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3 Data Pump Import

This chapter describes the Oracle Data Pump Import utility. The following topics are discussed:

What Is Data Pump Import?

Note:

Although Data Pump Import (impdp) functionality is similar to that of the original Import utility (imp), they are completely separate utilities and their files are not compatible. See Chapter 20, "Original Export and Import" for a description of the original Import utility.

Data Pump Import (hereinafter referred to as Import for ease of reading) is a utility for loading an export dump file set into a target system. The dump file set is made up of one or more disk files that contain table data, database object metadata, and control information. The files are written in a proprietary, binary format. During an import operation, the Data Pump Import utility uses these files to locate each database object in the dump file set.

Import can also be used to load a target database directly from a source database with no intervening dump files. This is known as a network import.

Data Pump Import enables you to specify whether a job should move a subset of the data and metadata from the dump file set or the source database (in the case of a network import), as determined by the import mode. This is done using data filters and metadata filters, which are implemented through Import commands. See Filtering During Import Operations.

To see some examples of the various ways in which you can use Import, refer to Examples of Using Data Pump Import.

Invoking Data Pump Import

The Data Pump Import utility is invoked using the impdp command. The characteristics of the import operation are determined by the import parameters you specify. These parameters can be specified either on the command line or in a parameter file.

Note:

Do not invoke Import as SYSDBA, except at the request of Oracle technical support. SYSDBA is used internally and has specialized functions; its behavior is not the same as for general users.

Note:

Be aware that if you are performing a Data Pump Import into a table or tablespace created with the NOLOGGING clause enabled, a redo log file may still be generated. The redo that is generated in such a case is generally for maintenance of the master table or related to underlying recursive space transactions, data dictionary changes, and index maintenance for indices on the table that require logging.

The following sections contain more information about invoking Import:

Note:

It is not possible to start or restart Data Pump jobs on one instance in an Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) environment if there are Data Pump jobs currently running on other instances in the Oracle RAC environment.

Data Pump Import Interfaces

You can interact with Data Pump Import by using a command line, a parameter file, or an interactive-command mode.

  • Command-Line Interface: Enables you to specify the Import parameters directly on the command line. For a complete description of the parameters available in the command-line interface, see Parameters Available in Import's Command-Line Mode.

  • Parameter File Interface: Enables you to specify command-line parameters in a parameter file. The only exception is the PARFILE parameter because parameter files cannot be nested. The use of parameter files is recommended if you are using parameters whose values require quotation marks. See Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line.

  • Interactive-Command Interface: Stops logging to the terminal and displays the Import prompt, from which you can enter various commands, some of which are specific to interactive-command mode. This mode is enabled by pressing Ctrl+C during an import operation started with the command-line interface or the parameter file interface. Interactive-command mode is also enabled when you attach to an executing or stopped job.

    For a complete description of the commands available in interactive-command mode, see Commands Available in Import's Interactive-Command Mode.

Data Pump Import Modes

One of the most significant characteristics of an import operation is its mode, because the mode largely determines what is imported. The specified mode applies to the source of the operation, either a dump file set or another database if the NETWORK_LINK parameter is specified.

When the source of the import operation is a dump file set, specifying a mode is optional. If no mode is specified, then Import attempts to load the entire dump file set in the mode in which the export operation was run.

The mode is specified on the command line, using the appropriate parameter. The available modes are as follows:

Note:

When you import a dump file that was created by a full-mode export, the import operation attempts to copy the password for the SYS account from the source database. This sometimes fails (for example, if the password is in a shared password file). If it does fail, then after the import completes, you must set the password for the SYS account at the target database to a password of your choice.

Note:

Jobs (created by the Oracle Database job scheduler) are always imported to the schema of the importing user. After an import, if you query the DBA_JOBS view you will see that LOG_USER and PRIV_USER values are set to the importing user, regardless of how they were set on the export platform.

To work around this, you must perform both the export and the import as the job owner.

Full Import Mode

A full import is specified using the FULL parameter. In full import mode, the entire content of the source (dump file set or another database) is loaded into the target database. This is the default for file-based imports. You must have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role if the source is another database.

Cross-schema references are not imported for non-privileged users. For example, a trigger defined on a table within the importing user's schema, but residing in another user's schema, is not imported.

The IMP_FULL_DATABASE role is required on the target database and the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role is required on the source database if the NETWORK_LINK parameter is used for a full import.

See Also:

FULL

Schema Mode

A schema import is specified using the SCHEMAS parameter. In a schema import, only objects owned by the specified schemas are loaded. The source can be a full, table, tablespace, or schema-mode export dump file set or another database. If you have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role, then a list of schemas can be specified and the schemas themselves (including system privilege grants) are created in the database in addition to the objects contained within those schemas.

Cross-schema references are not imported for non-privileged users unless the other schema is remapped to the current schema. For example, a trigger defined on a table within the importing user's schema, but residing in another user's schema, is not imported.

See Also:

SCHEMAS

Table Mode

A table-mode import is specified using the TABLES parameter. In table mode, only the specified set of tables, partitions, and their dependent objects are loaded. The source can be a full, schema, tablespace, or table-mode export dump file set or another database. You must have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role to specify tables that are not in your own schema.

You can use the transportable option during a table-mode import by specifying the TRANPORTABLE=ALWAYS parameter in conjunction with the TABLES parameter. Note that this requires use of the NETWORK_LINK parameter, as well.

Tablespace Mode

A tablespace-mode import is specified using the TABLESPACES parameter. In tablespace mode, all objects contained within the specified set of tablespaces are loaded, along with the dependent objects. The source can be a full, schema, tablespace, or table-mode export dump file set or another database. For unprivileged users, objects not remapped to the current schema will not be processed.

See Also:

TABLESPACES

Transportable Tablespace Mode

A transportable tablespace import is specified using the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter. In transportable tablespace mode, the metadata from a transportable tablespace export dump file set or from another database is loaded. The datafiles, specified by the TRANSPORT_DATAFILES parameter, must be made available from the source system for use in the target database, typically by copying them over to the target system.

Encrypted columns are not supported in transportable tablespace mode.

This mode requires the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role.

Note:

You cannot export transportable tablespaces and then import them into a database at a lower release level. The target database must be at the same or higher release level as the source database.

Network Considerations

You can specify a connect identifier in the connect string when you invoke the Data Pump Import utility. This identifier can specify a database instance that is different from the current instance identified by the current Oracle System ID (SID). The connect identifier can be an Oracle*Net connect descriptor or a name that maps to a connect descriptor. This requires an active listener (to start the listener, enter lsnrctl start) that can be located using the connect descriptor.

The following example invokes Import for user hr, using the connect descriptor named inst1:

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp TABLES=employees
Import: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Monday, 27 August, 2007 12:25:57
 
Copyright (c) 2003, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Password: password@inst1
 
Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

The local Import client connects to the database instance identified by the connect descriptor inst1 (a simple net service name, usually defined in a tnsnames.ora file), to import the data from the dump file set to that database.

Do not confuse invoking the Import utility using a connect identifier with an import operation specifying the Import NETWORK_LINK command-line parameter, which initiates an import using a database link. In this case, the local Import client connects to the database instance identified by the command-line connect string, retrieves the data to be imported from the database instance identified by the database link, and writes the data to the connected database instance. There is no dump file set involved.

Filtering During Import Operations

Data Pump Import provides much greater data and metadata filtering capability than was provided by the original Import utility.

Data Filters

Data specific filtering is implemented through the QUERY and SAMPLE parameters, which specify restrictions on the table rows that are to be imported. Data filtering can also occur indirectly as a result of Metadata filtering, which can include or exclude table objects along with any associated row data.

Each data filter can only be specified once per table and once per job. If different filters using the same name are applied to both a particular table and to the whole job, the filter parameter supplied for the specific table will take precedence.

Metadata Filters

Data Pump Import provides much greater metadata filtering capability than was provided by the original Import utility. Metadata filtering is implemented through the EXCLUDE and INCLUDE parameters. The EXCLUDE and INCLUDE parameters are mutually exclusive.

Metadata filters identify a set of objects to be included or excluded from a Data Pump operation. For example, you could request a full import, but without Package Specifications or Package Bodies.

To use filters correctly and to get the results you expect, remember that dependent objects of an identified object are processed along with the identified object. For example, if a filter specifies that a package is to be included in an operation, then grants upon that package will also be included. Likewise, if a table is excluded by a filter, then indexes, constraints, grants, and triggers upon the table will also be excluded by the filter.

If multiple filters are specified for an object type, an implicit AND operation is applied to them. That is, objects participating in the job must pass all of the filters applied to their object types.

The same filter name can be specified multiple times within a job.

