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Oracle® Database Concepts
11g Release 1 (11.1)

B28318-06
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Index

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z 

A

ABORT option
SHUTDOWN statement, 15.2.3.1
access control, 20.4.2
discretionary, definition, 1.2.9.1
fine-grained access control, 20.5.1
password encryption, 20.3.3.1
privileges, 20.4.2
roles, definition, 20.1.3
ACMS processes, 9.3.2.10
administrator privileges, 12.1.2
ADR
See Automatic Diagnostic Repository
Advanced Queuing, 9.3.2.7
event publication, 22.3.5.1
publish-subscribe support, 22.3.5.1
queue monitor process, 9.3.2.7, 9.3.2.7
advisor framework, 14.2.5
advisors
Buffer Cache Advisor, 14.5
Java Pool Advisor, 14.5
Logfile Size Advisor, 14.8.2
memory, 14.5
MTTR Advisor, 14.8.2
Segment Advisor, 14.2.5, 14.6.6
Shared Pool Advisor, 14.5
SQL Access Advisor, 14.2.5, 14.4, 16.3, 18.3.1
SQL Tuning Advisor, 14.2.5, 14.4
Streams Pool Advisor, 14.5
Undo Advisor, 14.2.5
AFTER triggers, 22.3.2.2
defined, 22.3.2.2
alert log, 9.3.3
definition, 1.1.3.6
redo logs, 9.3.2.5
alias
qualifying subqueries (inline views), 5.3.7
ALL_ views, 7.2.2.2
ALL_UPDATABLE_COLUMNS view, 5.3.5
ALTER SESSION statement, 24.2.4
SET CONSTRAINTS DEFERRED clause, 21.5.2
transaction isolation level, 13.2.5.1
ALTER statement, 24.2.2
ALTER SYSTEM statement, 24.2.5
ARCHIVE ALL option
using to archive online redo logs, 15.2.3.2
dynamic parameters
LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES, 9.3.2.1
ALTER TABLE statement
CACHE clause, 8.2.1.2
DEALLOCATE UNUSED clause, 2.3.4
disable or enable constraints, 21.1.3
triggers, 22.2.1
validate or novalidate constraints, 21.1.3
ALTER USER statement
temporary segments, 2.4.3.3.1
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
datatypes
conversion to Oracle datatypes, 26.8
ANALYZE statement
shared pool, 8.2.3.1.3
anonymous PL/SQL blocks, 25.3, 25.3.4.3
applications, 25.3.1.2
contrasted with stored procedures, 25.3.4.3
dynamic SQL, 25.3.2.4
performance, 25.3.4.3
ANSI SQL standard
datatypes of, 26.8
ANSI/ISO SQL standard
data concurrency, 13.1.1
isolation levels, 13.2.6.1
application administrators, 20.6.3.5
application context, 20.6.2
application developers
privileges for, 20.6.3.4.1
roles for, 20.6.3.4.1
applications
context, 20.5.2
data dictionary references, 7.2.1.3
data warehousing, 5.8.12.1
database access through, 9.1
dependencies of, 6.9, 6.10
enhancing security with, 20.4.3
online transaction processing (OLTP)
reverse key indexes, 5.8.11
processes, 9.2
program interface and, 9.7
roles and, 20.4.3.1.1
security
application context, 20.5.2
sharing code, 8.5
transaction termination and, 4.2
ARBn process, 9.3.2.10
archived redo log files
definition, 1.1.3.4
archived redo logs
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE ALL statement, 15.2.3.2
backups, 15.2.4.3
ARCHIVELOG mode
archiver process (ARCn) and, 9.3.2.1
archiver process (ARCn)
described, 9.3.2.1
multiple processes, 9.3.2.1
archiving
after inconsistent closed backups, 15.2.3.2
after online backups, 15.2.3.2
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE ALL statement, 15.2.3.2
ARCn background process, 9.3.2.1
array processing, 24.7.2.8
ASM
See Automatic Storage management
atomic control file to memory service process 0
See ACMS
AUDIT statement, 24.2.2
locks, 13.3.5.2
auditing
audit options, 20.7.1
audit records, 20.7.1.1
audit trails, 20.7.1.1
database, 20.7.1.1.1
operating system, 20.7.1.1.3, 20.7.1.1.5
database and operating-system user names, 20.3.1
described, 20.7
distributed databases and, 20.7.1.1.2
fine-grained, 20.5.3
policies for, 20.6.5
privilege use, 20.7.1
range of focus, 20.7.1
schema object, 20.7.1, 20.7.1
security and, 20.7.1.1.3
statement, 20.7.1
transaction independence, 20.7.1.1.6
when options take effect, 20.7.1.1.6
authenticating database administrators
operating system authentication, 20.3.6
password file authentication, 20.3.6
strong authentication, 20.3.6
authentication
database administrators, 20.3.6
described, 20.3
multitier, 20.3.4
network, 20.3.2.1
operating system, 20.3.1
Oracle, 20.3.3
password policy, 20.6.3.1
public key infrastructure, 20.3.2.2
remote, 20.3.2.3
users, 20.6.1.2
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor, 1.2.3.7, 14.3
Automatic Diagnostic repository, 14.2.3.1
automatic maintenance tasks, 1.2.3.2, 14.2.2
automatic memory management, 1.2.3.5, 8.4
automatic segment space management, 2.2.2
automatic shared memory management, 8.4
Automatic SQL Tuning Advisor, 14.4
Automatic Storage Management, 14.7
disk groups, 14.7
Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
failure groups, 17.4.1
high availability against storage failures, 17.4.1
automatic undo management, 2.4.4, 14.6.1
Automatic Workload Repository
about, 14.2.1
baselines, 14.2.1
snapshot, 14.2.1
AutoTask, 14.2.2
availability
definition, 17.1

B

back-end of client/server architecture, 10.1
background processes, 9.3.2, 9.3.2
described, 9.3.2
diagrammed, 9.3.2
MMON, 9.3.2.10
trace files for, 9.3.3
backing out a transaction, 17.4.2.2
backup mode, 15.2.4.1
backups
archived redo log, 15.2.4.3
control files, 15.2.4.2
datafile, 15.2.2
inconsistent
whole database, 15.2.3.2, 15.2.3.2
online datafiles, 15.2.4.1
online tablespaces, 15.2.4.1
overview, 1.2.5
whole database, 15.2.2
base tables
definition, 1.1.5.3
BEFORE triggers, 22.3.2.1
defined, 22.3.2.1
BFILE datatype, 26.5.3
bigfile tablespaces, 1.1.4.4, 3.2.1
benefits, 3.2.1.1
considerations, 3.2.1.2
binary data
BFILEs, 26.5.3
BLOBs, 26.5.1
RAW and LONG RAW, 26.6
BINARY_DOUBLE datatype, 26.3.2.2
BINARY_FLOAT datatype, 26.3.2.1
bitmap indexes, 1.2.7.1, 5.8.12, 16.4
cardinality, 5.8.12.2
nulls and, 5.2.3, 5.8.12.4
parallel query and DML, 5.8.12.1, 16.4, 16.4
bitmap tablespace management, 3.2.7.1
bitmaps
to manage free space, 2.2.2
BLOBs (binary large objects), 26.5.1
block recovery
using Flashback logs
Flashback technologies, 17.4.2.2
block recovery using Flashback logs, 17.4.2.2
blocking transactions, 13.2.6.1
block-level recovery, 13.3.4.1
blocks
anonymous, 25.3, 25.3.4.3
database, 2.2
BOOLEAN datatype, 26.1
branch blocks, 5.8.7.2
B-tree indexes, 5.8.7.2
compared with bitmap indexes, 5.8.12, 5.8.12.2
index-organized tables, 5.9
buff, 9.3.2.3
Buffer Cache Advisor, 14.5
buffer caches, 8.2.1
database, 8.2.1, 9.3.2.3
buffers
database buffer cache
incremental checkpoint, 9.3.2.3
redo log, 8.2.2
business rules
enforcing in application code, 21.2.1
enforcing using stored procedures, 21.2.1
enforcing with constraints
advantages of, 21.2.1
byte semantics, 26.2.3

C

CACHE clause, 8.2.1.2
Cache Fusion, 13.2.4
cache, query result, 1.2.2.3
caches, 1.2.2.3
buffer, 8.2.1
cache hit, 8.2.1.1
cache miss, 8.2.1.1
data dictionary, 7.2.1.2, 8.2.3.2
location of, 8.2.3
library cache, 8.2.3, 8.2.3.1, 8.2.3.2
object cache, 25.2.1, 25.2.4
private SQL area, 8.2.3.1.1
shared SQL area, 8.2.3, 8.2.3.1.1
calls
Oracle call interface, 9.7.1
cannot serialize access, 13.2.6.1
cardinality, 5.8.12.2
CASCADE actions
DELETE statements and, 21.3.4.3.2
cascading invalidation, 6.4
century, 26.4.3
certificate authority, 20.3.2.2
chaining of rows, 2.2.2.2, 5.2.1.1
Change Data Capture, 16.2.5, 23.3.1.5
CHAR datatype, 26.2.1
blank-padded comparison semantics, 26.2.1
character semantics, 26.2.3
character sets
CLOB and NCLOB datatypes, 26.5.2
column lengths, 26.2.3
NCHAR and NVARCHAR2, 26.2.4.2
check constraints, 21.3.5
checking mechanism, 21.4
defined, 21.3.5
multiple constraints on a column, 21.3.5.2
subqueries prohibited in, 21.3.5.1
checkpoint process (CKPT), 9.3.2.2
checkpoints
checkpoint process (CKPT), 9.3.2.2
control files and, 3.4.1
DBWn process, 9.3.2.2, 9.3.2.3
incremental, 9.3.2.3
statistics on, 9.3.2.2
CKPT background process, 9.3.2.2
client result cache, 8.2.3.3
clients
in client/server architecture, definition, 1.1.2.1.1
client/server architectures, 10.1
definition, 1.1.2.1
diagrammed, 10.1
distributed processing in, 10.1
overview of, 10.1
program interface, 9.7
CLOB datatype, 26.5.2
clone databases
mounting, 12.2.2.2
cluster keys, 5.11
CLUSTER_DATABASE parameter, 12.2.2.1
clustered computer systems
Oracle Real Application Clusters, 12.1.1
clusters
cannot be partitioned, 18
definition, 1.1.5.4
dictionary locks and, 13.3.5.5
hash, 5.12
contrasted with index, 5.12
index
contrasted with hash, 5.12
indexes on, 5.8
cannot be partitioned, 18
keys, 5.11
affect indexing of nulls, 5.2.3
overview of, 5.11
scans of, 8.2.1.2
storage parameters of, 5.2.1
coalescing extents, 2.3.4.1
coalescing free space
extents
SMON process, 9.3.2.9
within data blocks, 2.2.2.1
collections
index-organized tables, 5.9.1
key compression, 5.8.10.3
columns
cardinality, 5.8.12.2
default values for, 5.2.4
described, 5.2
integrity constraints, 5.2, 5.2.4, 21.3
maximum in concatenated indexes, 5.8.3
maximum in view or table, 5.3
nested tables, 5.2.6
order of, 5.2.1.3
prohibiting nulls in, 21.3.1
pseudocolumns
ROWID, 26.7.1
COMMENT statement, 24.2.2
COMMIT comment
deprecation of, 4.2.4.2
COMMIT statement, 24.2.3
ending a transaction, 4.1
fast commit, 9.3.2.5
implied by DDL, 4.1
two-phase commit, 4.2.5
committing transactions
defined, 4.1
fast commit, 9.3.2.5
group commits, 9.3.2.5
implementation, 9.3.2.5
compiled PL/SQL
advantages of, 25.3.4.1
procedures, 25.3.4.3
pseudocode, 22.4.3
shared pool, 25.3.1.2
triggers, 22.4.3
complete recovery, 15.4.3.3
definition, 15.4.3.3
composite indexes, 5.8.3, 5.8.3
COMPRESS, 19.3
compression, index key, 5.8.10
concatenated indexes, 5.8.3, 5.8.3
concurrency
data, definition, 1.2.2.1
described, 13.1
limits on
for each user, 20.4.1.1.5
transactions and, 13.3.1
configuration of a database
process structure, 9.1.2
configuring
parameter file, 12.1.3
process structure, 9.1
connection pooling, 20.3.4
connections
defined, 9.2.1
embedded SQL, 24.2.6
listener process and, 9.4.1.1, 10.3.2
restricting, 12.2.1.1
sessions contrasted with, 9.2.1
with administrator privileges, 12.1.2
consistency
read consistency, definition, 1.2.2.2
constants
in stored procedures, 25.3.2.1
constraints
CHECK, 21.3.5
default values and, 21.4.1
defined, 5.2
DELETE CASCADE, 21.3.4.3.2
enforced with indexes, 5.8.4
PRIMARY KEY, 21.3.3.2
FOREIGN KEY, 21.3.4
integrity
types listed, 1.2.10.1
integrity, definition, 1.2.10.1
mechanisms of enforcement, 21.4
NOT NULL, 21.3.1
on views, 5.4.1
PRIMARY KEY, 21.3.3
referential
effect of updates, 21.3.4.3
self-referencing, 21.3.4.1
triggers cannot violate, 22.4
triggers contrasted with, 22.1.1.2
UNIQUE key, 21.3.2
partially null, 21.3.2.2
what happens when violated, 21.2
when evaluated, 5.2.4
contention
for data
deadlocks, 13.3.2
lock escalation does not occur, 13.3.1.3
control files, 3.4
backups, 15.2.4.2
changes recorded, 3.4.1
checkpoints and, 3.4.1
contents, 3.4.1
definition, 1.1.3.2
how specified, 12.1.3
multiplexed, 3.4.2
overview, 3.4
used in mounting database, 12.2.2
converting data
program interface, 9.7
correlation names
inline views, 5.3.7
CPU time limit, 20.4.1.1.3
crash recovery
overview, 12.2.3.1
crash recovery time
bounding database, 17.3.2
CREATE CLUSTER statement
storage parameters, 2.4.1
CREATE INDEX statement
storage parameters, 2.4.2
temporary segments, 2.4.3.1
CREATE PACKAGE statement
locks, 13.3.5.2
CREATE PROCEDURE statement
locks, 13.3.5.2
CREATE statement, 24.2.2
CREATE SYNONYM statement
locks, 13.3.5.2
CREATE TABLE statement
CACHE clause, 8.2.1.2
enable or disable constraints, 21.1.3
locks, 13.3.5.2
storage parameters, 2.4.1
triggers, 22.2.1
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE statement, 5.2.7
CREATE TRIGGER statement
compiled and stored, 22.4.3
locks, 13.3.5.2
CREATE USER statement
temporary segments, 2.4.3.3.1
CREATE VIEW statement
locks, 13.3.5.2
cursors
and SQL areas, 8.3.1.2.1
creating, 24.7.2.1
defined, 24.3
embedded SQL, 24.2.6
maximum number of, 24.3
object dependencies and, 6.11
opening, 24.3
private SQL areas and, 8.3.1.2.1, 24.3
recursive, 24.3
recursive SQL and, 24.3
scrollable, 24.3.1
stored procedures and, 25.3.2.2

