Occasionally you might want to put a database in a state that allows only DBA transactions, queries, fetches, or PL/SQL statements. Such a state is referred to as a quiesced state, in the sense that no ongoing non-DBA transactions, queries, fetches, or PL/SQL statements are running in the system.
Note:In this discussion of quiesce database, a DBA is defined as user
SYSTEM. Other users, including those with the
DBArole, are not allowed to issue the
ALTER SYSTEM QUIESCE DATABASEstatement or proceed after the database is quiesced.
The quiesced state lets administrators perform actions that cannot safely be done otherwise. These actions include:
Actions that fail if concurrent user transactions access the same object--for example, changing the schema of a database table or adding a column to an existing table where a no-wait lock is required.
Actions whose undesirable intermediate effect can be seen by concurrent user transactions--for example, a multistep procedure for reorganizing a table when the table is first exported, then dropped, and finally imported. A concurrent user who attempts to access the table after it was dropped, but before import, would not have an accurate view of the situation.
Without the ability to quiesce the database, you would need to shut down the database and reopen it in restricted mode. This is a serious restriction, especially for systems requiring 24 x 7 availability. Quiescing a database is much a smaller restriction, because it eliminates the disruption to users and the downtime associated with shutting down and restarting the database.
When the database is in the quiesced state, it is through the facilities of the Database Resource Manager that non-DBA sessions are prevented from becoming active. Therefore, while this statement is in effect, any attempt to change the current resource plan will be queued until after the system is unquiesced. See Chapter 25, "Managing Resource Allocation with Oracle Database Resource Manager" for more information about the Database Resource Manager.
ALTER SYSTEM QUIESCE RESTRICTED;
Non-DBA active sessions will continue until they become inactive. An active session is one that is currently inside of a transaction, a query, a fetch, or a PL/SQL statement; or a session that is currently holding any shared resources (for example, enqueues). No inactive sessions are allowed to become active. For example, If a user issues a SQL query in an attempt to force an inactive session to become active, the query will appear to be hung. When the database is later unquiesced, the session is resumed, and the blocked action is processed.
Once all non-DBA sessions become inactive, the
ALTER SYSTEM QUIESCE RESTRICTED statement completes, and the database is in a quiesced state. In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, this statement affects all instances, not just the one that issues the statement.
ALTER SYSTEM QUIESCE RESTRICTED statement may wait a long time for active sessions to become inactive. You can determine the sessions that are blocking the quiesce operation by querying the
V$BLOCKING_QUIESCE view. This view returns only a single column:
SID (Session ID). You can join it with
V$SESSION to get more information about the session, as shown in the following example:
select bl.sid, user, osuser, type, program from v$blocking_quiesce bl, v$session se where bl.sid = se.sid;
See Oracle Database Reference for details on these view.
If you interrupt the request to quiesce the database, or if your session terminates abnormally before all active sessions are quiesced, then Oracle Database automatically reverses any partial effects of the statement.
For queries that are carried out by successive multiple Oracle Call Interface (OCI) fetches, the
ALTER SYSTEM QUIESCE RESTRICTED statement does not wait for all fetches to finish. It only waits for the current fetch to finish.
For both dedicated and shared server connections, all non-DBA logins after this statement is issued are queued by the Database Resource Manager, and are not allowed to proceed. To the user, it appears as if the login is hung. The login will resume when the database is unquiesced.
The database remains in the quiesced state even if the session that issued the statement exits. A DBA must log in to the database to issue the statement that specifically unquiesces the database.
Note:You cannot perform a cold backup when the database is in the quiesced state, because Oracle Database background processes may still perform updates for internal purposes even while the database is quiesced. In addition, the file headers of online datafiles continue to appear to be accessible. They do not look the same as if a clean shutdown had been performed. However, you can still take online backups while the database is in a quiesced state.
ALTER SYSTEM UNQUIESCE;
All non-DBA activity is allowed to proceed. In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, this statement is not required to be issued from the same session, or even the same instance, as that which quiesced the database. If the session issuing the
ALTER SYSTEM UNQUIESCE statement terminates abnormally, then the Oracle Database server ensures that the unquiesce operation completes.
NORMAL: Normal unquiesced state.
QUIESCING: Being quiesced, but some non-DBA sessions are still active.
QUIESCED: Quiesced; no non-DBA sessions are active or allowed.