To see which objects can be filtered, you can query the following views: DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for Full-mode imports, SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS for schema-mode imports, and TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for table-mode and tablespace-mode imports. Note that full object path names are determined by the export mode, not by the import mode.

For an example of this, see Metadata Filters.

See Also:

Parameters Available in Import's Command-Line Mode

This section provides descriptions of the parameters available in the command-line mode of Data Pump Import. Many of the descriptions include an example of how to use the parameter.

Using the Import Parameter Examples

If you try running the examples that are provided for each parameter, be aware of the following:

If necessary, ask your DBA for help in creating these directory objects and assigning the necessary privileges and roles.

Syntax diagrams of these parameters are provided in Syntax Diagrams for Data Pump Import.

Unless specifically noted, these parameters can also be specified in a parameter file.

Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line

Some operating systems require that quotation marks on the command line be preceded by an escape character, such as the backslash. If the backslashes were not present, the command-line parser that Import uses would not understand the quotation marks and would remove them, resulting in an error. In general, Oracle recommends that you place such statements in a parameter file because escape characters are not necessary in parameter files.

Note:

If you are accustomed to using the original Import utility, you may be wondering which Data Pump parameters are used to perform the operations you used to perform with original Import. For a comparison, see How Data Pump Import Parameters Map to Those of the Original Import Utility.

ATTACH

Default: current job in user's schema, if there is only one running job.

Purpose

Attaches the client session to an existing import job and automatically places you in interactive-command mode.

Syntax and Description

ATTACH [=[schema_name.]job_name]

Specify a schema_name if the schema to which you are attaching is not your own. You must have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role to do this.

A job_name does not have to be specified if only one running job is associated with your schema and the job is active. If the job you are attaching to is stopped, you must supply the job name. To see a list of Data Pump job names, you can query the DBA_DATAPUMP_JOBS view or the USER_DATAPUMP_JOBS view.

When you are attached to the job, Import displays a description of the job and then displays the Import prompt.

Restrictions

  • When you specify the ATTACH parameter, the only other Data Pump parameter you can specify on the command line is ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD.

  • If the job you are attaching to was initially started using an encryption password, then when you attach to the job you must again enter the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter on the command line to re-specify that password. The only exception to this is if the job was initially started with the ENCRYPTION=ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS_ONLY parameter. In that case, the encryption password is not needed when attaching to the job.

  • You cannot attach to a job in another schema unless it is already running.

  • If the dump file set or master table for the job have been deleted, the attach operation will fail.

  • Altering the master table in any way will lead to unpredictable results.

Example

The following is an example of using the ATTACH parameter.

> impdp hr ATTACH=import_job

This example assumes that a job named import_job exists in the hr schema.

CONTENT

Default: ALL

Purpose

Enables you to filter what is loaded during the import operation.

Syntax and Description

CONTENT={ALL | DATA_ONLY | METADATA_ONLY}
  • ALL loads any data and metadata contained in the source. This is the default.

  • DATA_ONLY loads only table row data into existing tables; no database objects are created.

  • METADATA_ONLY loads only database object definitions; no table row data is loaded.

Restrictions

  • The CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY parameter and value cannot be used in conjunction with parameter TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES (transportable-tablespace-mode).

  • The CONTENT=ALL and CONTENT=DATA_ONLY parameter and values cannot be used in conjunction with the SQLFILE parameter.

Example

The following is an example of using the CONTENT parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY

This command will execute a full import that will load only the metadata in the expfull.dmp dump file. It executes a full import because that is the default for file-based imports in which no import mode is specified.

DATA_OPTIONS

Default: There is no default. If this parameter is not used, then the special data handling options it provides simply do not take effect.

Purpose

The DATA_OPTIONS parameter provides options for how to handle certain types of data during exports and imports. For import operations, the only valid option for the DATA_OPTIONS parameter is SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS.

Syntax and Description

DATA_OPTIONS=SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS

The SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS option affects how non-deferred constraint violations are handled while a data object (table, partition, or subpartition) is being loaded. It has no effect on the load if deferred constraint violations are encountered. Deferred constraint violations always cause the entire load to be rolled back.

The SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS option specifies that you want the import operation to proceed even if non-deferred constraint violations are encountered. It logs any rows that cause non-deferred constraint violations, but does not stop the load for the data object experiencing the violation.

If SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS is not set, then the default behavior is to roll back the entire load of the data object on which non-deferred constraint violations are encountered.

Restrictions

  • If SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS is used and if a data object has unique indexes or constraints defined on it at the time of the load, then the APPEND hint will not be used for loading that data object. Therefore, loading such data objects will take longer when the SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS option is used.

  • Even if SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS is specified, it is not used unless a data object is being loaded using the external table access method.

Example

This example shows a data-only table mode import with SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS enabled:

> impdp hr TABLES=employees CONTENT=DATA_ONLY 
DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:table.dmp DATA_OPTIONS=skip_constraint_errors

If any non-deferred constraint violations are encountered during this import operation, they will be logged and the import will continue on to completion.

DIRECTORY

Default: DATA_PUMP_DIR

Purpose

Specifies the default location in which the import job can find the dump file set and where it should create log and SQL files.

Syntax and Description

DIRECTORY=directory_object

The directory_object is the name of a database directory object (not the file path of an actual directory). Upon installation, privileged users have access to a default directory object named DATA_PUMP_DIR. Users with access to DATA_PUMP_DIR need not use the DIRECTORY parameter at all.

A directory object specified on the DUMPFILE, LOGFILE, or SQLFILE parameter overrides any directory object that you specify for the DIRECTORY parameter. You must have Read access to the directory used for the dump file set and Write access to the directory used to create the log and SQL files.

Example

The following is an example of using the DIRECTORY parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp 
LOGFILE=dpump_dir2:expfull.log

This command results in the import job looking for the expfull.dmp dump file in the directory pointed to by the dpump_dir1 directory object. The dpump_dir2 directory object specified on the LOGFILE parameter overrides the DIRECTORY parameter so that the log file is written to dpump_dir2.

See Also:

DUMPFILE

Default: expdat.dmp

Purpose

Specifies the names and optionally, the directory objects of the dump file set that was created by Export.

Syntax and Description

DUMPFILE=[directory_object:]file_name [, ...]

The directory_object is optional if one has already been established by the DIRECTORY parameter. If you do supply a value here, it must be a directory object that already exists and that you have access to. A database directory object that is specified as part of the DUMPFILE parameter overrides a value specified by the DIRECTORY parameter.

The file_name is the name of a file in the dump file set. The filenames can also be templates that contain the substitution variable, %U. If %U is used, Import examines each file that matches the template (until no match is found) in order to locate all files that are part of the dump file set. The %U expands to a 2-digit incrementing integer starting with 01.

Sufficient information is contained within the files for Import to locate the entire set, provided the file specifications in the DUMPFILE parameter encompass the entire set. The files are not required to have the same names, locations, or order that they had at export time.

Example

The following is an example of using the Import DUMPFILE parameter. You can create the dump files used in this example by running the example provided for the Export DUMPFILE parameter. See DUMPFILE.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=dpump_dir2:exp1.dmp, exp2%U.dmp

Because a directory object (dpump_dir2) is specified for the exp1.dmp dump file, the import job will look there for the file. It will also look in dpump_dir1 for dump files of the form exp2<nn>.dmp. The log file will be written to dpump_dir1.

ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD

Default: There is no default; the value is user-supplied.

Purpose

Specifies a password for accessing encrypted column data in the dump file set. This prevents unauthorized access to an encrypted dump file set.

Syntax and Description

ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD = password

This parameter is required on an import operation if an encryption password was specified on the export operation. The password that is specified must be the same one that was specified on the export operation.

Restrictions

  • This parameter is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g.

  • The ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is not valid if the dump file set was created using the transparent mode of encryption.

  • The ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is not valid for network import jobs.

  • Encryption attributes for all columns must match between the exported table definition and the target table. For example, suppose you have a table, EMP, and one of its columns is named EMPNO. Both of the following situations would result in an error because the encryption attribute for the EMP column in the source table would not match the encryption attribute for the EMP column in the target table:

    • The EMP table is exported with the EMPNO column being encrypted, but prior to importing the table you remove the encryption attribute from the EMPNO column.

    • The EMP table is exported without the EMPNO column being encrypted, but prior to importing the table you enable encryption on the EMPNO column.

Example

In the following example, the encryption password, 123456, must be specified because it was specified when the dpcd2be1.dmp dump file was created (see "ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD").

> impdp hr TABLES=employee_s_encrypt DIRECTORY=dpump_dir
  DUMPFILE=dpcd2be1.dmp ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD=123456

During the import operation, any columns in the employee_s_encrypt table that were encrypted during the export operation are decrypted before being imported.

