|Oracle® Database Administrator's Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1)
|PDF · Mobi · ePub|
Shared memory resources are preconfigured to allow the enabling of shared server at run time. You need not configure it by specifying parameters in your initialization parameter file, but you can do so if that better suits your environment. You can start dispatchers and shared server processes (shared servers) dynamically using the
ALTER SYSTEM statement.
This section discusses how to enable shared server and how to set or alter shared server initialization parameters. It contains the following topics:
See Also:Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for further information about the
The following initialization parameters control shared server operation:
SHARED_SERVERS: Specifies the initial number of shared servers to start and the minimum number of shared servers to keep. This is the only required parameter for using shared servers.
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS: Specifies the maximum number of shared servers that can run simultaneously.
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS: Specifies the total number of shared server user sessions that can run simultaneously. Setting this parameter enables you to reserve user sessions for dedicated servers.
DISPATCHERS: Configures dispatcher processes in the shared server architecture.
MAX_DISPATCHERS: Specifies the maximum number of dispatcher processes that can run simultaneously. This parameter can be ignored for now. It will only be useful in a future release when the number of dispatchers is auto-tuned according to the number of concurrent connections.
CIRCUITS: Specifies the total number of virtual circuits that are available for inbound and outbound network sessions.
See Also:Oracle Database Reference for more information about these initialization parameters
Shared server is enabled by setting the
SHARED_SERVERS initialization parameter to a value greater than 0. The other shared server initialization parameters need not be set. Because shared server requires at least one dispatcher in order to work, a dispatcher is brought up even if no dispatcher has been configured. Dispatchers are discussed in "Configuring Dispatchers".
Shared server can be started dynamically by setting the
SHARED_SERVERS parameter to a nonzero value with the
ALTER SYSTEM statement, or
SHARED_SERVERS can be included at database startup in the initialization parameter file. If
SHARED_SERVERS is not included in the initialization parameter file, or is included but is set to 0, then shared server is not enabled at database startup.
Note:For backward compatibility, if
SHARED_SERVERSis not included in the initialization parameter file at database startup, but
DISPATCHERSis included and it specifies at least one dispatcher, shared server is enabled. In this case, the default for
However, if neither
DISPATCHERS is included in the initialization file, you cannot start shared server after the instance is brought up by just altering the
DISPATCHERS parameter. You must specifically alter
SHARED_SERVERS to a nonzero value to start shared server.
The SHARED_SERVERS initialization parameter specifies the minimum number of shared servers that you want created when the instance is started. After instance startup, Oracle Database can dynamically adjust the number of shared servers based on how busy existing shared servers are and the length of the request queue.
In typical systems, the number of shared servers stabilizes at a ratio of one shared server for every ten connections. For OLTP applications, when the rate of requests is low, or when the ratio of server usage to request is low, the connections-to-servers ratio could be higher. In contrast, in applications where the rate of requests is high or the server usage-to-request ratio is high, the connections-to-server ratio could be lower.
The PMON (process monitor) background process cannot terminate shared servers below the value specified by
SHARED_SERVERS. Therefore, you can use this parameter to stabilize the load and minimize strain on the system by preventing PMON from terminating and then restarting shared servers because of coincidental fluctuations in load.
If you know the average load on your system, you can set
SHARED_SERVERS to an optimal value. The following example shows how you can use this parameter:
Assume a database is being used by a telemarketing center staffed by 1000 agents. On average, each agent spends 90% of the time talking to customers and only 10% of the time looking up and updating records. To keep the shared servers from being terminated as agents talk to customers and then spawned again as agents access the database, a DBA specifies that the optimal number of shared servers is 100.
However, not all work shifts are staffed at the same level. On the night shift, only 200 agents are needed. Since
SHARED_SERVERS is a dynamic parameter, a DBA reduces the number of shared servers to 20 at night, thus allowing resources to be freed up for other tasks such as batch jobs.
You can decrease the minimum number of shared servers that must be kept active by dynamically setting the
SHARED_SERVERS parameter to a lower value. Thereafter, until the number of shared servers is decreased to the value of the
SHARED_SERVERS parameter, any shared servers that become inactive are marked by PMON for termination.
