|Oracle® Database Administrator's Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1)
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This section describes database services and includes the following topics:
Database services (services) are logical abstractions for managing workloads in Oracle Database. Services divide workloads into mutually disjoint groupings. Each service represents a workload with common attributes, service-level thresholds, and priorities. The grouping is based on attributes of work that might include the application function to be used, the priority of execution for the application function, the job class to be managed, or the data range used in the application function or job class. For example, the Oracle E-Business suite defines a service for each responsibility, such as general ledger, accounts receivable, order entry, and so on. Each database service has a unique name.
Connection requests can include a database service name. If no service name is included and the Net Services file listener.ora designates a default service, the connection uses the default service.
Services are built into the Oracle Database, providing a single system image for workloads, prioritization for workloads, performance measures for real transactions, and alerts and actions when performance goals are violated. Services enable you to configure a workload, administer it, enable and disable it, and measure the workload as a single entity. You can do this using standard tools such as the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA), and Enterprise Manager (EM). Enterprise Manager supports viewing and operating services as a whole, with drill down to the instance-level when needed.
In Real Application Clusters (RAC), a service can span one or more instances and facilitate real workload balancing based on real transaction performance. This provides end-to-end unattended recovery, rolling changes by workload, and full location transparency. RAC also enables you to manage a number of service features with Enterprise Manager, the DBCA, and the Server Control utility (SRVCTL).
Services also offer an extra dimension in performance tuning. Tuning by "service and SQL" can replace tuning by "session and SQL" in the majority of systems where all sessions are anonymous and shared. With services, workloads are visible and measurable. Resource consumption and waits are attributable by application. Additionally, resources assigned to services can be augmented when loads increase or decrease. This dynamic resource allocation enables a cost-effective solution for meeting demands as they occur. For example, services are measured automatically and the performance is compared to service-level thresholds. Performance violations are reported to Enterprise Manager, enabling the execution of automatic or scheduled solutions.
When you configure database services, you give each service a unique global name, associated performance goals, and associated importance. The services are tightly integrated with Oracle Database and are maintained in the data dictionary. You can find service information in the following service-specific views:
The following additional views also contain some information about services:
See Also:Oracle Database Reference for detailed information about these views
Several Oracle Database features support services. The Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) manages the performance of services. AWR records service performance, including execution times, wait classes, and resources consumed by service. AWR alerts warn when service response time thresholds are exceeded. The dynamic views report current service performance metrics with one hour of history. Each service has quality-of-service thresholds for response time and CPU consumption.
In addition, the Database Resource Manager maps services to consumer groups. This enables you to automatically manage the priority of one service relative to others. You can use consumer groups to define relative priority in terms of either ratios or resource consumption. This is described in more detail, for example, in Oracle Real Application Clusters Deployment and Performance Guide.
Services describe applications, application functions, and data ranges as either functional services or data-dependent services. Functional services are the most common mapping of workloads. Sessions using a particular function are grouped together. For Oracle*Applications, ERP, CRM, and iSupport functions create a functional division of the work. For SAP, dialog and update functions create a functional division of the work.
In contrast, data-dependent routing routes sessions to services based on data keys. The mapping of work requests to services occurs in the object relational mapping layer for application servers and TP monitors. For example, in RAC, these ranges can be completely dynamic and based on demand because the database is shared.
You can also define preconnect application services in RAC databases. Preconnect services span instances to support a service in the event of a failure. The preconnect service supports TAF preconnect mode and is managed transparently when using RAC.
In addition to application services, Oracle Database also supports two internal services:
SYS$BACKGROUND is used by the background processes only and
SYS$USERS is the default service for user sessions that are not associated with services.
DBMS_SERVICE package or set the
SERVICE_NAMES parameter to create application services on a single-instance Oracle Database. You can later define the response time goal or importance of each service through EM, either individually or by using the Enterprise Manager feature "Copy Thresholds From a Baseline" on the Manage Metrics/Edit Threshold pages. You can also do this using PL/SQL.
Using services requires no changes to your application code. Client-side work connects to a service. Server-side work specifies the service when creating the job class for the Job Scheduler and the database links for distributed databases. Work requests executing under a service inherit the performance thresholds for the service and are measured as part of the service.
Middle-tier applications and client-server applications use a service by specifying the service as part of the connection in TNS connect data. This connect data may be in the
TNSnames file for thick Net drivers, in the URL specification for thin drivers, or may be maintained in the Oracle Internet Directory. For example, data sources for the Oracle Application Server are set to route to a service. Using easy connect naming, this connection needs only the host name and service name (for example,
hr@myDBhost/myservice). For Oracle E-Business Suite, the service is also maintained in the application database identifier and in the cookie for the ICX parameters.
Server-side work, such as Oracle Scheduler, parallel execution, and Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing, set the service name as part of the workload definition.
For Oracle Scheduler, the service that the job class uses is optionally defined when the job class is created. During execution, jobs are assigned to job classes, and job classes can run within services. Using services with job classes ensures that the work executed by the job scheduler is identified for workload management and performance tuning.
For parallel query and parallel DML, the query coordinator connects to a service just like any other client. The parallel query processes inherit the service for the duration of the execution. At the end of query execution, the parallel execution processes revert to the default service.
See Also:Chapter 27, "Scheduling Jobs with Oracle Scheduler" for more information about the Oracle Scheduler.