ESTIMATE

Default: BLOCKS

Purpose

Instructs the source system in a network import operation to estimate how much data will be generated.

Syntax and Description

ESTIMATE={BLOCKS | STATISTICS}

The valid choices for the ESTIMATE parameter are as follows:

  • BLOCKS - The estimate is calculated by multiplying the number of database blocks used by the source objects times the appropriate block sizes.

  • STATISTICS - The estimate is calculated using statistics for each table. For this method to be as accurate as possible, all tables should have been analyzed recently.

The estimate that is generated can be used to determine a percentage complete throughout the execution of the import job.

Restrictions

  • The Import ESTIMATE parameter is valid only if the NETWORK_LINK parameter is also specified.

  • When the import source is a dump file set, the amount of data to be loaded is already known, so the percentage complete is automatically calculated.

  • The estimate may be inaccurate if the QUERY, SAMPLE, or REMAP_DATA parameter is used.

Example

In the following example, source_database_link would be replaced with the name of a valid link to the source database.

> impdp hr TABLES=job_history NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link
  DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 ESTIMATE=statistics 

The job_history table in the hr schema is imported from the source database. A log file is created by default and written to the directory pointed to by the dpump_dir1 directory object. When the job begins, an estimate for the job is calculated based on table statistics.

EXCLUDE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Enables you to filter the metadata that is imported by specifying objects and object types that you want to exclude from the import job.

Syntax and Description

EXCLUDE=object_type[:name_clause] [, ...]

For the given mode of import, all object types contained within the source (and their dependents) are included, except those specified in an EXCLUDE statement. If an object is excluded, all of its dependent objects are also excluded. For example, excluding a table will also exclude all indexes and triggers on the table.

The name_clause is optional. It allows fine-grained selection of specific objects within an object type. It is a SQL expression used as a filter on the object names of the type. It consists of a SQL operator and the values against which the object names of the specified type are to be compared. The name clause applies only to object types whose instances have names (for example, it is applicable to TABLE and VIEW, but not to GRANT). The optional name clause must be separated from the object type with a colon and enclosed in double quotation marks, because single-quotation marks are required to delimit the name strings. For example, you could set EXCLUDE=INDEX:"LIKE 'DEPT%'" to exclude all indexes whose names start with dept.

More than one EXCLUDE statement can be specified. Oracle recommends that you place EXCLUDE statements in a parameter file to avoid having to use operating system-specific escape characters on the command line.

As explained in the following sections, you should be aware of the effects of specifying certain objects for exclusion, in particular, CONSTRAINT, GRANT, and USER.

Excluding Constraints

The following constraints cannot be excluded:

  • NOT NULL constraints.

  • Constraints needed for the table to be created and loaded successfully (for example, primary key constraints for index-organized tables or REF SCOPE and WITH ROWID constraints for tables with REF columns).

This means that the following EXCLUDE statements will be interpreted as follows:

  • EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT will exclude all nonreferential constraints, except for NOT NULL constraints and any constraints needed for successful table creation and loading.

  • EXCLUDE=REF_CONSTRAINT will exclude referential integrity (foreign key) constraints.

Excluding Grants and Users

Specifying EXCLUDE=GRANT excludes object grants on all object types and system privilege grants.

Specifying EXCLUDE=USER excludes only the definitions of users, not the objects contained within users' schemas.

To exclude a specific user and all objects of that user, specify a filter such as the following (where hr is the schema name of the user you want to exclude):

EXCLUDE=SCHEMA: "= 'HR' "

If you try to exclude a user by using a statement such as EXCLUDE=USER:"= 'HR'", only CREATE USER hr DDL statements will be excluded, and you may not get the results you expect.

Restrictions

  • The EXCLUDE and INCLUDE parameters are mutually exclusive.

Example

Assume the following is in a parameter file, exclude.par, being used by a DBA or some other user with the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role. (If you want to try the example, you will need to create this file.)

EXCLUDE=FUNCTION
EXCLUDE=PROCEDURE
EXCLUDE=PACKAGE
EXCLUDE=INDEX:"LIKE 'EMP%' "

You could then issue the following command. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this command by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp system DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp PARFILE=exclude.par

All data from the expfull.dmp dump file will be loaded except for functions, procedures, packages, and indexes whose names start with emp.

See Also:

Filtering During Import Operations for more information about the effects of using the EXCLUDE parameter

FLASHBACK_SCN

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies the system change number (SCN) that Import will use to enable the Flashback utility.

Syntax and Description

FLASHBACK_SCN=scn_number

The import operation is performed with data that is consistent as of the specified scn_number.

Note:

If you are on a logical standby system, the FLASHBACK_SCN parameter is ignored because SCNs are selected by logical standby. See Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for information about logical standby databases.

Restrictions

  • The FLASHBACK_SCN parameter is valid only when the NETWORK_LINK parameter is also specified.

  • The FLASHBACK_SCN parameter pertains only to the Flashback Query capability of Oracle Database. It is not applicable to Flashback Database, Flashback Drop, or Flashback Data Archive.

  • FLASHBACK_SCN and FLASHBACK_TIME are mutually exclusive.

Example

The following is an example of using the FLASHBACK_SCN parameter.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 FLASHBACK_SCN=123456 
NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link

The source_database_link in this example would be replaced with the name of a source database from which you were importing data.

FLASHBACK_TIME

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies the system change number (SCN) that Import will use to enable the Flashback utility.

Syntax and Description

FLASHBACK_TIME="TO_TIMESTAMP()"

The SCN that most closely matches the specified time is found, and this SCN is used to enable the Flashback utility. The import operation is performed with data that is consistent as of this SCN. Because the TO_TIMESTAMP value is enclosed in quotation marks, it would be best to put this parameter in a parameter file. Otherwise, you might need to use escape characters on the command line in front of the quotation marks. See Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line.

Note:

If you are on a logical standby system, the FLASHBACK_TIME parameter is ignored because SCNs are selected by logical standby. See Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for information about logical standby databases.

Restrictions

  • This parameter is valid only when the NETWORK_LINK parameter is also specified.

  • The FLASHBACK_TIME parameter pertains only to the flashback query capability of Oracle Database. It is not applicable to Flashback Database, Flashback Drop, or Flashback Data Archive.

  • FLASHBACK_TIME and FLASHBACK_SCN are mutually exclusive.

Example

You can specify the time in any format that the DBMS_FLASHBACK.ENABLE_AT_TIME procedure accepts,. For example, suppose you have a parameter file, flashback_imp.par, that contains the following:

FLASHBACK_TIME="TO_TIMESTAMP('25-08-2003 14:35:00', 'DD-MM-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')"

You could then issue the following command:

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 PARFILE=flashback_imp.par NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link

The import operation will be performed with data that is consistent with the SCN that most closely matches the specified time.

See Also:

Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide for information about using flashback

FULL

Default: Y

Purpose

Specifies that you want to perform a full database import.

Syntax and Description

FULL=y

A value of FULL=y indicates that all data and metadata from the source (either a dump file set or another database) is imported.

Filtering can restrict what is imported using this import mode (see Filtering During Import Operations).

If the NETWORK_LINK parameter is used, the USERID that is executing the import job has the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role on the target database, then that user must also have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role on the source database.

If you are an unprivileged user importing from a file, only schemas that map to your own schema are imported.

FULL is the default mode when you are performing a file-based import.

Example

The following is an example of using the FULL parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:expfull.dmp FULL=y 
LOGFILE=dpump_dir2:full_imp.log

This example imports everything from the expfull.dmp dump file. In this example, a DIRECTORY parameter is not provided. Therefore, a directory object must be provided on both the DUMPFILE parameter and the LOGFILE parameter. The directory objects can be different, as shown in this example.

HELP

Default: n

Purpose

Displays online help for the Import utility.

Syntax and Description

HELP=y

If HELP=y is specified, Import displays a summary of all Import command-line parameters and interactive commands.

Example

> impdp HELP = Y

This example will display a brief description of all Import parameters and commands.

INCLUDE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Enables you to filter the metadata that is imported by specifying objects and object types for the current import mode.

Syntax and Description

INCLUDE = object_type[:name_clause] [, ...]

Only object types in the source (and their dependents) that are explicitly specified in the INCLUDE statement are imported.

The name_clause is optional. It allows fine-grained selection of specific objects within an object type. It is a SQL expression used as a filter on the object names of the type. It consists of a SQL operator and the values against which the object names of the specified type are to be compared. The name clause applies only to object types whose instances have names (for example, it is applicable to TABLE, but not to GRANT). The optional name clause must be separated from the object type with a colon and enclosed in double quotation marks, because single-quotation marks are required to delimit the name strings.

More than one INCLUDE statement can be specified. Oracle recommends that you place INCLUDE statements in a parameter file to avoid having to use operating system-specific escape characters on the command line.