The following statement reduces the number of shared servers:
ALTER SYSTEM SET SHARED_SERVERS = 5;
SHARED_SERVERS to 0 disables shared server. For more information, please refer to "Disabling Shared Servers".
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS parameter specifies the maximum number of shared servers that can be automatically created by PMON. It has no default value. If no value is specified, then PMON starts as many shared servers as is required by the load, subject to these limitations:
The process limit (set by the
PROCESSES initialization parameter)
A minimum number of free process slots (at least one-eighth of the total process slots, or two slots if
PROCESSES is set to less than 24)
Note:On Windows NT, take care when setting
MAX_SHARED_SERVERSto a high value, because each server is a thread in a common process.
The value of
SHARED_SERVERS overrides the value of
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS. Therefore, you can force PMON to start more shared servers than the
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS value by setting
SHARED_SERVERS to a value higher than
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS. You can subsequently place a new upper limit on the number of shared servers by dynamically altering the
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS to a value higher than
The primary reason to limit the number of shared servers is to reserve resources, such as memory and CPU time, for other processes. For example, consider the case of the telemarketing center discussed previously:
The DBA wants to reserve two thirds of the resources for batch jobs at night. He sets
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS to less than one third of the maximum number of processes (
PROCESSES). By doing so, the DBA ensures that even if all agents happen to access the database at the same time, batch jobs can connect to dedicated servers without having to wait for the shared servers to be brought down after processing agents' requests.
Another reason to limit the number of shared servers is to prevent the concurrent run of too many server processes from slowing down the system due to heavy swapping, although
PROCESSES can serve as the upper bound for this rather than
Still other reasons to limit the number of shared servers are testing, debugging, performance analysis, and tuning. For example, to see how many shared servers are needed to efficiently support a certain user community, you can vary
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS from a very small number upward until no delay in response time is noticed by the users.
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS initialization parameter specifies the maximum number of concurrent shared server user sessions. Setting this parameter, which is a dynamic parameter, lets you reserve database sessions for dedicated servers. This in turn ensures that administrative tasks that require dedicated servers, such as backing up or recovering the database, are not preempted by shared server sessions.
This parameter has no default value. If it is not specified, the system can create shared server sessions as needed, limited by the
SESSIONS initialization parameter.
CIRCUITS parameter sets a maximum limit on the number of virtual circuits that can be created in shared memory. This parameter has no default. If it is not specified, then the system can create circuits as needed, limited by the
DISPATCHERS initialization parameter and system resources.
DISPATCHERS initialization parameter configures dispatcher processes in the shared server architecture. At least one dispatcher process is required for shared server to work.If you do not specify a dispatcher, but you enable shared server by setting
SHARED_SERVER to a nonzero value, then by default Oracle Database creates one dispatcher for the TCP protocol. The equivalent
DISPATCHERS explicit setting of the initialization parameter for this configuration is:
You can configure more dispatchers, using the
DISPATCHERS initialization parameter, if either of the following conditions apply:
You need to configure a protocol other than TCP/IP. You configure a protocol address with one of the following attributes of the DISPATCHERS parameter:
You want to configure one or more of the optional dispatcher attributes:
A protocol address is required and is specified using one or more of the following attributes:
||Specify the network protocol address of the endpoint on which the dispatchers listen.|
||Specify the network description of the endpoint on which the dispatchers listen, including the network protocol address. The syntax is as follows:
||Specify the network protocol for which the dispatcher generates a listening endpoint. For example:
See the Oracle Database Net Services Reference for further information about protocol address syntax.
The following attribute specifies how many dispatchers this configuration should have. It is optional and defaults to 1.