D

data
access to
concurrent, 13.1
fine-grained access control, 20.5.1
concurrency, definition, 1.2.2.1
consistency of
locks, 13.1.2
manual locking, 13.3.7
read consistency, definition, 1.2.2.2
repeatable reads, 13.2.3
transaction level, 13.2.3
underlying principles, 13.3
how stored in tables, 5.2.1
integrity of, 5.2
CHECK constraints, 21.3.5
locks on, 13.3.4
security of, 20.6.2
data block corruption
prevention and detection, 17.4.2.4.3
data blocks, 2.1
cached in memory, 9.3.2.3
coalescing free space in blocks, 2.2.2.1
controlling free space in, 2.2.3
definition, 1.1.4.1
format, 2.2.1
free lists and, 2.2.3.3
overview, 2.1
row directory, 5.2.1.1
shared in clusters, 5.11
shown in rowids, 26.7.2.1, 26.7.2.2
space available for inserted rows, 2.2.3.3
stored in the buffer cache, 8.2.1
writing to disk, 9.3.2.3
data conversion
program interface, 9.7
data corruption
lost writes, 17.4.2.4.2
data definition language
definition, 1.3.1.1
described, 24.2.2
embedding in PL/SQL, 25.3.2.4
locks, 13.3.5
parsing with DBMS_SQL, 25.3.2.4
processing statements, 24.7.3.1
data dictionary
access to, 7.1.1
ALL prefixed views, 7.2.2.2
cache, 8.2.3.2
location of, 8.2.3
content of, 7.1, 8.2.3.2
datafiles, 3.2.2.1
DBA prefixed views, 7.2.2.3
defined, 7.1
dictionary managed tablespaces, 3.2.7.3
DUAL table, 7.2.2.4
dynamic performance tables, 7.3
locks, 13.3.5
owner of, 7.1.2
prefixes to views of, 7.2.2
public synonyms for, 7.2.1.1
row cache and, 8.2.3.2
structure of, 7.1.1
SYSTEM tablespace, 3.2.2.1, 7.1, 7.2.2
USER prefixed views, 7.2.2.1
uses of, 7.2
data failures
overview of storage failures, 17.4.1
protecting against human errors, 17.4.2
protection against, 17.4
data integrity, 21.1
complex integrity checking, 21.1.1
enforcing, 21.1.2, 21.2.1
null rule, 21.1.1
primary keys, 21.1.1
referential integrity rules, 21.1.1
cascade, 21.1.1
no action, 21.1.1
restrict, 21.1.1
set to default, 21.1.1
set to null, 21.1.1
unique column values, 21.1.1
data loading
with external tables, 5.2.8.2
data locks
conversion, 13.3.1.3
duration of, 13.3.1
escalation, 13.3.1.3
data manipulation language
definition, 1.3.1.1
described, 24.2.1
locks acquired by, 13.3.4.3
processing statements, 24.7.2
serializable isolation for subqueries, 13.2.7.2
triggers and, 1.2.10.2, 22.1.1, 22.4.2
data mining, 16.8
algorithms, 16.8
APIs, 16.8
documentation, 16.8
models, 16.8
new features, 16.8
predictive analytics, 16.8
SQL functions, 16.8
supermodel, 16.8
data object number
extended rowid, 26.7.2.1
Data Pump Export, 11.2.1
dump file set, 11.2.1
Data Pump Import, 11.2.2
Data Recovery Advisor, 15.4.1
diagnosing data corruption, 17.4.2.4.4
data security
definition, 1.2.9
data segments, 2.4.1, 5.2.1
data warehouse, 16.1.1.4
data warehousing
architecture, 16.1.3
bitmap indexes, 5.8.12.1
dimension schema objects, 5.5
ETL, 1.2.7.1
hierarchies, 5.5
materialized views, 1.2.7.2, 5.4
OLAP, 1.2.7.1
summaries, 5.4
database
bounding database crash recovery time, 17.3.2
staging, 16.1.1.4
database administrators
application administrator versus, 20.6.3.5
roles
for security, 20.6.3.3
security for, 20.6.3.3
security officer versus, 20.6.1
database administrators (DBAs)
authentication, 20.3.6
data dictionary views, 7.2.2.3
password files, 20.3.6
database buffers
after committing transactions, 4.2.1
buffer cache, 8.2.1
clean, 9.3.2.3
committing transactions, 9.3.2.5
defined, 8.2.1
dirty, 9.3.2.3
free, 8.2.1.1
pinned, 8.2.1.1
writing of, 9.3.2.3
Database Change Notification, 23.3.1.4
Database Creation Assistant, 14.1.1
database object metadata, 7.4
database objects
comparing, 23.4
Database Replay, 1.2.1.1
database resident connection pooling
described, 9.6
Database Resource Manager
introduction, 14.10.1
terminology, 14.10.1.1
database resource manager
See also DBRM
database structures
control files, 3.4
data blocks, 2, 2.2
data dictionary, 7
datafiles, 3, 3.3
extents, 2.1, 2.3
memory, 8
processes, 9
revealing with rowids, 26.7.2.2
schema objects, 5.1
segments, 2.1, 2.4
tablespaces, 3, 3.2
database triggers, 22
Database Upgrade Assistant, 14.1.3
database writer process (DBWn), 9.3.2.3
checkpoints, 9.3.2.3
defined, 9.3.2.3
least recently used algorithm (LRU), 9.3.2.3
media failure, 15.3.1
multiple DBWn processes, 9.3.2.3
when active, 9.3.2.3
write-ahead, 9.3.2.5
writing to disk at checkpoints, 9.3.2.2
databases
access control
password encryption, 20.3.3.1
clone database, 12.2.2.2
closing, 12.3.1
terminating the instance, 12.3.1.1
distributed
changing global database name, 8.2.3.1.3
incarnations, 15.4.3.4
limitations on usage, 20.4.1
mounting, 12.2.2
name stored in control files, 3.4.1
open and closed, 12.1.1
opening, 12.2.3
opening read-only, 12.2.3.4
production, 20.6.3.4.1, 20.6.3.5
scalability, 10.1, 16.5
shutting down, 12.3
starting up, 12.1
forced, 12.3.3.1
structures
control files, 3.4
data blocks, 2, 2.2
data dictionary, 7
datafiles, 3, 3.3
extents, 2.1, 2.3
logical, 2
memory, 8
processes, 9
revealing with rowids, 26.7.2.2
schema objects, 5.1
segments, 2.1, 2.4
tablespaces, 3, 3.2
test, 20.6.3.4.1
datafiles
backing up, 15.2.2
contents of, 3.3.1
data dictionary, 3.2.2.1
datafile 1, 3.2.2.1
SYSTEM tablespace, 3.2.2.1
definition, 1.1.3.1
in online or offline tablespaces, 3.3.3
named in control files, 3.4.1
online backups, 15.2.4.1
overview of, 3.3
read-only, 3.2.10
relationship to tablespaces, 3.1
shown in rowids, 26.7.2.1, 26.7.2.2
SYSTEM tablespace, 3.2.2.1, 3.2.2.1
taking offline, 3.3.3
temporary, 3.3.4
datatypes, 1.3.6, 26.1
ANSI, 26.8
BOOLEAN, 26.1
CHAR, 26.2.1
character, 26.2, 26.5.2
classes of, 6.10.2.1
conversions of
by program interface, 9.7
non-Oracle types, 26.8
Oracle to another Oracle type, 26.12
DATE, 26.4
DB2, 26.8
how they relate to tables, 5.2
in PL/SQL, 26.1
list of available, 1.3.6, 26.1
LOB datatypes, 1.2.8.2, 26.5
BFILE, 26.5.3
BLOB, 26.5.1
CLOB and NCLOB, 26.5.2
LONG, 26.2.7
storage of, 5.2.1.3
NCHAR and NVARCHAR2, 26.2.4.2
nested tables, 5.2.6
NUMBER, 26.3.1
RAW and LONG RAW, 26.6
ROWID, 26.7, 26.7.2
SQL/DS, 26.8
TIMESTAMP, 26.4.5
TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE, 26.4.5
TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, 26.4.5
URI, 26.10
VARCHAR, 26.2.2.1
VARCHAR2, 26.2.2
XML, 26.9
DATE datatype, 26.4
arithmetic with, 26.4.2
changing default format of, 26.4
Julian dates, 26.4.1
midnight, 26.4
DATETIME datatypes, 26.4.4
daylight savings support, 26.4.4
DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter, 3.2.8
DB_NAME parameter, 3.4.1
DBA_ views, 7.2.2.3
DBA_FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_STATE view, 17.4.2.2
DBA_UPDATABLE_COLUMNS view, 5.3.5
DBMS_COMPARISON package, 23.4
DBMS_FLASHBACK.TRANSACTION_BACKOUT() procedure, 17.4.2.2
DBMS_LOCK package, 13.3.8
DBMS_RLS package
security policies, 20.5.1
DBMS_SQL package, 25.3.2.4
parsing DDL statements, 25.3.2.4
DBRM processes, 9.3.2.10
DBWn background process, 9.3.2.3
DDL. See data definition language (DDL)
deadlocks
avoiding, 13.3.2.2
defined, 13.3.2
detection of, 13.3.2.1
distributed transactions and, 13.3.2.1
deallocating extents, 2.3.4, 2.3.4
decision support systems (DSS)
materialized views, 5.4
dedicated servers, 9.5
compared with shared servers, 9.4
DEDUPLICATE, 19.3
default access driver
for external tables, 5.2.8.1
default tablespace
definition, 20.1.4.1
default temporary tablespaces, 3.2.5
specifying, 3.2.5.1
default values, 5.2.4, 5.2.4
constraints effect on, 21.4.1
deferred constraints
deferrable or nondeferrable, 21.5.1
initially deferred or immediate, 21.5.1
define phase of query processing, 24.7.2.5
define variables, 24.7.2.5
degree of parallelism
parallel SQL, 16.5.1
DELETE CASCADE constraint, 21.3.4.3.2
DELETE statement, 24.2.1
foreign key references, 21.3.4.3.1
freeing space in data blocks, 2.2.2.1
triggers, 22.2.1
denormalized tables, 5.5
dependencies, 6
between schema objects, 6.1
function-based indexes, 5.8.6.3
on nonexistence of other objects, 6.7
privileges and, 6.4.2
shared pool and, 6.11
timestamp model, 6.10.1
describe phase of query processing, 24.7.2.4
DETERMINISTIC functions
function-based indexes, 5.8.6.3.1
developers, application, 20.6.3.4.1
development languages, 25.1
development tools
SQL Developer, 1.2.3.4
SQL*Plus, 1.2.3.4
DIA0 processes, 9.3.2.10
DIAG processes, 9.3.2.10
diagnosability process
See DIAG
diagnosability process 0
See DIA0
diagnosis
problem, 1.2.4
dictionary cache locks, 13.3.6.2.1
dictionary managed tablespaces, 3.2.7.3
different-row writers block writers, 13.2.6.1
dimensions, 5.5
attributes, 5.5
hierarchies, 5.5
join key, 5.5
normalized or denormalized tables, 5.5
directory service
See also enterprise directory service.
dirty buffer
incremental checkpoint, 9.3.2.3
dirty read, 13.1.1, 13.2.6.1
dirty write, 13.2.6.1
DISABLED indexes, 5.8.6.3.2, 5.8.6.3.3
discretionary access control, 20.1
definition, 1.2.9.1
disk affinities
disabling with large-scale clusters, 18.3.2
disk failures, 15.3.1
disk space
controlling allocation for tables, 5.2.1
datafiles used to allocate, 3.3, 3.3
dispatcher processes
described, 9.4.1.1
dispatcher processes (Dnnn)
limiting SGA space for each session, 20.4.1.1.5
listener process and, 9.4.1.1
network protocols and, 9.4.1.1
prevent startup and shutdown, 9.4.2
response queue and, 9.4.1
user processes connect through Oracle Net Services, 9.4, 9.4.1.1
distributed databases
auditing and, 20.7.1.1.2
client/server architectures and, 10.1
deadlocks and, 13.3.2.1
job queue processes, 9.3.2.4
recoverer process (RECO) and, 9.3.2.8
remote dependencies, 6.9, 6.10
server can also be client in, 10.1
distributed processing environment
client/server architecture in, 10.1
data manipulation statements, 24.7.2
definition, 1.1.2.1
described, 10.1
materialized views (snapshots), 5.4
distributed SQL, 23.1, 23.2.1
distributed transactions
naming, 4.2.4
two-phase commit and, 4.2.5
DML. See data manipulation language (DML)
downtime
avoiding during planned maintenance, 17.5
avoiding during unplanned maintenance, 17.3
causes, 17.2
drivers, 9.7.2
DROP statement, 24.2.2
DROP TABLE statement
triggers, 22.2.1
DUAL table, 7.2.2.4
dynamic partitioning, 16.5.1
dynamic performance tables (V$ tables), 7.3
dynamic predicates
in security policies, 20.5.1.1
dynamic SQL
DBMS_SQL package, 25.3.2.4
embedded, 25.3.2.4