To see a list of valid paths for use with the INCLUDE parameter, you can query the following views: DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for Full mode, SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS for schema mode, and TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS for table and tablespace mode.

Restrictions

  • The INCLUDE and EXCLUDE parameters are mutually exclusive.

Example

Assume the following is in a parameter file, imp_include.par, being used by a DBA or some other user with the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role:

INCLUDE=FUNCTION
INCLUDE=PROCEDURE
INCLUDE=PACKAGE
INCLUDE=INDEX:"LIKE 'EMP%' "

You can then issue the following command:

> impdp system SCHEMAS=hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp 
PARFILE=imp_include.par

You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

The Import operation will load only functions, procedures, and packages from the hr schema and indexes whose names start with EMP. Although this is a privileged-mode import (the user must have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role), the schema definition is not imported, because the USER object type was not specified in an INCLUDE statement.

JOB_NAME

Default: system-generated name of the form SYS_<IMPORT or SQLFILE>_<mode>_NN

Purpose

The job name is used to identify the import job in subsequent actions, such as when the ATTACH parameter is used to attach to a job, or to identify the job via the DBA_DATAPUMP_JOBS or USER_DATAPUMP_JOBS views. The job name becomes the name of the master table in the current user's schema. The master table controls the import job.

Syntax and Description

JOB_NAME=jobname_string

The jobname_string specifies a name of up to 30 bytes for this import job. The bytes must represent printable characters and spaces. If spaces are included, the name must be enclosed in single quotation marks (for example, 'Thursday Import'). The job name is implicitly qualified by the schema of the user performing the import operation.

The default job name is system-generated in the form SYS_IMPORT_mode_NN or SYS_SQLFILE_mode_NN, where NN expands to a 2-digit incrementing integer starting at 01. An example of a default name is 'SYS_IMPORT_TABLESPACE_02'.

Example

The following is an example of using the JOB_NAME parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp JOB_NAME=impjob01

LOGFILE

Default: import.log

Purpose

Specifies the name, and optionally, a directory object, for the log file of the import job.

Syntax and Description

LOGFILE=[directory_object:]file_name

If you specify a directory_object, it must be one that was previously established by the DBA and that you have access to. This overrides the directory object specified with the DIRECTORY parameter. The default behavior is to create import.log in the directory referenced by the directory object specified in the DIRECTORY parameter.

If the file_name you specify already exists, it will be overwritten.

All messages regarding work in progress, work completed, and errors encountered are written to the log file. (For a real-time status of the job, use the STATUS command in interactive mode.)

A log file is always created unless the NOLOGFILE parameter is specified. As with the dump file set, the log file is relative to the server and not the client.

Note:

Data Pump Import writes the log file using the database character set. If your client NLS_LANG environment sets up a different client character set from the database character set, then it is possible that table names may be different in the log file than they are when displayed on the client output screen.

Restrictions

  • To perform a Data Pump Import using Automatic Storage Management (ASM), you must specify a LOGFILE parameter that includes a directory object that does not include the ASM + notation. That is, the log file must be written to a disk file, and not written into the ASM storage. Alternatively, you can specify NOLOGFILE=Y. However, this prevents the writing of the log file.

Example

The following is an example of using the LOGFILE parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr SCHEMAS=HR DIRECTORY=dpump_dir2 LOGFILE=imp.log
 DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:expfull.dmp

Because no directory object is specified on the LOGFILE parameter, the log file is written to the directory object specified on the DIRECTORY parameter.

See Also:

NETWORK_LINK

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Enables an import from a (source) database identified by a valid database link. The data from the source database instance is written directly back to the connected database instance.

Syntax and Description

NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link

The NETWORK_LINK parameter initiates an import via a database link. This means that the system to which the impdp client is connected contacts the source database referenced by the source_database_link, retrieves data from it, and writes the data to the database on the connected instance. There are no dump files involved.

The source_database_link provided must be the name of a database link to an available database. If the database on that instance does not already have a database link, you or your DBA must create one. For more information about the CREATE DATABASE LINK statement, see Oracle Database SQL Language Reference.

When you perform a network import using the transportable method, you must copy the source data files to the target database before you start the import.

If the source database is read-only, then the connected user must have a locally managed tablespace assigned as the default temporary tablespace on the source database. Otherwise, the job will fail. For further details about this, see the information about creating locally managed temporary tablespaces in the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.

This parameter is required when any of the following parameters are specified: FLASHBACK_SCN, FLASHBACK_TIME, ESTIMATE, TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES, or TRANSPORTABLE.

Caution:

If an import operation is performed over an unencrypted network link, then all data is imported as clear text even if it is encrypted in the database. See Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide for more information about network security.

Restrictions

  • Network imports do not support the use of evolved types.

  • When the NETWORK_LINK parameter is used in conjunction with the TABLES parameter, only whole tables can be imported (not partitions of tables). The only exception to this is if TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS is also specified, in which case single or multiple partitions of a specified table can be imported.

  • If the USERID that is executing the import job has the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role on the target database, then that user must also have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role on the source database.

  • The only types of database links supported by Data Pump Import are: public, fixed-user, and connected-user. Current-user database links are not supported.

Example

In the following example, the source_database_link would be replaced with the name of a valid database link.

> impdp hr TABLES=employees DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT

This example results in an import of the employees table (excluding constraints) from the source database. The log file is written to dpump_dir1, specified on the DIRECTORY parameter.

NOLOGFILE

Default: n

Purpose

Specifies whether or not to suppress the default behavior of creating a log file.

Syntax and Description

NOLOGFILE={y | n}

If you specify NOLOGFILE=Y to suppress creation of a log file, progress and error information is still written to the standard output device of any attached clients, including the client that started the original export operation. If there are no clients attached to a running job and you specify NOLOGFILE=Y, you run the risk of losing important progress and error information.

Example

The following is an example of using the NOLOGFILE parameter.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp NOLOGFILE=Y

This command results in a full mode import (the default for file-based imports) of the expfull.dmp dump file. No log file is written because NOLOGFILE is set to y.

PARALLEL

Default: 1

Purpose

Specifies the maximum number of threads of active execution operating on behalf of the import job.

Syntax and Description

PARALLEL=integer

The value you specify for integer specifies the maximum number of threads of active execution operating on behalf of the import job. This execution set consists of a combination of worker processes and parallel I/O server processes. The master control process, idle workers, and worker processes acting as parallel execution coordinators in parallel I/O operations do not count toward this total. This parameter enables you to make trade-offs between resource consumption and elapsed time.

If the source of the import is a dump file set consisting of files, multiple processes can read from the same file, but performance may be limited by I/O contention.

To increase or decrease the value of PARALLEL during job execution, use interactive-command mode.

Parallelism is used for loading user data and package bodies, and for building indexes.

Restrictions

  • This parameter is valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g.

Example

The following is an example of using the PARALLEL parameter.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 LOGFILE=parallel_import.log 
JOB_NAME=imp_par3 DUMPFILE=par_exp%U.dmp PARALLEL=3

This command imports the dump file set that is created when you run the example for the Export PARALLEL parameter. (See PARALLEL.) The names of the dump files are par_exp01.dmp, par_exp02.dmp, and par_exp03.dmp.

PARFILE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies the name of an import parameter file.

Syntax and Description

PARFILE=[directory_path]file_name

Unlike dump files, log files, and SQL files which are created and written by the server, the parameter file is opened and read by the client running the impdp image. Therefore, a directory object name is neither required nor appropriate. The default is the user's current directory. The use of parameter files is highly recommended if you are using parameters whose values require the use of quotation marks. (See Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line.)

Restrictions

  • The PARFILE parameter cannot be specified within a parameter file.

Example

The content of an example parameter file, hr_imp.par, might be as follows:

TABLES= countries, locations, regions
DUMPFILE=dpump_dir2:exp1.dmp,exp2%U.dmp
DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
PARALLEL=3 

You could then issue the following command to execute the parameter file:

> impdp hr PARFILE=hr_imp.par

The tables named countries, locations, and regions will be imported from the dump file set that is created when you run the example for the Export DUMPFILE parameter. (See DUMPFILE.) The import job looks for the exp1.dmp file in the location pointed to by dpump_dir2. It looks for any dump files of the form exp2<nn>.dmp in the location pointed to by dpump_dir1. The log file for the job will also be written to dpump_dir1.

PARTITION_OPTIONS

Default: The default is departition when partition names are specified on the TABLES parameter and TRANPORTABLE=ALWAYS is set (whether on the import operation or during the export). Otherwise, the default is none.

Purpose

Specifies how table partitions should be created during an import operation.