The following attributes tell the instance about the network attributes of each dispatcher of this configuration. They are all optional.
||Specify the maximum number of network connections to allow for each dispatcher.|
||Specify the maximum number of network sessions to allow for each dispatcher.|
||Specify the duration of a TICK in seconds. A TICK is a unit of time in terms of which the connection pool timeout can be specified. Used for connection pooling.|
||Specify an alias name for the listeners with which the PMON process registers dispatcher information. Set the alias to a name that is resolved through a naming method.|
||Used to enable the Oracle Connection Manager session multiplexing feature.|
||Used to enable connection pooling.|
||Specify the service names the dispatchers register with the listeners.|
You can specify either an entire attribute name a substring consisting of at least the first three characters. For example, you can specify
SESSI=3, and so forth.
See Also:Oracle Database Reference for more detailed descriptions of the attributes of the
Once you know the number of possible connections for each process for the operating system, calculate the initial number of dispatchers to create during instance startup, for each network protocol, using the following formula:
Number of dispatchers = CEIL ( max. concurrent sessions / connections for each dispatcher )
CEIL returns the result roundest up to the next whole integer.
For example, assume a system that can support 970 connections for each process, and that has:
A maximum of 4000 sessions concurrently connected through TCP/IP and
A maximum of 2,500 sessions concurrently connected through TCP/IP with SSL
DISPATCHERS attribute for TCP/IP should be set to a minimum of five dispatchers (4000 / 970), and for TCP/IP with SSL three dispatchers (2500 / 970:
Depending on performance, you may need to adjust the number of dispatchers.
You can specify multiple dispatcher configurations by setting
DISPATCHERS to a comma separated list of strings, or by specifying multiple
DISPATCHERS parameters in the initialization file. If you specify
DISPATCHERS multiple times, the lines must be adjacent to each other in the initialization parameter file. Internally, Oracle Database assigns an
INDEX value (beginning with zero) to each
DISPATCHERS parameter. You can later refer to that
DISPATCHERS parameter in an
ALTER SYSTEM statement by its index number.
Some examples of setting the
DISPATCHERS initialization parameter follow.
Example: Forcing the IP Address Used for Dispatchers The following hypothetical example will create two dispatchers that will listen on the specified IP address. The address must be a valid IP address for the host that the instance is on. (The host may be configured with multiple IP addresses.)
You can control the number of dispatcher processes in the instance. Unlike the number of shared servers, the number of dispatchers does not change automatically. You change the number of dispatchers explicitly with the
ALTER SYSTEM statement. In this release of Oracle Database, you can increase the number of dispatchers to more than the limit specified by the
MAX_DISPATCHERS parameter. It is planned that
MAX_DISPATCHERS will be taken into consideration in a future release.
Monitor the following views to determine the load on the dispatcher processes:
See Also:Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for information about monitoring these views to determine dispatcher load and performance
If these views indicate that the load on the dispatcher processes is consistently high, then performance may be improved by starting additional dispatcher processes to route user requests. In contrast, if the load on dispatchers is consistently low, reducing the number of dispatchers may improve performance.
To dynamically alter the number of dispatchers when the instance is running, use the
ALTER SYSTEM statement to modify the
DISPATCHERS attribute setting for an existing dispatcher configuration. You can also add new dispatcher configurations to start dispatchers with different network attributes.
When you reduce the number of dispatchers for a particular dispatcher configuration, the dispatchers are not immediately removed. Rather, as users disconnect, Oracle Database terminates dispatchers down to the limit you specify in
For example, suppose the instance was started with this
DISPATCHERS setting in the initialization parameter file:
To increase the number of dispatchers for the TCP/IP protocol from 2 to 3, and decrease the number of dispatchers for the TCP/IP with SSL protocol from 2 to 1, you can issue the following statement:
ALTER SYSTEM SET DISPATCHERS = '(INDEX=0)(DISP=3)', '(INDEX=1)(DISP=1)';
ALTER SYSTEM SET DISPATCHERS = '(PROT=tcp)(DISP=3)', '(PROT-tcps)(DISP=1)';
Note:You need not specify (
DISP=1). It is optional because 1 is the default value for the
If fewer than three dispatcher processes currently exist for TCP/IP, the database creates new ones. If more than one dispatcher process currently exists for TCP/IP with SSL, then the database terminates the extra ones as the connected users disconnect.