E

editing stored outlines, 24.8.2.2
embedded SQL, 24.2.6
dynamic SQL in PL/SQL, 25.3.2.4
EMNC processes, 9.3.2.10
ENCRYPT, 19.3
enterprise directory service, 20.6.3.2
Enterprise Grids
with Oracle Real Application Clusters, 17.3.1
Enterprise Manager
alert log, 9.3.3
checkpoint statistics, 9.3.2.2
executing a package, 25.3.5
executing a procedure, 25.3.4
lock and latch monitors, 13.3.6
PL/SQL, 25.3.1.2
shutdown, 12.3, 12.3.3.1
SQL statements, 24.1
startup, 1.1.8.2, 12.2
statistics monitor, 20.4.1.2.2
enterprise roles, 20.6.3.2
enterprise users, 20.6.3.2
errors
in embedded SQL, 24.2.6
tracked in trace files, 9.3.3
ETL. See extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL), 1.2.7.1, 16.2
event monitor coordinator process
See EMNC
exceptions
raising, 25.3.2.3
stored procedures and, 25.3.2.3
exclusive locks
row locks (TX), 13.3.4.1
RX locks, 13.3.4.2.2
table locks (TM), 13.3.4.2
execution plans, 24.8.2
EXPLAIN PLAN, 24.2.1
location of, 8.2.3.1.1
EXPLAIN PLAN statement, 24.2.1
explicit locking, 13.3.7, 13.3.7
extended rowid format, 26.7.2.1
extents
allocating, 2.3.3
as collections of data blocks, 2.3
coalescing, 2.3.4.1
deallocation
when performed, 2.3.4, 2.3.4
defined, 2.1
definition, 1.1.4.2
dictionary managed, 3.2.7.3
incremental, 2.3.1
locally managed, 3.2.7.1
materialized views, 2.3.4.3
overview of, 2.3
external procedures, 25.3.4.6
external tables
parallel access, 5.2.8.3
extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL), 1.2.7.1, 16.2
overview, 1.2.7.1, 16.2

F

failure groups
ASM, 17.4.1
failures
database buffers and, 12.2.3.1
instance
recovery from, 12.2.3.1, 12.3.1.1
internal errors
tracked in trace files, 9.3.3
media, 15.3.1
statement and process, 9.3.2.6
fast commit, 9.3.2.5
fast refresh, 5.4.2
fast-start
rollback on demand, 12.2.3.1.2
FBDA process, 9.3.2.10
features
new, 1.2.7.7
fetching rows in a query, 24.7.2.9
embedded SQL, 24.2.6
file management locks, 13.3.6.2.2
files
ALERT and trace files, 9.3.3
alert log, 9.3.2.5
initialization parameter, 1.1.8.2, 12.1.3, 12.2.1
password, 20.3.6
administrator privileges, 12.1.2
server parameter, 1.1.8.2, 12.1.3, 12.2.1
trace files, 9.3.2.5
filtering data
using Data Pump import, 11.2
fine-grained access control, 20.5.1, 20.6.2
fine-grained auditing, 20.5.3
fixed views, 7.3
flash recovery area, 15.1.1
description, 1.2.6
Flashback Data Archive, 17.4.2.2
flashback data archiver process
See FBDA
Flashback Query, 13.4
overview, 13.4
uses, 13.4.2
Flashback row history, 13.4
Flashback technology
block recovery using Flashback logs, 17.4.2.2
Flashback Transaction
description, 17.4.2.2
Flashback transaction history, 13.4
floating-point numbers
datatypes, 26.3.2
foreign key constraints
changes in parent key values, 21.3.4.3
constraint checking, 21.4
deleting parent table rows and, 21.3.4.3.2
maximum number of columns in, 21.3.4
nulls and, 21.3.4.2
updating parent key tables, 21.3.4.3
updating tables, 21.3.4.4, 21.3.4.4.1
fractional seconds, 26.4.5
free lists, 2.2.3.3
free space
automatic segment space management, 2.2.2
coalescing extents
SMON process, 9.3.2.9
coalescing within data blocks, 2.2.2.1
free lists, 2.2.3.3
managing, 2.2.2
section of data blocks, 2.2.1.6
free space management, 14.6.3
in-segment, 2.2.2
front-ends, 10.1
full table scans
LRU algorithm and, 8.2.1.2
parallel exe, 16.5.1
function-based indexes, 5.8.6
dependencies, 5.8.6.3
DISABLED, 5.8.6.3.2, 5.8.6.3.3
privileges, 5.8.6.3, 5.8.6.3.2
UNUSABLE, 5.8.6.3.3
functions
function-based indexes, 5.8.6
PL/SQL, 25.3.4, 25.3.4
contrasted with procedures, 25.3.4
DETERMINISTIC, 5.8.6.3.1
SQL
COUNT, 5.8.12.4
in CHECK constraints, 21.3.5.1
in views, 5.3.3.1
NVL, 5.2.3

G

Generic Connectivity, 23.1, 23.5.1
global database names
shared pool and, 8.2.3.1.3
global partitioned indexes
maintenance, 18.2.2.3
global transaction processes
See GTX0-j
Globalization Development Kit, 1.3.7
globalization support
character sets for, 26.2.3
CHECK constraints and, 21.3.5.1
NCHAR and NVARCHAR2 datatypes, 26.2.4.2
NCLOB datatype, 26.5.2
views and, 5.3.3.1
GRANT statement, 24.2.2
locks, 13.3.5.2
Grid computing
architecture, 17.1
GROUP BY clause
temporary tablespaces, 3.2.11
group commits, 9.3.2.5
GTX0-j processes, 9.3.2.10
guesses in logical rowids, 26.7.3
staleness, 26.7.3.2
statistics for, 26.7.3.2

H

handles for SQL statements, 8.3.1.2.1
hash clusters, 5.12
contrasted with index, 5.12
headers
of data blocks, 2.2.1.1
of row pieces, 5.2.1.1
Health Monitor, 15.4.1
hierarchies, 5.5
join key, 5.5
levels, 5.5
high availability solution
characteristics, 17.1
high water mark
definition, 2.1
hot backups
inconsistent whole database backups, 15.2.3.2
human errors
guarding against human errors, 17.4.2.1
protecting against, 17.4.2