Syntax and Description

PARTITION_OPTIONS={none | departition | merge}

A value of none creates tables as they existed on the system from which the export operation was performed. You cannot use the none option or the merge option if the export was performed with the transportable method, along with a partition or subpartition filter. In such a case, you must use the departition option.

A value of departition promotes each partition or subpartition to a new individual table. The default name of the new table will be the concatenation of the table and partition name or the table and subpartition name, as appropriate.

A value of merge combines all partitions and subpartitions into one table.

Restrictions

  • If the export operation that created the dump file was performed with the transportable method and if a partition or subpartition was specified, then the import operation must use the departition option.

  • If the export operation that created the dump file was performed with the transportable method, then the import operation cannot use PARTITION_OPTIONS=merge.

  • If there are any grants on objects being departitioned, an error message is generated and the objects are not loaded.

Example

The following example assumes that the sh.sales table has been exported into a dump file named sales.dmp. It uses the MERGE option to merge all the partitions in sh.sales into one non-partitioned table in scott schema.

> impdp system TABLES=sh.sales PARTITION_OPTIONS=merge 
DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=sales.dmp REMAP_SCHEMA=sh:scott

See Also:

TRANSPORTABLE for an example of performing an import operation using PARTITION_OPTIONS=departition

QUERY

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Allows you to specify a query clause that filters the data that gets imported.

Syntax and Description

QUERY=[[schema_name.]table_name:]query_clause

The query_clause is typically a SQL WHERE clause for fine-grained row selection, but could be any SQL clause. For example, an ORDER BY clause could be used to speed up a migration from a heap-organized table to an index-organized table. If a schema and table name are not supplied, the query is applied to (and must be valid for) all tables in the source dump file set or database. A table-specific query overrides a query applied to all tables.

When the query is to be applied to a specific table, a colon must separate the table name from the query clause. More than one table-specific query can be specified, but only one query can be specified per table.

The query must be enclosed in single or double quotation marks. Double quotation marks are recommended, because strings within the clause must be enclosed in single quotation marks. Oracle recommends that you place QUERY specifications in a parameter file to avoid having to use operating system-specific escape characters on the command line. See Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line.

When the QUERY parameter is used, the external tables method (rather than the direct path method) is used for data access.

To specify a schema other than your own in a table-specific query, you must be granted access to that specific table.

Restrictions

  • The QUERY parameter cannot be used in conjunction with the following parameters:

    • CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY

    • SQLFILE

    • TRANSPORT_DATAFILES

  • When the QUERY parameter is specified for a table, Data Pump uses external tables to load the target table. External tables uses a SQL INSERT statement with a SELECT clause. The value of the QUERY parameter is included in the WHERE clause of the SELECT portion of the INSERT statement. If the QUERY parameter includes references to another table with columns whose names match the table being loaded, and if those columns are used in the query, then you will need to use a table alias to distinguish between columns in the table being loaded and columns in the SELECT statement with the same name. The table alias used by Data Pump for the table being loaded is KU$.

    For example, suppose you are importing a subset of the sh.sales table based on the credit limit for a customer in the sh.customers table. In the following example, KU$ is used to qualify the cust_id field in the QUERY parameter for loading sh.sales. As a result, Data Pump imports only rows for customers whose credit limit is greater than $10,000.

    QUERY='sales:"WHERE EXISTS (SELECT cust_id FROM customers c WHERE cust_credit_limit > 10000 AND ku$.cust_id = c.cust_id)"'
    

    If KU$ is not used for a table alias, the result will be that all rows are loaded:

    QUERY='sales:"WHERE EXISTS (SELECT cust_id FROM customers c WHERE cust_credit_limit > 10000 AND cust_id = c.cust_id)"'
    

Example

The following is an example of using the QUERY parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL. Because the QUERY value uses quotation marks, Oracle recommends that you use a parameter file to avoid having to use escape characters on the command line. (See Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line.)

Suppose you have a parameter file, query_imp.par, that contains the following:

QUERY=departments:"WHERE department_id < 120"

You can then enter the following command:

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp 
  PARFILE=query_imp.par NOLOGFILE=Y

All tables in expfull.dmp are imported, but for the departments table, only data that meets the criteria specified in the QUERY parameter is imported.

REMAP_DATA

Default: There is no default

Purpose

The REMAP_DATA parameter allows you to remap data as it is being inserted into a new database. A common use is to regenerate primary keys to avoid conflict when importing a table into a pre-existing table on the target database.

You can specify a remap function that takes as a source the value of the designated column from either the dump file or a remote database. The remap function then returns a remapped value that will replace the original value in the target database.

The same function can be applied to multiple columns being dumped. This is useful when you want to guarantee consistency in remapping both the child and parent column in a referential constraint.

Syntax and Description

REMAP_DATA=[schema.]tablename.column_name:[schema.]pkg.function

The description of each syntax element, in the order in which they appear in the syntax, is as follows:

schema -- the schema containing the table to be remapped. By default, this is the schema of the user doing the import.

tablename -- the table whose column will be remapped.

column_name -- the column whose data is to be remapped.

schema -- the schema containing the PL/SQL package you created that contains the remapping function. As a default, this is the schema of the user doing the import.

pkg -- the name of the PL/SQL package you created that contains the remapping function.

function -- the name of the function within the PL/SQL that will be called to remap the column table in each row of the specified table.

Restrictions

  • The data types of the source argument and the returned value should both match the data type of the designated column in the table.

  • Remapping functions should not perform commits or rollbacks except in autonomous transactions.

Example

The following example assumes a package named remap has been created that contains a function named plusx that changes the values for first_name in the employees table.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expschema.dmp
TABLES=hr.employees REMAP_DATA=hr.employees.first_name:hr.remap.plusx

REMAP_DATAFILE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Changes the name of the source datafile to the target datafile name in all SQL statements where the source datafile is referenced: CREATE TABLESPACE, CREATE LIBRARY, and CREATE DIRECTORY.

Syntax and Description

REMAP_DATAFILE=source_datafile:target_datafile

Remapping datafiles is useful when you move databases between platforms that have different file naming conventions. The source_datafile and target_datafile names should be exactly as you want them to appear in the SQL statements where they are referenced. Oracle recommends that you enclose datafile names in quotation marks to eliminate ambiguity on platforms for which a colon is a valid file specification character.

You must have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role to specify this parameter.

Example

Because the REMAP_DATAFILE value uses quotation marks, Oracle recommends that you specify the parameter within a parameter file to avoid having to use escape characters on the command line. (See Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line.) For example, suppose you had a parameter file, payroll.par, with the following content:

DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
FULL=Y
DUMPFILE=db_full.dmp
REMAP_DATAFILE="'DB1$:[HRDATA.PAYROLL]tbs6.f':'/db1/hrdata/payroll/tbs6.f'"

You can then issue the following command:

> impdp hr PARFILE=payroll.par

This example remaps a VMS file specification (DR1$:[HRDATA.PAYROLL]tbs6.f ) to a UNIX file specification, (/db1/hrdata/payroll/tbs6.f) for all SQL DDL statements during the import. The dump file, db_full.dmp, is located by the directory object, dpump_dir1.

REMAP_SCHEMA

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Loads all objects from the source schema into a target schema.

Syntax and Description

REMAP_SCHEMA=source_schema:target_schema

Multiple REMAP_SCHEMA lines can be specified, but the source schema must be different for each one. However, different source schemas can map to the same target schema. The mapping may not be 100 percent complete, because there are certain schema references that Import is not capable of finding. For example, Import will not find schema references embedded within the body of definitions of types, views, procedures, and packages.

If the schema you are remapping to does not already exist, then the import operation creates it, provided that the dump file set contains the necessary CREATE USER metadata for the source schema, and provided that you are importing with enough privileges. For example, entering the following Export commands creates the dump file sets with the necessary metadata to create a schema, because the user SYSTEM has the necessary privileges:

> expdp system SCHEMAS=hr
Password: password

> expdp system FULL=y
Password: password

If your dump file set does not contain the metadata necessary to create a schema, or if you do not have privileges, then the target schema must be created before the import operation is performed. This is because the unprivileged dump files do not contain the necessary information for the import to create the schema automatically.

If the import operation does create the schema, then after the import is complete, you must assign it a valid password in order to connect to it. The SQL statement to do this, which requires privileges, is:

SQL> ALTER USER schema_name IDENTIFIED BY new_password 

Restrictions

  • Unprivileged users can perform schema remaps only if their schema is the target schema of the remap. (Privileged users can perform unrestricted schema remaps.)

  • For example, SCOTT can remap his BLAKE's objects to SCOTT, but SCOTT cannot remap SCOTT's objects to BLAKE.