Suppose that instead of changing the number of dispatcher processes for the TCP/IP protocol, you want to add another TCP/IP dispatcher that supports connection pooling. You can do so by entering the following statement:
ALTER SYSTEM SET DISPATCHERS = '(INDEX=2)(PROT=tcp)(POOL=on)';
INDEX attribute is needed to add the new dispatcher configuration. If you omit (
INDEX=2) in the preceding statement, then the TCP/IP dispatcher configuration at INDEX 0 will be changed to support connection pooling, and the number of dispatchers for that configuration will be reduced to 1, which is the default when the number of dispatchers (attribute
DISPATCHERS) is not specified.
INDEX keyword can be used to identify which dispatcher configuration to modify. If you do not specify
INDEX, then the first dispatcher configuration matching the
PROTOCOL specified will be modified. If no match is found among the existing dispatcher configurations, then a new dispatcher will be added.
INDEX value can range from 0 to
n is the current number of dispatcher configurations. If your
ALTER SYSTEM statement specifies an
INDEX value equal to
n is the current number of dispatcher configurations, a new dispatcher configuration will be added.
To see the values of the current dispatcher configurations--that is, the number of dispatchers, whether connection pooling is on, and so forth--query the
V$DISPATCHER_CONFIG dynamic performance view. To see which dispatcher configuration a dispatcher is associated with, query the
CONF_INDX column of the
When you change the
POOL attributes of a dispatcher configuration, the change does not take effect for existing dispatchers but only for new dispatchers. Therefore, in order for the change to be effective for all dispatchers associated with a configuration, you must forcibly kill existing dispatchers after altering the
DISPATCHERS parameter, and let the database start new ones in their place with the newly specified properties.
SERVICES are not subject to the same constraint. They apply to existing dispatchers associated with the modified configuration. Attribute
SESSIONS applies to existing dispatchers only if its value is reduced. However, if its value is increased, it is applied only to newly started dispatchers.
ALTER SYSTEM statement, you leave it up to the database to determine which dispatchers to shut down to reduce the number of dispatchers. Alternatively, it is possible to shut down specific dispatcher processes. To identify the name of the specific dispatcher process to shut down, use the
V$DISPATCHER dynamic performance view.
SELECT NAME, NETWORK FROM V$DISPATCHER;
Each dispatcher is uniquely identified by a name of the form Dnnn.
To shut down dispatcher
D002, issue the following statement:
ALTER SYSTEM SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE 'D002';
IMMEDIATE keyword stops the dispatcher from accepting new connections and the database immediately terminates all existing connections through that dispatcher. After all sessions are cleaned up, the dispatcher process shuts down. If
IMMEDIATE were not specified, the dispatcher would wait until all of its users disconnected and all of its connections terminated before shutting down.
You disable shared server by setting
SHARED_SERVERS to 0. No new client can connect in shared mode. However, when you set
SHARED_SERVERS to 0, Oracle Database retains some shared servers until all shared server connections are closed. The number of shared servers retained is either the number specified by the preceding setting of
SHARED_SERVERS or the value of the
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS parameter, whichever is smaller. If both
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS are set to 0, then all shared servers will terminate and requests from remaining shared server clients will be queued until the value of
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS is raised again.
To terminate dispatchers once all shared server clients disconnect, enter this statement:
ALTER SYSTEM SET DISPATCHERS = '';
||Provides information on the dispatcher processes, including name, network address, status, various usage statistics, and index number.|
||Provides configuration information about the dispatchers.|
||Provides rate statistics for the dispatcher processes.|
||Contains information on the shared server message queues.|
||Contains information on the shared servers.|
||Contains information about virtual circuits, which are user connections to the database through dispatchers and servers.|
||Contains information for tuning shared server.|
||Contains size information about various system global area (SGA) groups. May be useful when tuning shared server.|
||Contains detailed statistical information about the SGA, useful for tuning.|
||Lists statistics to help tune the reserved pool and space within the shared pool.|