I

immediate constraints, 21.5
incarnations
of databases, 15.4.3.4
incident packaging service, 14.2.3.2
incomplete media recovery
definition, 15.4.3.4
incomplete recovery, 15.4.3.4
inconsistent backups
whole database
definition, 15.2.3.2
incremental checkpoint, 9.3.2.3
incremental refresh, 5.4.2
index segments, 2.4.2
indexes, 5.8
bitmap indexes, 5.8.12, 5.8.12.5
nulls and, 5.2.3
parallel query and DML, 5.8.12.1
branch blocks, 5.8.7.2
B-tree structure of, 5.8.7.2
building
using an existing index, 5.8
cardinality, 5.8.12.2
cluster
cannot be partitioned, 18
composite, 5.8.3
concatenated, 5.8.3
described, 5.8
domain, 5.10
enforcing integrity constraints, 21.3.3.2
extensible, 5.10
function-based, 5.8.6
dependencies, 5.8.6.3
DETERMINISTIC functions, 5.8.6.3.1
DISABLED, 5.8.6.3.3
optimization with, 5.8.6.2
privileges, 5.8.6.3, 5.8.6.3.2
index-organized tables, 5.9
logical rowids, 26.7.3
secondary indexes, 5.9.3
internal structure of, 5.8.7.2
invisible, 5.8.2
key compression, 5.8.10
keys and, 5.8.4
primary key constraints, 21.3.3.2
leaf blocks, 5.8.7.2
location of, 5.8.7
LONG RAW datatypes prohibit, 26.6
nonunique, 5.8.1
nulls and, 5.2.3, 5.8.5, 5.8.12.4
on complex datatypes, 5.10
overview of, 5.8
partitioned tables, 5.8.12.5
partitions, 1.2.7.8, 18.1
performance and, 5.8
reverse key indexes, 5.8.11
rowids and, 5.8.7.2
storage format of, 5.8.7.1
unique, 5.8.1
visible, 5.8.2
when used with views, 5.3.3.2
index-organized tables, 5.9, 5.9.3
benefits, 5.9.1
key compression in, 5.8.10.3, 5.9.1
logical rowids, 26.7.3
secondary indexes on, 5.9.3
in-doubt transactions, 12.2.3.3
initialization parameter file, 1.1.8.2, 12.1.3, 12.2.1
startup, 1.1.8.2, 12.2.1
initialization parameters
basic, 14.1.4
CLUSTER_DATABASE, 12.2.2.1
DB_NAME, 3.4.1
LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES, 9.3.2.1
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS, 9.4.1.2
NLS_NUMERIC_CHARACTERS, 26.3.1
OPEN_CURSORS, 8.3.1.2.1, 24.3
REMOTE_DEPENDENCIES_MODE, 6.9.1, 6.10.3
SERVICE_NAMES, 10.3.2.1
SHARED_SERVERS, 9.4.1.2
SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES, 5.8.6.3.3
SORT_AREA_SIZE, 2.4.3.1
initially deferred constraints, 21.5.1
initially immediate constraints, 21.5.1
INIT.ORA. See initialization parameter file.
inline views, 5.3.7
example, 5.3.7
INSERT statement, 24.2.1
free lists, 2.2.3.3
triggers, 22.2.1
BEFORE triggers, 22.3.2.1
instance PGA
definition, 8.1.1
instance recovery
overview, 12.2.3.1
SMON process, 9.3.2.9
instances
associating with databases, 12.1.1, 12.2.2
definition, 1.1.7
described, 12.1
diagrammed, 9.3.2
memory structures of, 8.1
multiple-process, 9.1.1, 9.1.2
process structure, 9.1
recovery of, 12.3.1.1
opening a database, 12.2.3.1
SMON process, 9.3.2.9
restricted mode, 12.2.1.1
service names, 10.3.2
shutting down, 12.3, 12.3.3
starting, 1.1.8.2, 12.2
terminating, 12.3.1.1
Instant Client, 14.1.2
INSTEAD OF triggers, 22.3.4
integrity constraints, 21.1
advantages of, 21.2.1
CHECK, 21.3.5
default column values and, 5.2.4
definition, 1.2.10.1
types listed, 1.2.10.1
INTERNAL
security for, 20.6.3.3.2
internal errors tracked in trace files, 9.3.3
invalidating dependent objects, 6.4
invisible indexes, 5.8.2
IPS
See incident packaging service
IS NULL predicate, 5.2.3
ISO SQL standard, 26.8
isolation levels
choosing, 13.2.7
read committed, 13.2.5.2
setting, 13.2.5.1, 13.3.7

J

Java
attributes, 25.4.1.2
class hierarchy, 25.4.2
classes, 25.4.1.1
interfaces, 25.4.3
methods, 25.4.1.3
overview, 25.4
polymorphism, 25.4.4
triggers, 22, 22.2.3
Java Messaging Service, 25.4.7.6
Java Pool Advisor, 14.5
Java stored procedures, 25.4.7.1
Java virtual machine, 25.4.5
JDBC
overview, 25.4.7.3
job queue processes, 9.3.2.4
jobs, 9.1
join views, 5.3.5
joins
encapsulated in views, 5.3.2
views, 5.3.5

K

KEEP_DUPLICATES, 19.3
key compression, 5.8.10
keys
cluster, 5.11
defined, 21.3.2.1
foreign, 21.3.4, 21.3.4
indexes and, 5.8.4
compression, 5.8.10
PRIMARY KEY constraints, 21.3.3.2
reverse key, 5.8.11
maximum storage for values, 5.8.3
parent, 21.3.4, 21.3.4.1
primary, 21.3.3
referenced, 21.3.4
reverse key indexes, 5.8.11
unique, 21.3.2
composite, 21.3.2.1, 21.3.2.2

L

large pool, 8.2.4
large-scale clusters
disk affinity, 18.3.2
multiple Oracle instances, 12.1.1
latches
described, 13.3.6.1
leaf blocks, 5.8.7.2
least recently used (LRU) algorithm
database buffers and, 8.2.1.1
dictionary cache, 7.2.1.2
full table scans and, 8.2.1.2
latches, 9.3.2.3
shared SQL pool, 8.2.3.1.1, 8.2.3.1.3
LGWR background process, 9.3.2.5
library cache, 8.2.3, 8.2.3.1, 8.2.3.2
listener process, 10.3.2
service names, 10.3.2
listeners, 9.4.1.1, 10.3.2
service names, 10.3.2
loader access driver, 5.2.8.1
LOB datatypes, 1.2.8.2, 26.5
BFILE, 26.5.3
BLOBs, 26.5.1
CLOBs and NCLOBs, 26.5.2
local indexes, 16.4
bitmap indexes
on partitioned tables, 5.8.12.5
parallel query and DML, 5.8.12.1
locally managed tablespaces, 3.2.7.1
LOCK TABLE statement, 24.2.1
locking
unindexed foreign keys and, 21.3.4.4, 21.3.4.4.1
locks, 13.1.2
after committing transactions, 4.2.1
automatic, 13.3, 13.3.3
conversion, 13.3.1.3
data, 13.3.4
duration of, 13.3.1
deadlocks, 13.3.2, 13.3.2.1
avoiding, 13.3.2.2
dictionary, 13.3.5
clusters and, 13.3.5.5
duration of, 13.3.5.4
dictionary cache, 13.3.6.2.1
DML acquired, 13.3.4.3.2
diagrammed, 13.3.4.3
escalation does not occur, 13.3.1.3
exclusive table locks (X), 13.3.4.2.5
file management locks, 13.3.6.2.2
how Oracle uses, 13.3
internal, 13.3.6
latches and, 13.3.6.1
log management locks, 13.3.6.2.2
manual, 13.3.7
object level locking, 25.2.1
Oracle Lock Management Services, 13.3.8
overview of, 13.1.2
parse, 13.3.5.3
rollback segments, 13.3.6.2.3
row (TX), 13.3.4.1
row exclusive locks (RX), 13.3.4.2.2
row share table locks (RS), 13.3.4.2.1
share row exclusive locks (SRX), 13.3.4.2.4
share table locks (S), 13.3.4.2.3
share-subexclusive locks (SSX), 13.3.4.2.4
subexclusive table locks (SX), 13.3.4.2.2
subshare table locks (SS), 13.3.4.2.1
table (TM), 13.3.4.2
table lock modes, 13.3.4.2
tablespace, 13.3.6.2.3
types of, 13.3.3
uses for, 1.2.2.4
log entries, 1.1.3.3, 12.2.3.1.1
See also redo log files, 1.1.3.3
log management locks, 13.3.6.2.2
log switch
archiver process, 9.3.2.1
log writer process (LGWR), 9.3.2.5
group commits, 9.3.2.5
redo log buffers and, 8.2.2
system change numbers, 4.2.1
write-ahead, 9.3.2.5
LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES parameter, 9.3.2.1
Logfile Size Advisor, 14.8.2
logical blocks, 2.1
logical database structures
definition, 1.1.4
tablespaces, 3.2
logical reads limit, 20.4.1.1.4
logical rowids, 26.7.3
index on index-organized table, 5.9.3
physical guesses, 5.9.3, 26.7.3
staleness of guesses, 26.7.3.2
statistics for guesses, 26.7.3.2
logical standby databases, 17.4.2.5.1
LONG datatype
automatically the last column, 5.2.1.3
defined, 26.2.7
storage of, 5.2.1.3
LONG RAW datatype, 26.6
indexing prohibited on, 26.6
similarity to LONG datatype, 26.6
lost writes
form of data corruption, 17.4.2.4.2
LRU, 8.2.1.1, 8.2.1.2, 9.3.2.3
dictionary cache, 7.2.1.2
shared SQL pool, 8.2.3.1.1, 8.2.3.1.3

M

maintenance tasks
automatic, 1.2.3.2
maintenance tasks, automatic, 14.2.2
maintenance window, 14.2.2
manual locking, 13.3.7
materialized view logs, 5.4.3
materialized views, 5.4
advisor for, 1.2.3.9
deallocating extents, 2.3.4.3
materialized view logs, 5.4.3
partitioned, 5.4, 18
refresh
job queue processes, 9.3.2.4
refreshing, 5.4.2
uses for, 16.3
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS parameter, 9.4.1.2
media failures
overview, 15.3.1
media recovery
complete, 15.4.3.3, 15.4.3.3
incomplete, 15.4.3.4
definition, 15.4.3.4
methods, 15.4.3.5
overview, 15.4.3, 15.4.3.1, 15.4.3.1
using Recovery Manager, 15.4.3.5.1
using SQL*Plus, 15.4.3.5.2
memory
allocation for SQL statements, 8.2.3.1.3
content of, 8.1
processes use of, 9.1
shared SQL areas, 8.2.3.1.1
software code areas, 8.5
stored procedures, 25.3.4.1
system global area (SGA)
allocation in, 8.2
memory advisors, 14.5
memory management
about, 8.4
automatic, 8.4
automatic shared, 8.4
modes, 8.4
MERGE statement, 24.2.1
message queuing
publish-subscribe support
event publication, 22.3.5.1
queue monitor process, 9.3.2.7
Messaging Gateway, 23.1
metadata
viewing, 7.4
MMAN process, 9.3.2.10
MMNL process, 9.3.2.10
MMON process, 9.3.2.10
mobile computing environment
materialized views, 5.4
modes
table lock, 13.3.4.2
monitoring user actions, 20.7
MTTR, 14.8.2
MTTR Advisor, 14.8.2
multiblock writes, 9.3.2.3
multiple-process systems (multiuser systems), 9.1.1
multiplexing
control files, 3.4.2
recovery and, 15.3.1
multiuser environments, 9.1.1
multiversion concurrency control, 13.2.2

N

NCHAR datatype, 26.2.4.2
NCLOB datatype, 26.5.2
nested tables, 5.2.6
index-organized tables, 5.9.1
key compression, 5.8.10.3
network listener process
connection requests, 9.4, 9.4.1.1
networks
client/server architecture use of, 10.1
communication protocols, 9.7.2, 9.7.3
dispatcher processes and, 9.4, 9.4.1.1
drivers, 9.7.2
listener processes of, 10.3.2
network authentication service, 20.3.2.1
Oracle Net Services, 10.3
NLS_DATE_FORMAT parameter, 26.4
NLS_NUMERIC_CHARACTERS parameter, 26.3.1
NOAUDIT statement, 24.2.2
locks, 13.3.5.2
NOCOMPRESS, 19.3
NOENCRYPT, 19.3
nonprefixed indexes, 18.2.1
nonrepeatable reads, 13.2.6.1
nonunique indexes, 5.8.1
nonvolatile data, 16.1.1.3
NOREVERSE clause for indexes, 5.8.11
normalized tables, 5.5
NOT NULL
constraint, 21.3.1
NOT NULL constraints
constraint checking, 21.4
implied by PRIMARY KEY, 21.3.3.2
NOVALIDATE con, 21.1.3
NOWAIT parameter
with savepoints, 4.2.3
nulls
as default values, 5.2.4
column order and, 5.2.1.3
converting to values, 5.2.3
defined, 5.2.3
foreign keys and, 21.3.4.2
how stored, 5.2.3
indexes and, 5.2.3, 5.8.5, 5.8.12.4
non-null values for, 5.2.3
prohibited in primary keys, 21.3.3
prohibiting, 21.3.1
unknown in comparisons, 5.2.3
NUMBER datatype, 26.3.1
internal format of, 26.3.1.1
rounding, 26.3.1
NVARCHAR2 datatype, 26.2.4.2
NVL function, 5.2.3