Example

Suppose that, as user SYSTEM, you execute the following Export and Import commands to remap the hr schema into the scott schema:

> expdp system SCHEMAS=hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp

> impdp system DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp REMAP_SCHEMA=hr.scott

In this example, if user scott already exists before the import, then the Import REMAP_SCHEMA command will add objects from the hr schema into the existing scott schema. You can connect to the scott schema after the import by using the existing password (without resetting it).

If user scott does not exist before you execute the import operation, Import automatically creates it with an unusable password. This is possible because the dump file, hr.dmp, was created by SYSTEM, which has the privileges necessary to create a dump file that contains the metadata needed to create a schema. However, you cannot connect to scott on completion of the import, unless you reset the password for scott on the target database after the import completes.

REMAP_TABLE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Allows you to rename tables during an import operation performed with the transportable method.

Syntax and Description

REMAP_TABLE=[schema.]old_tablename[.partition]:new_tablename

You can use the REMAP_TABLE parameter to rename entire tables.

You can also use it to override the automatic naming of table partitions that were exported using the transportable method. When partitioned tables are exported using the transportable method, each partition and subpartition is promoted to its own table and by default the table is named by combining the table and partition name (that is, tablename_partitionname). You can use REMAP_TABLE to specify a name other than the default.

Restrictions

  • Only objects created by the Import will be remapped. In particular, preexisting tables will not be remapped if TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION is set to TRUNCATE or APPEND.

Example

The following is an example of using the REMAP_TABLE parameter to rename the employees table to a new name of emps:

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expschema.dmp
TABLES=hr.employees REMAP_TABLE=hr.employees:emps 

REMAP_TABLESPACE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Remaps all objects selected for import with persistent data in the source tablespace to be created in the target tablespace.

Syntax and Description

REMAP_TABLESPACE=source_tablespace:target_tablespace

Multiple REMAP_TABLESPACE parameters can be specified, but no two can have the same source tablespace. The target schema must have sufficient quota in the target tablespace.

Note that use of the REMAP_TABLESPACE parameter is the only way to remap a tablespace in Data Pump Import. This is a simpler and cleaner method than the one provided in the original Import utility. That method was subject to many restrictions (including the number of tablespace subclauses) which sometimes resulted in the failure of some DDL commands.

By contrast, the Data Pump Import method of using the REMAP_TABLESPACE parameter works for all objects, including the user, and it works regardless of how many tablespace subclauses are in the DDL statement.

Restrictions

  • Data Pump Import can only remap tablespaces for transportable imports in databases where the compatibility level is 10.1 or later.

  • Only objects created by the Import will be remapped. In particular, the tablespaces for preexisting tables will not be remapped if TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION is set to SKIP, TRUNCATE or APPEND.

Example

The following is an example of using the REMAP_TABLESPACE parameter.

> impdp hr REMAP_TABLESPACE=tbs_1:tbs_6 DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
  DUMPFILE=employees.dmp 

REUSE_DATAFILES

Default: n

Purpose

Specifies whether or not the import job should reuse existing datafiles for tablespace creation.

Syntax and Description

REUSE_DATAFILES={y | n}

If the default (n) is used and the datafiles specified in CREATE TABLESPACE statements already exist, an error message from the failing CREATE TABLESPACE statement is issued, but the import job continues.

If this parameter is specified as y, the existing datafiles are reinitialized. Be aware that specifying Y can result in a loss of data.

Example

The following is an example of using the REUSE_DATAFILES parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp LOGFILE=reuse.log
REUSE_DATAFILES=Y

This example reinitializes datafiles referenced by CREATE TABLESPACE statements in the expfull.dmp file.

SCHEMAS

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies that a schema-mode import is to be performed.

Syntax and Description

SCHEMAS=schema_name [,...]

If you have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role, you can use this parameter to perform a schema-mode import by specifying a list of schemas to import. First, the user definitions are imported (if they do not already exist), including system and role grants, password history, and so on. Then all objects contained within the schemas are imported. Nonprivileged users can specify only their own schemas or schemas remapped to their own schemas. In that case, no information about the schema definition is imported, only the objects contained within it.

The use of filtering can restrict what is imported using this import mode. See Filtering During Import Operations.

Schema-mode is the default mode when you are performing a network-based import.

Example

The following is an example of using the SCHEMAS parameter. You can create the expdat.dmp file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export SCHEMAS parameter. See SCHEMAS.

> impdp hr SCHEMAS=hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 LOGFILE=schemas.log
DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp

The hr schema is imported from the expdat.dmp file. The log file, schemas.log, is written to dpump_dir1.

SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES

Default: the value of the Oracle Database configuration parameter, SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES.

Purpose

Specifies whether or not Import skips loading tables that have indexes that were set to the Index Unusable state (by either the system or the user).

Syntax and Description

SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES={y | n}

If SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES is set to y, and a table or partition with an index in the Unusable state is encountered, the load of that table or partition proceeds anyway, as if the unusable index did not exist.

If SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES is set to n, and a table or partition with an index in the Unusable state is encountered, that table or partition is not loaded. Other tables, with indexes not previously set Unusable, continue to be updated as rows are inserted.

If the SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES parameter is not specified, then the setting of the Oracle Database configuration parameter, SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES (whose default value is y), will be used to determine how to handle unusable indexes.

If indexes used to enforce constraints are marked unusable, then the data is not imported into that table.

Note:

This parameter is useful only when importing data into an existing table. It has no practical effect when a table is created as part of an import because in that case, the table and indexes are newly created and will not be marked unusable.

Example

The following is an example of using the SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp LOGFILE=skip.log
SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES=y

SQLFILE

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies a file into which all of the SQL DDL that Import would have executed, based on other parameters, is written.

Syntax and Description

SQLFILE=[directory_object:]file_name

The file_name specifies where the import job will write the DDL that would be executed during the job. The SQL is not actually executed, and the target system remains unchanged. The file is written to the directory object specified in the DIRECTORY parameter, unless another directory_object is explicitly specified here. Any existing file that has a name matching the one specified with this parameter is overwritten.

Note that passwords are not included in the SQL file. For example, if a CONNECT statement is part of the DDL that was executed, it will be replaced by a comment with only the schema name shown. In the following example, the dashes indicate that a comment follows, and the hr schema name is shown, but not the password.

-- CONNECT hr

Therefore, before you can execute the SQL file, you must edit it by removing the dashes indicating a comment and adding the password for the hr schema.

For Streams and other Oracle database options, anonymous PL/SQL blocks may appear within the SQLFILE output. They should not be executed directly.

Restrictions

  • If SQLFILE is specified, then the CONTENT parameter is ignored if it is set to either ALL or DATA_ONLY.

  • To perform a Data Pump Import to a SQL file using Automatic Storage Management (ASM), the SQLFILE parameter that you specify must include a directory object that does not use the ASM + notation. That is, the SQL file must be written to a disk file, not into the ASM storage.

Example

The following is an example of using the SQLFILE parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp
SQLFILE=dpump_dir2:expfull.sql

A SQL file named expfull.sql is written to dpump_dir2.

STATUS

Default: 0

Purpose

Specifies the frequency at which the job status will be displayed.

Syntax and Description

STATUS[=integer]

If you supply a value for integer, it specifies how frequently, in seconds, job status should be displayed in logging mode. If no value is entered or if the default value of 0 is used, no additional information is displayed beyond information about the completion of each object type, table, or partition.

This status information is written only to your standard output device, not to the log file (if one is in effect).

Example

The following is an example of using the STATUS parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr NOLOGFILE=y STATUS=120 DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp

In this example, the status is shown every two minutes (120 seconds).

STREAMS_CONFIGURATION

Default: y

Purpose

Specifies whether or not to import any Streams metadata that may be present in the export dump file.

Syntax and Description

STREAMS_CONFIGURATION={y | n}

Example

The following is an example of using the STREAMS_CONFIGURATION parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp STREAMS_CONFIGURATION=n

TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION

Default: SKIP (Note that if CONTENT=DATA_ONLY is specified, the default is APPEND, not SKIP.)

Purpose

Tells Import what to do if the table it is trying to create already exists.

Syntax and Description

TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION={SKIP | APPEND | TRUNCATE | REPLACE}

The possible values have the following effects:

  • SKIP leaves the table as is and moves on to the next object. This is not a valid option if the CONTENT parameter is set to DATA_ONLY.

  • APPEND loads rows from the source and leaves existing rows unchanged.

  • TRUNCATE deletes existing rows and then loads rows from the source.

  • REPLACE drops the existing table and then creates and loads it from the source. This is not a valid option if the CONTENT parameter is set to DATA_ONLY.

The following considerations apply when you are using these options:

  • When you use TRUNCATE or REPLACE, make sure that rows in the affected tables are not targets of any referential constraints.

