransaction();

// Commit the write Transaction writeT3.
commit();

// The commit moves the changes made in writeT3 into its parent,
// the read Transaction childT2. The writeT3 Transaction
// disappears. The current Transaction is now childT2
// again but the state of the TopBottomTemplate has changed.

// Create a Cursor and display the results of the changes to the
// TopBottomTemplate that are visible in childT2.
try
{
  println("\nIn the child Transaction, the state of the" +
          "\nTopBottomTemplate produces the following values:\n");

  getContext().displayTopBottomResult(result);
}
catch(Exception e)
{
  println("Cannot display the results of the query. " + e);
}

// Begin a grandchild Transaction of the initial parent.
tp.beginSubtransaction();  // This is a read Transaction.

// Save the grandchild read Transaction as grandchildT4.
Transaction grandchildT4 = tp.getCurrentTransaction();

// Change the state of the TopBottomTemplate. This starts another
// write Transaction, a child of grandchildT4.
topNBottom.setTopBottomType(TopBottomTemplate.TOP_BOTTOM_TYPE_TOP);

// Save the write Transaction as writeT5.
Transaction writeT5 = tp.getCurrentTransaction();

// Commit writeT5.
commit();

// Transaction grandchildT4 is now the current Transaction and the
// changes made to the TopBottomTemplate state are visible.

// Create a Cursor and display the results visible in grandchildT4.
try
{
  println("\nIn the grandchild Transaction, the state of the" +
          "\nTopBottomTemplate produces the following values:\n");
  getContext().displayTopBottomResult(result);
}
catch(Exception e)
{
  println(""Cannot display the results of the query. " + e);
}

// Commit the grandchild into the child.
commit();

// Transaction childT2 is now the current Transaction.
// Instead of preparing and committing the grandchild Transaction,
// you could rollback the Transaction, as in the following
// method call:
//   rollbackCurrentTransaction();
// If you roll back the grandchild Transaction, then the changes
// you made to the TopBottomTemplate state in the grandchild 
// are discarded and childT2 is the current Transaction.

// Commit the child into the parent.
commit();

// Transaction parentT1 is now the current Transaction. Again,
// you can roll back the childT2 Transaction instead of committing it.
// If you do so, then the changes that you made in childT2 are discarded.
// The current Transaction is be parentT1, which has the original state
// of the TopBottomTemplate, without any of the changes made in the
// grandchild or the child transactions.

Example 7-3 produces the following output.

The current state of the TopBottomTemplate
produces the following values:
 
 1. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::TOTAL_PRODUCT::TOTAL
 2. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::CLASS::SFT
 3. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::ACC
 4. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::CLASS::HRD
 5. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::MOD
 6. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::OS
 7. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::DISK
 8. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::MOUSE PAD
 9. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS 1 USER
10. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::DLX MOUSE
 
In the child Transaction, the state of the
TopBottomTemplate produces the following values:
 
 1. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::EXT CD ROM
 2. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC ITA
 3. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC SPA
 4. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::INT CD USB
 5. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::ENVY EXT KBD
 6. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::19 SVGA
 7. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC FRE
 8. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC GER
 9. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::ENVY ABM
10. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::INT CD ROM
11. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::ENVY EXE
12. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS DOC KAN
 
In the grandchild Transaction, the state of the
TopBottomTemplate produces the following values:
 
 1. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::TOTAL_PRODUCT::TOTAL
 2. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::CLASS::SFT
 3. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::ACC
 4. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::CLASS::HRD
 5. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::MOD
 6. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::OS
 7. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::FAMILY::DISK
 8. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::MOUSE PAD
 9. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::OS 1 USER
10. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::DLX MOUSE
11. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::LT CASE
12. PRODUCT_PRIMARY::ITEM::56KPS MODEM