O

object cache
OCI, 25.2.1
Pro*C, 25.2.4
object dependencies, 6
object identifiers
c, 5.8.10.3
collections
key compression, 5.9.1
object privileges, 20.4.2.2
Object Type Translator (OTT)
overview, 25.2.3
object types
locking in cache, 25.2.1
object views, 5.3.6
Oracle Type Translator, 25.2.3
object views, 5.3.6
modifiability, 22.3.4.1
OCBC, 25.5.1
OCCI
associative relational API, 25.2.2.1
navigational interface, 25.2.2.2
overview, 25.2.2
OCI, 9.7.1, 9.7.1
anonymous blocks, 25.3.1.2
bind variables, 24.7.2.6
client result cache, 25.2.1, 25.2.1
overview, 25.2.1
ODP.NET, 25.5.3
OLAP
capabilities, 16.7
introduction, 1.2.7.6
online analytical processing
See OLAP
online redo logs
checkpoints, 3.4.1
media failure, 15.3.1
multiplexed, 15.3.1
overview, 1.1.3.3
online transaction processing (OLTP)
reverse key indexes, 5.8.11
OO4O, 25.5.2
OO4O Automation Server, 25.5.2.1
Open database connectivity, 25.5.1
OPEN_CURSORS parameter, 24.3
managing private SQL areas, 8.3.1.2.1
operating system authentication, 20.3.6
operating systems
authentication by, 20.3.1
block size, 2.2
communications software, 9.7.3
privileges for administrator, 12.1.2
roles and, 20.4.3.3
security in, 20.6.1.3
optimization
function-based indexes, 5.8.6.2
index build, 5.8
query rewrite
in security policies, 20.5.1.1
optimization of free space in data blocks, 2.2.2.1
optimizer, 24.8
statistics gathering, 14.2.2
Oracle
client/server architecture of, 10.1
configurations of, 9.1, 9.1.2
multiple-process Oracle, 9.1.1, 9.1.2
instances, 12.1
processes of, 9.3
scalability of, 10.1
SQL processing, 24.7
Oracle Application Express, 1.3.5
Oracle blocks, 2.1
Oracle Call Interface See OCI
Oracle Certificate Authority, 20.3.2.2
Oracle code, 9.1, 9.7
Oracle Data Guard
overview, 17.4.2.5.1
oracle data mining, 16.8
Oracle Data Provider for .NET, 25.5.3
Oracle Data Pump API, 11.3
Oracle Database
alert log, 9.3.3
background processes, 9.3.2
ACMS, 9.3.2.10
ARBn, 9.3.2.10
DBRM, 9.3.2.10
DIA0, 9.3.2.10
DIAG, 9.3.2.10
EMNC, 9.3.2.10
FBDA, 9.3.2.10
GTX0-j, 9.3.2.10
MMAN, 9.3.2.10
MMNL, 9.3.2.10
MMON, 9.3.2.10
PSP0, 9.3.2.10
RBAL, 9.3.2.10
SMCO, 9.3.2.10
VKTM, 9.3.2.10
server processes, 9.3.1
trace files, 9.3.3
Oracle Database Gateways, 23.1, 23.5.2
Oracle Enterprise Login Assistant, 20.3.2.2
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console, 14.1
Oracle Enterprise Manager. See Enterprise Manager
Oracle Enterprise Security Manager, 20.3.2.2
Oracle Flashback Database, 15.4.2.1
Oracle Flashback Query, 17.4.2.2
Oracle Flashback Table, 15.4.2.2
Oracle Flashback Technology, 15.4.2
Oracle Forms
PL/SQL, 25.3.1.2
Oracle interMedia
See Oracle Multimedia
Oracle Internet Directory, 10.3.2.1, 20.3.2.2
Oracle Multimedia, 1.2.8.6, 19.6
Oracle Net Services, 10.3
client/server systems use of, 10.3
overview, 10.3
shared server requirement, 9.4, 9.4.1.1
Oracle Objects for OLE, 25.5.2
Oracle program interface (OPI), 9.7.1, 9.7.1
Oracle Real Application Clusters
databases and instances, 12.1.1
Enterprise Grids, 17.3.1
isolation levels, 13.2.6.3
mounting a database using, 12.2.2.1
read consistency, 13.2.4
reverse key indexes, 5.8.11
temporary tablespaces, 3.2.11
Oracle Real Application Testing, 1.2.1
Oracle Streams, 23.1, 23.3.1
Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing, 23.1
Oracle Text, 19.4
advanced features, 19.4.4
document services, 19.4.2
index types, 19.4.1
query package, 19.4.3
Oracle Ultra Search, 19.5
Oracle Wallet Manager, 20.3.2.2
Oracle wallets, 20.3.2.2
Oracle XA
session memory in the large pool, 8.2.4
Oracle XML DB, 19.2
Oracle-managed files, 14.6.2
OTT. See Object Type Translator (OTT)

P

packages, 25.3.5
advantages of, 25.3.5.1
as program units, definition, 1.3.2
dynamic SQL, 25.3.2.4
executing, 25.3.1.2
for locking, 13.3.8
private, 25.3.5.1
public, 25.3.5.1
session state and, 6.4.1
shared SQL areas and, 8.2.3.1.2
pages, 2.1
parallel access
to external tables, 5.2.8.3
parallel DML
bitmap indexes, 5.8.12.1, 16.4
parallel execution, 1.2.7.4, 16.5
coordinator, 16.5.1
of table functions, 25.3.4.7
process classification, 18.3.2
server, 16.5.1
servers, 16.5.1
tuning, 1.2.7.4, 16.5
parallel query
bitmap indexes, 5.8.12.1, 16.4
parallel SQL, 1.2.7.4, 16.5
coordinator process, 16.5.1
server processes, 16.5.1
parameter
server, 12.1.3
parameter files
definition, 1.1.3.5
parameters
initialization, 12.1.3
locking behavior, 13.3.3
storage, 2.2.3, 2.3.2
parse trees
construction of, 24.5
in shared SQL area, 8.2.3.1.1
parsing, 24.7.2.2
DBMS_SQL package, 25.3.2.4
embedded SQL, 24.2.6
parse calls, 24.5
parse locks, 13.3.5.3
performed, 24.5
SQL statements, 24.7.2.2, 25.3.2.4
partitioning
advisor for, 1.2.3.9
partitions, 1.2.7.8, 18.1
bitmap indexes, 5.8.12.5
dynamic partitioning, 16.5.1
materialized views, 5.4, 18
nonprefixed indexes, 18.2.1
segments, 2.4.1, 2.4.2
password file authentication, 20.3.6
passwords
account locking, 20.3.3.2
administrator privileges, 12.1.2
complexity verification, 20.3.3.4
connecting with, 9.2.1
connecting without, 20.3.1
database user authentication, 20.3.3
encryption, 20.3.3.1
password files, 20.3.6
password reuse, 20.3.3.3
security policy for users, 20.6.3.1
used in roles, 20.4.3
PCTFREE storage parameter
how it works, 2.2.3.1
PCTUSED and, 2.2.3.3
PCTUSED storage parameter
how it works, 2.2.3.2
PCTFREE and, 2.2.3.3
performance
dynamic performance tables (V$), 7.3
group commits, 9.3.2.5
index build, 5.8
packages, 25.3.5.1
resource limits and, 20.4.1
sort operations, 3.2.11
PGA, instance
definition, 8.1.1
phantom reads, 13.2.6.1
PHP, 1.3.5
physical database structures
control files, 3.4
datafiles, 3.3
physical guesses in logical rowids, 26.7.3
staleness, 26.7.3.2
statistics for, 26.7.3.2
physical standby databases, 17.4.2.5.1
pipelined table functions, 25.3.4.7
PKI, 20.3.2.2
plan
SQL execution, 24.2.1
planned downtime
avoiding downtime during, 17.5
causes, 17.2
PL/SQL, 25.3
anonymous blocks, 25.3, 25.3.4.3
auditing of statements within, 20.7.1.1.6
database triggers, 22
datatypes, 26.1
dynamic SQL, 25.3.2.4
exception handling, 25.3.2.3
executing, 25.3.1.2
external procedures, 25.3.4.6
gateway, 25.3.7
language constructs, 25.3.2
native execution, 25.3.1.2
overview of, 25.3
packages, 25.3.5
parse locks, 13.3.5.3
parsing DDL statements, 25.3.2.4
PL/SQL engine, 25.3.1.2
products containing, 25.3.1.2
program units, 8.2.3.1.2, 25.3, 25.3.3
compiled, 25.3.1.2, 25.3.4.3
shared SQL areas and, 8.2.3.1.2
stored procedures, 25.3, 25.3.4, 25.3.4
user locks, 13.3.8
PL/SQL Server Pages, 25.3.7
PMON background process, 9.3.2.6, 10.3.2.1
point-in-time recovery
clone database, 12.2.2.2
precompilers
anonymous blocks, 25.3.1.2, 25.3.1.2
bind variables, 24.7.2.6, 24.7.2.6
cursors, 24.7.2.1, 24.7.2.1
embedded SQL, 24.2.6, 24.2.6
predicates
dynamic
in security policies, 20.5.1.1
predictive analytics, 16.8
prefixes of data dictionary views, 7.2.2
primary key
defined, 21.1.1
PRIMARY KEY constraints, 21.3.3
constraint checking, 21.4
described, 21.3.3
indexes used to enforce, 21.3.3.2
name of, 21.3.3.2
maximum number of columns, 21.3.3.2
NOT NULL constraints implied by, 21.3.3.2
primary keys, 21.3.3.1
advantages of, 21.3.3.1
private SQL areas
described, 8.2.3.1.1
how managed, 8.3.1.2.1
privileges
administrator, 12.1.2
application developers and, 20.6.3.4.1
definition, 20.1.2
function-based indexes, 5.8.6.3, 5.8.6.3.2
overview of, 20.4.2
policies for managing, 20.6.3.1
revoked
object dependencies and, 6.4.2
roles, 20.4.3
schema object, 20.4.2.2
system, 20.4.2.1
to start up or shut down a database, 12.1.2
Pro*C Precompiler
overview, 25.2.4
Pro*C++ Precompiler
overview, 25.2.4
Pro*C/C++
processing SQL statements, 24.7.2
Pro*COBOL Precompiler, 25.6.1
Pro*FORTRAN Precompiler, 25.6.2
problem prevention, diagnosis, and resolution, 1.2.4
procedures, 25.3, 25.3.3, 25.3.4
advantages of, 25.3.4.1
contrasted with anonymous blocks, 25.3.4.3
contrasted with functions, 25.3.4
cursors and, 25.3.2.2
executing, 25.3.1.2
external procedures, 25.3.4.6
security enhanced by, 25.3.4.1
shared SQL areas and, 8.2.3.1.2
stored procedures, 25.3, 25.3.1.2, 25.3.4
process monitor process (PMON)
cleans up timed-out sessions, 20.4.1.1.5
described, 9.3.2.6
process spawner
See PSP0
processes, 9.1
archiver (ARCn), 9.3.2.1
background, 9.3.2
diagrammed, 9.3.2
checkpoint (CKPT), 9.3.2.2
checkpoints and, 9.3.2.3
classes of parallel execution, 18.3.2
dedicated server, 9.4.1.2
distributed transaction resolution, 9.3.2.8
job queue, 9.3.2.4
listener, 9.4.1.1, 10.3.2
shared servers and, 9.4
log writer (LGWR), 9.3.2.5
multiple-process Oracle, 9.1.1
Oracle, 9.3
parallel execution coordinator, 16.5.1
parallel execution servers, 16.5.1
process monitor (PMON), 9.3.2.6
queue monitor (QMNn), 9.3.2.7
recoverer (RECO), 9.3.2.8
server, 9.3.1
dedicated, 9.5
shared, 9.4.1.1, 9.4.1.2
shadow, 9.5
shared server, 9.4
client requests and, 9.4.1
structure, 9.1
system monitor (SMON), 9.3.2.9
trace files for, 9.3.3
user, 9.2
recovery from failure of, 9.3.2.6
sharing server processes, 9.4.1.1
processing
DDL statements, 24.7.3.1
DML statements, 24.7.2
overview, 24.7
parallel SQL, 1.2.7.4, 16.5
queries, 24.6
profiles
user, definition, 20.1.4.4
when to use, 20.4.1.2.1
program global area (PGA), 1.1.7.2, 8.1.1, 8.3
shared server, 9.4.1.2
shared servers, 9.4.1.2
program interface, 9.7
Oracle side (OPI), 9.7.1
structure of, 9.7.1
user side (UPI), 9.7.1
program units, 25.3, 25.3.3
shared pool and, 8.2.3.1.2
pseudocode
triggers, 22.4.3
pseudocolumns
CHECK constraints prohibit
LEVEL and ROWNUM, 21.3.5.1
modifying views, 22.3.4.2
ROWID, 26.7.1
PSP. See PL/SQL Server Pages
PSP0 processes, 9.3.2.10
public key infrastructure, 20.3.2.2
publication
DDL statements, 22.3.5.4.2
DML statements, 22.3.5.4.3
logon/logoff events, 22.3.5.4.1
system events
server errors, 22.3.5.3
startup/shutdown, 22.3.5.3
using triggers, 22.3.5
publish-subscribe support
event publication, 22.3.5.1
triggers, 22.3.5