  • When you use SKIP, APPEND, or TRUNCATE, existing table-dependent objects in the source, such as indexes, grants, triggers, and constraints, are ignored. For REPLACE, the dependent objects are dropped and re-created from the source, if they were not explicitly or implicitly excluded (using EXCLUDE) and they exist in the source dump file or system.

  • When you use APPEND or TRUNCATE, checks are made to ensure that rows from the source are compatible with the existing table prior to performing any action.

    If the existing table has active constraints and triggers, it is loaded using the external tables access method. If any row violates an active constraint, the load fails and no data is loaded. You can override this behavior by specifying DATA_OPTIONS=SKIP_CONSTRAINT_ERRORS on the Import command line.

    If you have data that must be loaded, but may cause constraint violations, consider disabling the constraints, loading the data, and then deleting the problem rows before reenabling the constraints.

  • When you use APPEND, the data is always loaded into new space; existing space, even if available, is not reused. For this reason, you may wish to compress your data after the load.

Restrictions

  • TRUNCATE cannot be used on clustered tables or over network links.

Example

The following is an example of using the TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr TABLES=employees DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp
TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION=REPLACE

TABLES

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies that you want to perform a table-mode import.

Syntax and Description

TABLES=[schema_name.]table_name[:partition_name]

In a table-mode import, you can filter the data that is imported from the source by specifying a comma-delimited list of tables and partitions or subpartitions.

If you do not supply a schema_name, it defaults to that of the current user. To specify a schema other than your own, you must either have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role or remap the schema to the current user.

The use of filtering can restrict what is imported using this import mode. See Filtering During Import Operations.

If a partition_name is specified, it must be the name of a partition or subpartition in the associated table.

The use of wildcards to specify table names is also supported; however, only one table expression can be supplied. For example, TABLES=emp% would import all tables having names that start with 'EMP'.

Restrictions

  • The use of synonyms as values for the TABLES parameter is not supported. For example, if the regions table in the hr schema had a synonym of regn, it would not be valid to use TABLES=regn. An error would be returned.

  • If you specify more than one table_name, they must all reside in the same schema.

  • You can only specify partitions from one table if PARTITION_OPTIONS=DEPARTITION is also specified on the import.

  • When the NETWORK_LINK parameter is used in conjunction with the TABLES parameter, only whole tables can be imported (not partitions of tables). The only exception to this is if TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS is also specified, in which case single or multiple partitions of a specified table can be imported.

  • If you specify TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS, then all partitions specified on the TABLES parameter must be in the same table.

  • The length of the table name list specified for the TABLES parameter is limited to a maximum of 4MB, unless you are using the NETWORK_LINK parameter to a 10.2.0.3 or earlier database or to a read-only database. In such cases, the limit is 4KB.

Example

The following example shows a simple use of the TABLES parameter to import only the employees and jobs tables from the expfull.dmp file. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp TABLES=employees,jobs

The following example shows the use of the TABLES parameter to import partitions:

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp 
TABLES=sh.sales:sales_Q1_2000,sh.sales:sales_Q2_2000

This example imports the partitions sales_Q1_2000 and sales_Q2_2000 for the table sales in the schema sh.

TABLESPACES

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies that you want to perform a tablespace-mode import.

Syntax and Description

TABLESPACES=tablespace_name [, ...]

Use TABLESPACES to specify a list of tablespace names whose tables and dependent objects are to be imported from the source (full, schema, tablespace, or table-mode export dump file set or another database).

During the following import situations, Data Pump automatically creates the tablespaces into which the data will be imported:

  • The import is being done in FULL or TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES mode

  • The import is being done in table mode with TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS

In all other cases, the tablespaces for the selected objects must already exist on the import database. You could also use the Import REMAP_TABLESPACE parameter to map the tablespace name to an existing tablespace on the import database.

The use of filtering can restrict what is imported using this import mode. See Filtering During Import Operations.

Restrictions

  • The length of the list of tablespace names specified for the TABLESPACES parameter is limited to a maximum of 4MB, unless you are using the NETWORK_LINK parameter to a 10.2.0.3 or earlier database or to a read-only database. In such cases, the limit is 4KB.

Example

The following is an example of using the TABLESPACES parameter. It assumes that the tablespaces already exist. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp TABLESPACES=tbs_1,tbs_2,tbs_3,tbs_4

This example imports all tables that have data in tablespaces tbs_1, tbs_2, tbs_3, and tbs_4.

TRANSFORM

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Enables you to alter object creation DDL for objects being imported.

Syntax and Description

TRANSFORM = transform_name:value[:object_type]

The transform_name specifies the name of the transform. The possible options are as follows:

  • SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES - If the value is specified as y, then segment attributes (physical attributes, storage attributes, tablespaces, and logging) are included, with appropriate DDL. The default is y.

  • STORAGE - If the value is specified as y, the storage clauses are included, with appropriate DDL. The default is y. This parameter is ignored if SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES=n.

  • OID - If the value is specified as n, the assignment of the exported OID during the creation of object tables and types is inhibited. Instead, a new OID is assigned. This can be useful for cloning schemas, but does not affect referenced objects. The default value is y.

  • PCTSPACE - The value supplied for this transform must be a number greater than zero. It represents the percentage multiplier used to alter extent allocations and the size of datafiles.

    Note that you can use the PCTSPACE transform in conjunction with the Data Pump Export SAMPLE parameter so that the size of storage allocations matches the sampled data subset. (See SAMPLE.)

The type of value specified depends on the transform used. Boolean values (y/n) are required for the SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES, STORAGE, and OID transforms. Integer values are required for the PCTSPACE transform.

The object_type is optional. If supplied, it designates the object type to which the transform will be applied. If no object type is specified then the transform applies to all valid object types. The valid object types for each transform are shown in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1 Valid Object Types For the Data Pump Export TRANSFORM Parameter


SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES STORAGE OID PCTSPACE

CLUSTER

X

X

 

X

CONSTRAINT

X

X

 

X

INC_TYPE

   

X

 

INDEX

X

X

 

X

ROLLBACK_SEGMENT

X

X

 

X

TABLE

X

X

X

X

TABLESPACE

X

   

X

TYPE

   

X

 

Example

For the following example, assume that you have exported the employees table in the hr schema. The SQL CREATE TABLE statement that results when you then import the table is similar to the following:

CREATE TABLE "HR"."EMPLOYEES" 
   ( "EMPLOYEE_ID" NUMBER(6,0), 
     "FIRST_NAME" VARCHAR2(20), 
     "LAST_NAME" VARCHAR2(25) CONSTRAINT "EMP_LAST_NAME_NN" NOT NULL ENABLE, 
     "EMAIL" VARCHAR2(25) CONSTRAINT "EMP_EMAIL_NN" NOT NULL ENABLE, 
     "PHONE_NUMBER" VARCHAR2(20), 
     "HIRE_DATE" DATE CONSTRAINT "EMP_HIRE_DATE_NN" NOT NULL ENABLE, 
     "JOB_ID" VARCHAR2(10) CONSTRAINT "EMP_JOB_NN" NOT NULL ENABLE, 
     "SALARY" NUMBER(8,2), 
     "COMMISSION_PCT" NUMBER(2,2), 
     "MANAGER_ID" NUMBER(6,0), 
     "DEPARTMENT_ID" NUMBER(4,0)
   ) PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255 NOCOMPRESS LOGGING
  STORAGE(INITIAL 10240 NEXT 16384 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 121
  PCTINCREASE 50 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "SYSTEM" ;

If you do not want to retain the STORAGE clause or TABLESPACE clause, you can remove them from the CREATE STATEMENT by using the Import TRANSFORM parameter. Specify the value of SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES as n. This results in the exclusion of segment attributes (both storage and tablespace) from the table.

> impdp hr TABLES=hr.employees \
  DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_emp.dmp \
  TRANSFORM=SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES:n:table

The resulting CREATE TABLE statement for the employees table would then look similar to the following. It does not contain a STORAGE or TABLESPACE clause; the attributes for the default tablespace for the HR schema will be used instead.