Q

queries, 24.7.2.3
composite indexes, 5.8.3
default locking of, 13.3.4.3.1
define phase, 24.7.2.5
describe phase, 24.7.2.4
fetching rows, 24.6
in DML, 24.2.1
inline views, 5.3.7
merged with view queries, 5.3.3
parallel processing, 1.2.7.4, 16.5
phases of, 13.2.1
processing, 24.6
read consistency of, 13.2.2
stored as views, 5.3
temporary segments and, 2.4.3.1, 24.6
triggers use of, 22.4.2
query result cache, 1.2.2.3
query rewrite
dynamic predicates in security policies, 20.5.1.1
queue monitor, 9.3.2.7
queue monitor process, 9.3.2.7
queuing
publish-subscribe support
event publication, 22.3.5.1
queue monitor process, 9.3.2.7
quiesce database, 13.2.7.3
quotas
tablespace, definition, 20.1.4.3

R

RADIUS, 20.3.2.3
RAW datatype, 26.6
RBAL process, 9.3.2.10
read committed isolation, 13.2.5.2
read consistency, 13.1.1, 13.2.1
Cache Fusion, 13.2.4
definition, 1.2.2.2
dirty read, 13.1.1, 13.2.6.1
multiversion consistency model, 13.2.1
nonrepeatable read, 13.2.6.1
Oracle Real Application Clusters, 13.2.4
phantom read, 13.2.6.1
queries, 13.2.1, 24.6
statement level, 13.2.2
subqueries in DML, 13.2.7.2
transactions, 13.2.1, 13.2.3
triggers and, 22.4, 22.4.2
read snapshot time, 13.2.6.1
read uncommitted, 13.1.1
readers block writers, 13.2.6.1
read-only
databases
opening, 12.2.3.4
tablespaces, 3.2.10
transactions, definition, 1.2.2.2.2
read-only databases
limitations, 12.2.3.4
reads
data block
limits on, 20.4.1.1.4
dirty, 13.1.1
repeatable, 13.2.3
Real Application Clusters
system change numbers, 9.3.2.5
system monitor process and, 9.3.2.9
recoverer process (RECO), 9.3.2.8
in-doubt transactions, 4.2.5, 12.2.3.3
recovery
basic steps, 12.2.3.1.2
block-level recovery, 13.3.4.1
complete, 15.4.3.3
crash, 12.2.3.1
database buffers and, 12.2.3.1
distributed processing in, 9.3.2.8
general overview, 1.2.5
incomplete, 15.4.3.4
instance, 12.2.3.1
instance failure, 12.3.1.1, 12.3.1.1
instance recovery
SMON process, 9.3.2.9
media, 15.4.3.1, 15.4.3.1
media recovery
dispatcher processes, 9.4.2
methods, 15.4.3.5
of distributed transactions, 12.2.3.3
opening a database, 12.2.3.1, 12.2.3.1
overview of, 12.2.3.1
point-in-time
clone database, 12.2.2.2
process recovery, 9.3.2.6
required after terminating instance, 12.3.1.1, 12.3.1.1
rolling back transactions, 12.2.3.1.2
rolling forward, 12.2.3.1.1
SMON process, 9.3.2.9
tablespace
point-in-time, 15.4.3.4.1
using Recovery Manager, 15.4.3.5.1
using SQL*Plus, 15.4.3.5.2
Recovery Manager, 14.8.1
recursive SQL
cursors and, 24.3
Redo Apply, 17.4.2.5.1
redo logs, 12.2.3.1.1
archiver process (ARCn), 9.3.2.1
buffer management, 9.3.2.5
buffers, 8.2.2
circular buffer, 9.3.2.5
committed data, 12.2.3.1, 12.2.3.1.1
committing a transaction, 9.3.2.5
entries, 12.2.3.1.1
files named in control files, 3.4.1
log sequence numbers
recorded in control files, 3.4.1
log switch
archiver process, 9.3.2.1
log writer process, 8.2.2, 9.3.2.5
multiplexed, definition, 1.1.3.3
rolling forward, 12.2.3.1, 12.2.3.1.1
rolling forward and, 12.2.3.1.1
uncommitted data, 12.2.3.1.1
when temporary segments in, 2.4.3.3.1
writing buffers, 9.3.2.5
written before transaction commit, 9.3.2.5
redo records
how Oracle applies, 15.4.3
referenced
keys, 21.3.4
objects
dependencies, 6.1
referential integrity, 13.2.6.3, 21.3.4, 21.3.4
examples of, 21.4
PRIMARY KEY constraints, 21.3.3
self-referential constraints, 21.3.4.1, 21.4
refresh
incremental, 5.4.2
job queue processes, 9.3.2.4
materialized views, 5.4.2
remote dependencies, 6.9, 6.10
specifying timestamps or signatures, 6.10.3
REMOTE_DEPENDENCIES_MODE parameter, 6.9.1, 6.10.3
RENAME statement, 24.2.2
repeatable reads, 13.1.1
replication
materialized views (snapshots), 5.4
reserved words, 24.2
resource allocation, 1.2.3.12
methods, 14.10.1.1
resource consumer groups
definition, 14.10.1.1
resource limits
call level, 20.4.1.1.2
connect time for each session, 20.4.1.1.5
CPU time limit, 20.4.1.1.3
determining values for, 20.4.1.2.2
idle time in each session, 20.4.1.1.5
logical reads limit, 20.4.1.1.4
number of sessions for each user, 20.4.1.1.5
private SGA space for each session, 20.4.1.1.5
resource plan directives
definition, 14.10.1.1
resource plans
definition, 14.10.1.1
response queues, 9.4.1
restricted mode
starting instances in, 12.2.1.1
restricted rowid format, 26.7.2.2
result cache, 8.2.3.3, 8.2.3.3.1
RESULT_CACHE clause, 8.2.3.3.1
resumable space allocation
overview, 4.1.3
REVERSE clause for indexes, 5.8.11
reverse key indexes, 5.8.11
REVOKE statement, 24.2.2
locks, 13.3.5.2
rewrite
predicates in security policies, 20.5.1.1
RMAN, 14.8.1
roles, 20.4.3
application, 20.4.3.1.1
application developers and, 20.6.3.4.1
definition, 20.1.3
enabled or disabled, 20.4.3.2
functionality, 20.4.2
in applications, 20.4.3
managing through operating system, 20.4.3.3
naming, 20.4.3
schemas do not contain, 20.4.3
security and, 20.6.3.2
use of passwords with, 20.4.3
user, 20.4.3.1.2
uses of, 20.4.3.1
rollback, 4.2.2
described, 4.2.2
ending a transaction, 4.1, 4.2.2
statement-level, 4.1.2
to a savepoint, 4.2.3
transactions, 17.4.2.2
rollback segments
locks on, 13.3.6.2.3
parallel recovery, 12.2.3.1.2
read consistency and, 13.2.1
use of in recovery, 12.2.3.1.2
ROLLBACK statement, 24.2.3
rolling back, 4.1, 4.2.2
rolling forward during recovery, 12.2.3.1.1, 12.2.3.1.1
rolling patch upgrades
using Oracle Real Application Clusters, 17.5.2.1
rolling upgrades
using a transient logical standby database, 17.5.2.2
row cache, 8.2.3.2
row data (section of data block), 2.2.1.5
row directories, 2.2.1.3
row locking, 13.2.6.2, 13.3.4.1
block-level recovery, 13.3.4.1
serializable transactions and, 13.2.5.3
row pieces
headers, 5.2.1.1
how identified, 5.2.1.2
row triggers, 22.3, 22.3.1.1
ROWID datatype, 26.7, 26.7.2
extended rowid format, 26.7.2.1
restricted rowid format, 26.7.2.2
rowids, 5.2.1.2
accessing, 26.7.1
changes in, 26.7.2
in non-Oracle databases, 26.7.4
internal use of, 26.7.1, 26.7.2.4
logical, 26.7
logical rowids, 26.7.3
index on index-organized table, 5.9.3
physical guesses, 5.9.3, 26.7.3
staleness of guesses, 26.7.3.2
statistics for guesses, 26.7.3.2
physical, 26.7
row migration, 2.2.2.2, 5.2.1.1
sorting indexes by, 5.8.7.2
universal, 26.7
row-level locking, 13.2.6.1, 13.3.4.1
rows, 5.2
addresses of, 5.2.1.2
chaining across blocks, 2.2.2.2, 5.2.1.1
clustered, 5.2.1.1
described, 5.2
fetched, 24.6
format of in data blocks, 2.2.1.3
headers, 5.2.1.1
locking, 13.2.6.2, 13.3.4.1
locks on, 13.3.4.1, 13.3.4.2.1
logical rowids, 5.9.3, 26.7.3
migrating to new block, 2.2.2.2, 5.2.1.1
pieces of, 5.2.1.1
row-level security, 20.5.1
shown in rowids, 26.7.2.1, 26.7.2.2
triggers on, 22.3.1.1
when rowid changes, 26.7.2

S

same-row writers block writers, 13.2.6.1
SAVEPOINT statement, 24.2.3
savepoints, 4.2.3
described, 4.2.3
implicit, 4.1.2
rolling back to, 4.2.3
scalability
client/server architecture, 10.1
parallel SQL execution, 16.5
scans
full table
LRU algorithm, 8.2.1.2
table scan and CACHE clause, 8.2.1.2
schema object dependencies, 6
schema object privileges, 20.4.2.2
schema objects, 5
definition, 1.1.5
dependencies of, 6.1
and views, 5.3.4
on nonexistence of other objects, 6.7
triggers manage, 22.4
dependent on lost privileges, 6.4.2
dimensions, 5.5
information in data dictionary, 7.1
list of, 5.1
materialized views, 5.4
privileges on, 20.4.2.2
relationship to datafiles, 3.3.1, 5.1
trigger dependencies on, 22.4.5
schemas
contents of, 5.1
contrasted with tablespaces, 5.1
definition of, 5.1
SCN
See system change numbers
Secure Sockets Layer, 20.6.1.2
SecureFiles, 1.2.8.3
compression, 1.2.8.3
deduplication, 1.2.8.3
encryption, 1.2.8.3
file system-like logging, 1.2.8.3
security, 20.1
accessing a database, 20.6.1
administrator of, 20.6.1
administrator privileges, 12.1.1
application developers and, 20.6.3.4
application enforcement of, 20.4.3
auditing, 20.7, 20.7.1.1.3
auditing policies, 20.6.5
authentication of users, 20.6.1.2
data, 20.6.2, 20.6.2
data, definition, 1.2.9
database security, 20.6.1
database users and, 20.6.1.1
discretionary access control, 20.1
discretionary access control, definition, 1.2.9.1
domains, definition, 20.1.1.1
dynamic predicates, 20.5.1.1
enforcement mechanisms listed, 1.2.9.1
fine-grained access control, 20.5.1
general users, 20.6.3.1
level of, 20.6.2
operating-system security and the database, 20.6.1.3
passwords, 20.3.3
policies
implementing, 20.5.2
policies for database administrators, 20.6.3.3
privilege management policies, 20.6.3.1
privileges, 20.6.1
program interface enforcement of, 9.7
roles to force security, 20.6.3.2
security policies, 20.5.1
system, 7.1.2
system, definition, 1.2.9
test databases, 20.6.3.4.1
views and, 5.3.2
security domains
definition, 20.1.1.1
enabled roles and, 20.4.3.2
Segment Advisor, 14.2.5, 14.6.6
segment advisor, 14.2.2
segment shrink, 14.6.6
segment space management, automatic, 2.2.2
segments, 2.4
data, 2.4.1
deallocating extents from, 2.3.4, 2.3.4
defined, 2.1
definition, 1.1.4.3
header block, 2.3.1
index, 2.4.2
overview of, 2.4
temporary, 2.4.3, 5.2.7.1
allocating, 2.4.3
cleaned up by SMON, 9.3.2.9
dropping, 2.3.4.5
operations that require, 2.4.3.1
tablespace containing, 2.4.3.3.1
SELECT statement
composite indexes, 5.8.3
SELECT statements, 24.2.1
subqueries, 24.6
sequences, 5.6
CHECK constraints prohibit, 21.3.5.1
independence from tables, 5.6
length of numbers, 5.6
number generation, 5.6
server parameter file, 12.1.3
startup, 1.1.8.2, 12.2.1
server processes, 9.3.1
listener process and, 10.3.2
server-generated alerts, 14.2.4
servers
client/server architecture, 10.1
dedicated, 9.5
shared servers contrasted with, 9.4
in client/server architecture, definition, 1.1.2.1.2
shared
architecture, 9.1.2, 9.4
dedicated servers contrasted with, 9.4
processes of, 9.4, 9.4.1.2
server-side scripts, 25.3.7
service names, 10.3.2
service oriented architecture, 1.1.2.3, 10.2.3.1
SERVICE_NAMES parameter, 10.3.2.1
session control statements, 24.2.4
sessions
connections contrasted with, 9.2.1
defined, 9.2.1
limits for each user, 20.4.1.1.5
memory allocation in the large pool, 8.2.4
package state and, 6.4.1
time limits on, 20.4.1.1.5
when auditing options take effect, 20.7.1.1.6
SET CONSTRAINTS statement
DEFERRABLE or IMMEDIATE, 21.5.2
SET ROLE statement, 24.2.4
SET TRANSACTION statement, 24.2.3
ISOLATION LEVEL, 13.2.5.1, 13.3.7
shadow processes, 9.5
share locks
share table locks (S), 13.3.4.2.3
shared pool, 8.2.3
allocation of, 8.2.3.1.3
ANALYZE statement, 8.2.3.1.3
dependency management and, 8.2.3.1.3
described, 8.2.3
flushing, 8.2.3.1.3
object dependencies and, 6.11
row cache and, 8.2.3.2
Shared Pool Advisor, 14.5
shared server, 9.4
dedicated server contrasted with, 9.4
described, 9.1.2, 9.4
dispatcher processes, 9.4.1.1
limiting private SQL areas, 20.4.1.1.5
Oracle Net Services or SQL*Net V2 requirement, 9.4, 9.4.1.1
private SQL areas, 8.3.1.2
processes, 9.4.1.2, 9.4.1.2
processes needed for, 9.4
restricted operations in, 9.4.2
session memory in the large pool, 8.2.4
shared server processes (Snnn), 9.4.1.2
described, 9.4.1.2
shared SQL areas, 8.2.3.1.1, 24.4
ANALYZE statement, 8.2.3.1.3
dependency management and, 8.2.3.1.3
described, 8.2.3.1.1
overview of, 24.4
parse locks and, 13.3.5.3
procedures, packages, triggers and, 8.2.3.1.2
size of, 8.2.3.1.1
SHARED_SERVERS parameter, 9.4.1.2
shutdown, 12.3, 12.3.3
abnormal, 12.2.1.2, 12.3.3.1
deallocation of the SGA, 8.2
prohibited by dispatcher processes, 9.4.2
steps, 12.3
SHUTDOWN ABORT statement, 12.3.3.1
consistent whole database backups, 15.2.3.1
signature checking, 6.9.1
SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES parameter, 5.8.6.3.3
SMCO processes, 9.3.2.10
SMON background process, 9.3.2.9
SMON process, 9.3.2.9
snapshot standby databases, 17.4.2.5.1
SOA, 1.1.2.3, 10.2.3.1
software code areas, 8.5
shared by programs and utilities, 8.5
sort operations, 3.2.11
sort segments, 3.2.11.1
SORT_AREA_SIZE parameter, 2.4.3.1
space management
extents, 2.3
optimization of free space in blocks, 2.2.2.1
PCTFREE, 2.2.3.1
PCTUSED, 2.2.3.2
row chaining, 2.2.2.2, 5.2.1.1
segments, 2.4
space management coordinator process
See SMCO
SQL, 24.1
cursors used in, 24.3
data definition language (DDL), 24.2.2
data manipulation language (DML), 24.2.1
dynamic SQL, 25.3.2.4
embedded, 24.2.6
user-defined datatypes, 25.2.4
functions, 24.1
COUNT, 5.8.12.4
in CHECK constraints, 21.3.5.1
NVL, 5.2.3
memory allocation for, 8.2.3.1.3
overview of, 24.1
parallel execution, 1.2.7.4, 16.5
parsing of, 24.5
PL/SQL and, 25.3
recursive
cursors and, 24.3
reserved words, 24.2
session control statements, 24.2.4
shared SQL, 24.4
statement-level rollback, 4.1.2
system control statements, 24.2.5
transaction control statements, 24.2.3
transactions and, 4.1, 4.2.1
types of statements in, 24.2
user-defined datatypes
embedded SQL, 25.2.4
OCI, 25.2.1
SQL Access Advisor, 1.2.3.9, 14.2.5, 14.4, 16.3, 18.3.1
SQL Apply, 17.4.2.5.1
SQL areas
private, 8.2.3.1.1
shared, 8.2.3.1.1, 24.4
SQL Developer, 1.2.3.4
SQL Performance Analyzer, 1.2.1.2
SQL statements, 24.2, 24.7.1
array processing, 24.7.2.8
auditing
when records generated, 20.7.1.1.6
creating cursors, 24.7.2.1
dictionary cache locks and, 13.3.6.2.1
embedded, 24.2.6
execution, 24.7.1, 24.7.2.8
parallel execution, 1.2.7.4, 16.5
parse locks, 13.3.5.3
parsing, 24.7.2.2
privileges required for, 20.4.2.2
resource limits and, 20.4.1.1.2
successful execution, 4.1.1
transactions, 24.7.3.2
triggers on, 22.3.1.2
triggering events, 22.2.1
types of, 24.2
SQL Tuning Advisor, 14.2.5, 14.4
SQL tuning advisor, 14.2.2
SQL*Menu
PL/SQL, 25.3.1.2
SQL*Plus, 1.2.3.4
alert log, 9.3.3
anonymous blocks, 25.3.1.2
connecting with, 20.3.1
executing a package, 25.3.5
executing a procedure, 25.3.4
lock and latch monitors, 13.3.6
session variables, 25.3.2.1
SQL statements, 24.1
statistics monitor, 20.4.1.2.2
SQL92, 13.1.1
SQLJ, 25.4.7.4
object types, 25.4.7.4
SQLLIB, 25.2.4
SSL. See Secure Sockets Layer.
staging
databases, 16.1.1.4
files, 16.1.1.4
standards
ANSI/ISO
isolation levels, 13.1.1, 13.2.6.1
standby database
creating, 14.1.1
standby databases, 17.4.2.5.1
startup, 1.1.8.2, 12.1, 12.2
allocation of the SGA, 8.2
forcing, 12.2.1.2
prohibited by dispatcher processes, 9.4.2
restricted mode, 12.2.1.1
steps, 1.1.8.2, 12.2
statement triggers, 22.3
described, 22.3.1.2
row evaluation order, 22.4.1
statement-level read consistency, 13.2.2
statistics
checkpoint, 9.3.2.2
gathering for optimizer, 14.2.2
storage
datafiles, 3.3
indexes, 5.8.7
logical structures, 3.2, 5.1
nulls, 5.2.3
triggers, 22.1, 22.4.3
view definitions, 5.3.3
STORAGE clause
using, 2.3.2
storage failures
protecting against, 17.4.1
storage parameters
setting, 2.3.2
stored functions, 25.3.3, 25.3.4
stored outlines, 24.8.2.1
editing, 24.8.2.2
stored procedures, 25.3, 25.3.3, 25.3.4
calling, 25.3.4
contrasted with anonymous blocks, 25.3.4.3
triggers contrasted with, 22.1
variables and constants, 25.3.2.1
Streams Pool Advisor, 14.5
strong authentication, 20.3.6
Structured Query Language (SQL), 24.1
structures
data blocks
shown in rowids, 26.7.2.2
data dictionary, 7
datafiles
shown in rowids, 26.7.2.2
locking, 13.3.5
logical, 2
data blocks, 2, 2.2
extents, 2.1, 2.3
schema objects, 5.1
segments, 2.1, 2.4
tablespaces, 3, 3.2
memory, 8
physical
control files, 3.4
datafiles, 3, 3.3
processes, 9
subqueries, 24.6
CHECK constraints prohibit, 21.3.5.1
in DML statements
serializable isolation, 13.2.7.2
inline views, 5.3.7
query processing, 24.6
summaries, 5.4
synonyms
constraints indirectly affect, 21.2
described, 1.1.5.5, 5.7
for data dictionary views, 7.2.1.1
inherit privileges from object, 20.4.2.2
private, 5.7
public, 5.7
uses of, 5.7
SYS account
policies for protecting, 20.6.3.3.1
SYS user name
data dictionary tables owned by, 7.1.2
SYS username
V$ views, 7.3
SYSDBA privilege, 12.1.2
SYSOPER privilege, 12.1.2
SYSTEM account
policies for protecting, 20.6.3.3.1
system change numbers (SCN)
committed transactions, 4.2.1
defined, 4.2.1
read consistency and, 13.2.1, 13.2.2
redo logs, 9.3.2.5
when determined, 13.2.1
system control statements, 24.2.5
system fault
crash recovery time, 17.3.2
system global area (SGA)
allocating, 1.1.8.2, 12.2.1
contents of, 8.2
data dictionary cache, 7.2.1.2, 8.2.3.2
database buffer cache, 8.2.1
diagram, 12.1
fixed, 8.2
large pool, 8.2.4
limiting private SQL areas, 20.4.1.1.5
redo log buffer, 4.2.1, 8.2.2
rollback segments and, 4.2.1
shared and writable, 8.2
shared pool, 8.2.3
size of
variable parameters, 12.1.3
when allocated, 8.2
system monitor process (SMON), 9.3.2.9
defined, 9.3.2.9
Real Application Clusters and, 9.3.2.9
rolling back transactions, 12.2.3.1.2
temporary segment cleanup, 9.3.2.9
system privileges, 20.4.2.1
described, 20.4.2.1
system security
definition, 1.2.9
SYSTEM tablespace, 3.2.2
data dictionary stored in, 3.2.2.1, 7.1, 7.2.2
locally managed, 1.1.4.4, 3.2.2
online requirement of, 3.2.9
procedures stored in, 3.2.2.2

T

table compression, 16.2.4
partitioning, 16.2.4
table functions, 25.3.4.7
parallel execution, 25.3.4.7
pipelined, 25.3.4.7
tables
base
relationship to views, 5.3.1
clustered, 5.11
clustered, definition, 1.1.5.4
controlling space allocation for, 5.2.1
directories, 2.2.1.2
DUAL, 7.2.2.4
dynamic partitioning, 16.5.1
enable or disable constraints, 21.1.3
external, 5.2.8, 11.6
full table scan and buffer cache, 8.2.1.2
how data is stored in, 5.2.1
indexes and, 5.8
index-organized
key compression in, 5.8.10.3, 5.9.1
index-organized tables, 5.9
logical rowid, 5.9.3
logical rowids, 26.7.3
integrity constraints, 21.1, 21.2
locks on, 13.3.4.1, 13.3.4.2.1, 13.3.4.2.4
maximum number of columns in, 5.3
nested tables, 5.2.6
normalized or denormalized, 5.5
overview of, 5.2
partitions, 1.2.7.8, 18.1
presented in views, 5.3
temporary, 5.2.7
segments in, 2.4.3.2
validate or novalidate constraints, 21.1.3
virtual or viewed, 1.1.5.3
See also external tables
tablespace point-in-time recovery, 15.4.3.4.1
clone database, 12.2.2.2
tablespace repository, 3.2.12.1
tablespaces, 3.2
contrasted with schemas, 5.1
default for object creation, definition, 20.1.4.1
definition, 1.1.4.4
described, 3.2
dictionary managed, 3.2.7.3
locally managed, 3.2.7.1
locks on, 13.3.6.2.3
moving or copying to another database, 3.2.12.2
offline, 3.2.9, 3.3.3
remain offline on remount, 3.2.9.1
online, 3.2.9, 3.3.3
online and offline distinguished, 1.1.4.4.1, 1.1.4.4.2
online backups, 15.2.4.1
overview of, 3.2
quotas, definition, 20.1.4.3
read-only, 3.2.10
recovery, 15.4.3.4.1
relationship to datafiles, 3.1
size of, 3.1.2
space allocation, 3.2.7
temporary, 3.2.11
temporary, definition, 20.1.4.2
used for temporary segments, 2.4.3.3.1
tasks, 9.1
tempfiles, 3.3.4
temporary segments, 2.4.3.2, 2.4.3.3.1, 5.2.7.1
allocating, 2.4.3.3.1
allocation for queries, 2.4.3.3.1
deallocating extents from, 2.3.4.5
dropping, 2.3.4.5
operations that require, 2.4.3.1
tablespace containing, 2.4.3.3.1
when not in redo log, 2.4.3.3.1
temporary tables, 5.2.7
temporary tablespaces, 3.2.11
default, 3.2.5
definition, 20.1.4.2
threads
shared server, 9.4
three-valued logic (true, false, unknown)
produced by nulls, 5.2.3
time stamp checking, 6.9.1
time zones
in date/time columns, 26.4.5
TIMESTAMP datatype, 26.4.5
TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE datatype, 26.4.5
TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE datatype, 26.4.5
TO_CHAR function
globalization support default in CHECK constraints, 21.3.5.1
globalization support default in views, 5.3.3.1
Julian dates, 26.4.1
TO_DATE function, 26.4, 26.4
globalization support default in CHECK constraints, 21.3.5.1
globalization support default in views, 5.3.3.1
Julian dates, 26.4.1
TO_NUMBER function, 26.3.1
glob, 5.3.3.1
globalization support default in CHECK constraints, 21.3.5.1
Julian dates, 26.4.1
trace files, 9.3.3
definition, 1.1.3.6
LGWR trace file, 9.3.2.5
transaction control statements, 24.2.3
in autonomous PL/SQL blocks, 4.3.1.1
transaction set consistency, 13.2.6.1, 13.2.6.1
transaction tables
reset at recovery, 9.3.2.6
transactions, 4
assigning system change numbers, 4.2.1
autonomous, 4.3
within a PL/SQL block, 4.3.1
backing out with Flashback Transaction, 17.4.2.2
block-level recovery, 13.3.4.1
committing, 4.1.1, 4.2.1, 9.3.2.5
group commits, 9.3.2.5
concurrency and, 13.3.1
controlling transactions, 24.7.3.2
deadlocks and, 4.1.2, 13.3.2
defining and controlling, 24.7.3.2
definition, 1.3.3
described, 4.1
distributed
deadlocks and, 13.3.2.1
resolving automatically, 9.3.2.8
two-phase commit, 4.2.5
end of, 4.2
consistent data, 24.7.3.2
in-doubt
resolving automatically, 4.2.5, 12.2.3.3
naming, 4.2.4
read consistency of, 13.2.3
read consistency, definition, 1.2.2.2.1
read-only, definition, 1.2.2.2.2
redo log files written before commit, 9.3.2.5
rolling back, 4.2.2
partially, 4.2.3
savepoints in, 4.2.3
serializable, 13.2.5
space used in data blocks for, 2.2.1.6
start of, 4.2
statement level rollback and, 4.1.2
system change numbers, 9.3.2.5
terminating the application and, 4.2
transaction control statements, 24.2.3
triggers and, 22.4.2
transient logical standby databases
for rolling upgrades, 17.5.2.2
transient type descriptions, 25.2.4.1
triggers, 1.2.10.2, 22
action, 22.2.3
timing of, 22.3.2
AFTER triggers, 22.3.2.2
BEFORE triggers, 22.3.2.1
cascading, 22.1.1.1
components of, 22.2
constraints apply to, 22.4
constraints contrasted with, 22.1.1.2
data access and, 22.4.2
dependency management of, 22.4.5
enabled triggers, 22.4
enabled or disabled, 22.4
enforcing data integrity with, 21.1.2
events, 22.2.1
firing (executing), 22.1, 22.4.4
privileges required, 22.4.4
steps involved, 22.4
INSTEAD OF, 22.3.4
Java, 22.2.3
procedures contrasted with, 22.1
publish-subscribe support, 22.3.5
restrictions, 22.2.2
row, 22.3.1.1
row evaluation order, 22.4.1
schema object dependencies, 22.4, 22.4.5
shared SQL areas and, 8.2.3.1.2
statement, 22.3.1.2
storage of, 22.4.3
types of, 22.3.1
UNKNOWN does not fire, 22.2.2
uses of, 22.1.1
TRUNCATE statement, 24.2.2
two-phase commit
transaction management, 4.2.5
triggers, 22.4
type descriptions
dynamic creation and access, 25.2.4.1
transient, 25.2.4.1

U

Undo Advisor, 14.2.5, 14.6.1
undo management, automatic, 2.4.4, 14.6.1
undo retention, 14.6.1, 15.4.2.2
undo tablespaces, 3.2.4
Unicode, 26.2, 26.2.3, 26.2.4, 26.2.5, 26.5.2
unique indexes, 5.8.1
UNIQUE key
constraint, 21.3.2
UNIQUE key constraints
composite keys, 21.3.2.1, 21.3.2.2
constraint checking, 21.4
NOT NULL constraints and, 21.3.2.2
unique keys, 21.3.2.1
composite, 21.3.2.1, 21.3.2.2
unplanned downtime
avoiding downtime during, 17.3
causes, 17.2
system faults, 17.3.2
UNUSABLE indexes
function-based, 5.8.6.3.3
update no action constraint, 21.3.4.3
UPDATE statement, 24.2.1
foreign key references, 21.3.4.3.1
freeing space in data blocks, 2.2.2.1
triggers, 22.2.1
BEFORE triggers, 22.3.2.1
updates
updatability of views, 5.3.5, 22.3.4, 22.3.4.1
updatable join views, 5.3.5
update intensive environments, 13.2.5.3
updating tables
with parent keys, 21.3.4.4, 21.3.4.4.1
UROWID datatype, 26.7
user errors, 15.3.2
user processes
connections and, 9.2.1
dedicated server processes and, 9.5
sessions and, 9.2.1
shared server processes and, 9.4.1.2
user profiles
definition, 20.1.4.4
user program interface (UPI), 9.7.1
USER_ views, 7.2.2.1
USER_UPDATABLE_COLUMNS view, 5.3.5
users
authentication
about, 20.6.1.2
authentication of, 20.3
dedicated servers and, 9.5
end-user security policies, 20.6.3.2
listed in data dictionary, 7.1
locks, 13.3.8
multiuser environments, 9.1.1
password encryption, 20.3.3.1
password security, 20.6.3.1
policies for managing privileges, 20.6.3.1
processes of, 9.2
profiles of, 20.4.1.2
roles and, 20.4.3
for types of users, 20.4.3.1.2
security and, 20.6.1.1
security for general users, 20.6.3.1
temporary tablespaces of, 2.4.3.3.1
user names
sessions and connections, 9.2.1

V

V$RECOVER_FILE view, 15.4.3.5
V_$ and V$ views, 7.3
VARCHAR datatype, 26.2.2.1
VARCHAR2 datatype, 26.2.2
non-padded comparison semantics, 26.2.2
similarity to RAW datatype, 26.6
variables
embedded SQL, 24.2.6
in stored procedures, 25.3.2.1
varrays
index-organized tables, 5.9.1
key compression, 5.8.10.3
views, 5.3
constraints indirectly affect, 21.2
containing expressions, 22.3.4.2
data dictionary
updatable columns, 5.3.5
fixed views, 7.3
globalization support parameters in, 5.3.3.1
how stored, 5.3.1
indexes and, 5.3.3.2
inherently modifiable, 22.3.4.1
inline views, 5.3.7
INSTEAD OF triggers, 22.3.4
materialized views, 5.4
maximum number of columns in, 5.3
modifiable, 22.3.4.1
modifying, 22.3.4.1
object views, 5.3.6
overview of, 5.3
pseudocolumns, 22.3.4.2
schema object dependencies, 5.3.4
SQL functions in, 5.3.3.1
updatability, 5.3.5, 22.3.4.1
uses of, 5.3.2
virtual keeper of time process
See VKTM
Virtual Private Database (VPD)
guarding against human errors, 17.4.2.1
visible indexes, 5.8.2
VKTM processes, 9.3.2.10

W

waits for blocking transaction, 13.2.6.1
Wallet Manager, 20.3.2.2
wallets, 20.3.2.2
warehouse
materialized views, 5.4
Web page scripting, 25.3.7
Web services
Oracle Database as provider of, 1.1.2.3, 10.2.3.1
whole database backups
consistent
using SHUTDOWN ABORT statement, 15.2.3.1
definition, 15.2.2
inconsistent, 15.2.3.2
write-ahead, 9.3.2.5
writers block readers, 13.2.6.1

X

X.509 certificates, 20.3.2.2
XA
session memory in the large pool, 8.2.4
XML datatypes, 26.9
XMLType datatype, 19.2, 26.9.1

Y

year 2000, 26.4.3

Z

Zend Core for Oracle, 1.3.5
PHP, 1.3.5