CREATE TABLE "HR"."EMPLOYEES" 
   ( "EMPLOYEE_ID" NUMBER(6,0), 
     "FIRST_NAME" VARCHAR2(20), 
     "LAST_NAME" VARCHAR2(25) CONSTRAINT "EMP_LAST_NAME_NN" NOT NULL ENABLE, 
     "EMAIL" VARCHAR2(25) CONSTRAINT "EMP_EMAIL_NN" NOT NULL ENABLE, 
     "PHONE_NUMBER" VARCHAR2(20), 
     "HIRE_DATE" DATE CONSTRAINT "EMP_HIRE_DATE_NN" NOT NULL ENABLE, 
     "JOB_ID" VARCHAR2(10) CONSTRAINT "EMP_JOB_NN" NOT NULL ENABLE, 
     "SALARY" NUMBER(8,2), 
     "COMMISSION_PCT" NUMBER(2,2), 
     "MANAGER_ID" NUMBER(6,0), 
     "DEPARTMENT_ID" NUMBER(4,0)
   );

As shown in the previous example, the SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES transform applies to both storage and tablespace attributes. To omit only the STORAGE clause and retain the TABLESPACE clause, you can use the STORAGE transform, as follows:

> impdp hr TABLES=hr.employees \
  DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_emp.dmp \
  TRANSFORM=STORAGE:n:table

The SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES and STORAGE transforms can be applied to all applicable table and index objects by not specifying the object type on the TRANSFORM parameter, as shown in the following command:

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp \
 SCHEMAS=hr TRANSFORM=SEGMENT_ATTRIBUTES:n

TRANSPORT_DATAFILES

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies a list of datafiles to be imported into the target database by a transportable-mode import, or by a table mode import if TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS was set during the export. The files must already have been copied from the source database system to the target database system.

Syntax and Description

TRANSPORT_DATAFILES=datafile_name

The datafile_name must include an absolute directory path specification (not a directory object name) that is valid on the system where the target database resides.

Example

The following is an example of using the TRANSPORT_DATAFILES parameter. Because the TRANSPORT_DATAFILES value is enclosed in quotation marks, Oracle recommends that you use a parameter file to avoid having to use escape characters on the command line. (See Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line.) Assume you have a parameter file, trans_datafiles.par, with the following content:

DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
DUMPFILE=tts.dmp
TRANSPORT_DATAFILES='/user01/data/tbs1.f'

You can then issue the following command:

> impdp hr PARFILE=trans_datafiles.par

TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK

Default: n

Purpose

Specifies whether to verify that the specified transportable tablespace set is being referenced by objects in other tablespaces.

Syntax and Description

TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK={y | n}

If TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=y, then Import verifies that there are no dependencies between those objects inside the transportable set and those outside the transportable set. The check addresses two-way dependencies. For example, if a table is inside the transportable set but its index is not, a failure is returned and the import operation is terminated. Similarly, a failure is also returned if an index is in the transportable set but the table is not.

If TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=n, then Import verifies only that there are no objects within the transportable set that are dependent on objects outside the transportable set. This check addresses a one-way dependency. For example, a table is not dependent on an index, but an index is dependent on a table, because an index without a table has no meaning. Therefore, if the transportable set contains a table, but not its index, then this check succeeds. However, if the transportable set contains an index, but not the table, the import operation is terminated.

In addition to this check, Import always verifies that all storage segments of all tables (and their indexes) defined within the tablespace set specified by TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES are actually contained within the tablespace set.

Restrictions

  • This parameter is valid for transportable mode (or table mode when TRANSPORTABLE=ALWAYS was specified on the export) only when the NETWORK_LINK parameter is specified.

Example

In the following example, source_database_link would be replaced with the name of a valid database link. The example also assumes that a datafile named tbs6.f already exists.

Because the TRANSPORT_DATAFILES value is enclosed in quotation marks, Oracle recommends that you use a parameter file to avoid having to use escape characters on the command line. (See Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line.) For example, assume you have a parameter file, full_check.par, with the following content:

DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES=tbs_6
NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link
TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=y
TRANSPORT_DATAFILES='/wkdir/data/tbs6.f'

You can then issue the following command:

> impdp hr PARFILE=full_check.par

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES

Default: There is no default

Purpose

Specifies that you want to perform a transportable-tablespace-mode import over a network link.

Syntax and Description

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES=tablespace_name [, ...]

Use the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter to specify a list of tablespace names for which object metadata will be imported from the source database into the target database.

Because this is a transportable-mode import, the tablespaces into which the data is imported are automatically created by Data Pump.You do not need to pre-create them. However, the data files should be copied to the target database prior to starting the import.

Restrictions

  • You cannot export transportable tablespaces and then import them into a database at a lower release level. The target database into which you are importing must be at the same or higher release level as the source database.

  • The TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter is valid only when the NETWORK_LINK parameter is also specified.

  • Transportable mode does not support encrypted columns.

Example

In the following example, the source_database_link would be replaced with the name of a valid database link. The example also assumes that a datafile named tbs6.f has already been copied from the source database to the local system. Because the TRANSPORT_DATAFILES value is enclosed in quotation marks, Oracle recommends that you use a parameter file to avoid having to use escape characters on the command line. (See Use of Quotation Marks On the Data Pump Command Line.) Suppose you have a parameter file, tablespaces.par, with the following content:

DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link
TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES=tbs_6
TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=n
TRANSPORT_DATAFILES='user01/data/tbs6.f'

You can then issue the following command:

> impdp hr PARFILE=tablespaces.par

TRANSPORTABLE

Default: NEVER

Purpose

Specifies whether or not the transportable option should be used when a table-mode import (specified with the TABLES parameter) is performed.

Syntax and Description

TRANSPORTABLE = {ALWAYS | NEVER}

The definitions of the allowed values are as follows:

ALWAYS - Instructs the import job to use the transportable option. If transportable is not possible, the job will fail.

NEVER - Instructs the import job to use either the direct path or external table method to load data rather than the transportable option. This is the default.

Restrictions

  • The TRANSPORTABLE parameter is valid only if the NETWORK_LINK parameter is also specified.

  • The TRANSPORTABLE parameter is only valid in table mode imports (the tables do not have to be partitioned or subpartitioned).

  • The schema performing a transportable import requires the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role on the source database and the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role on the target database.

  • To make full use of the TRANSPORTABLE parameter, the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter must be set to at least 11.0.0.

Example

The following example shows the use of the TRANSPORTABLE parameter during a network link import.

> impdp system TABLES=hr.sales TRANSPORTABLE=always
  DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 NETWORK_LINK=dbs1 PARTITION_OPTIONS=departition
  TRANSPORT_DATAFILES=datafile_name 

VERSION

Default: COMPATIBLE

Purpose

Specifies the version of database objects to be imported. Note that this does not mean that Data Pump Import can be used with versions of Oracle Database prior to 10.1. Data Pump Import only works with Oracle Database 10g release 1 (10.1) or later. The VERSION parameter simply allows you to identify the version of the objects being imported.

Syntax and Description

VERSION={COMPATIBLE | LATEST | version_string}

This parameter can be used to load a target system whose Oracle database is at an earlier compatibility version than that of the source system. Database objects or attributes on the source system that are incompatible with the specified version will not be moved to the target. For example, tables containing new datatypes that are not supported in the specified version will not be imported. Legal values for this parameter are as follows:

  • COMPATIBLE - This is the default value. The version of the metadata corresponds to the database compatibility level. Database compatibility must be set to 9.2.0 or higher.

  • LATEST - The version of the metadata corresponds to the database version.

  • version_string - A specific database version (for example, 11.1.0). In Oracle Database 11g, this value must be 9.2.0 or higher.

Example

The following is an example of using the VERSION parameter. You can create the expfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided for the Export FULL parameter. See FULL.

> impdp hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp TABLES=employees
VERSION=LATEST

How Data Pump Import Parameters Map to Those of the Original Import Utility

Table 3-2 maps, as closely as possible, Data Pump Import parameters to original Import parameters. In some cases, because of feature redesign, the original Import parameter is no longer needed so there is no Data Pump command to compare it to. Also, as shown in the table, some of the parameter names may be the same, but the functionality is slightly different.

Table 3-2 Original Import Parameters and Their Counterparts in Data Pump Import

Original Import Parameter Comparable Data Pump Import Parameter
BUFFER

A parameter comparable to BUFFER is not needed.

CHARSET

A parameter comparable to CHARSET is not needed.

COMMIT

A parameter comparable to COMMIT is not supported.

COMPILE

A parameter comparable to COMPILE is not supported.

CONSTRAINTS

EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT

DATAFILES

TRANSPORT_DATAFILES

DESTROY

REUSE_DATAFILES

FEEDBACK

STATUS

FILE

DUMPFILE

FILESIZE

Not necessary. It is included in the dump file set.

FROMUSER

SCHEMAS

FULL

FULL

GRANTS

EXCLUDE=GRANT

HELP

HELP

IGNORE

TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION

INDEXES

EXCLUDE=INDEX

INDEXFILE

SQLFILE with INCLUDE INDEX

LOG

LOGFILE

PARFILE

PARFILE

RECORDLENGTH

A parameter comparable to RECORDLENGTH is not needed.

RESUMABLE

A parameter comparable to RESUMABLE is not needed. This functionality is automatically provided for users who have been granted the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role.

RESUMABLE_NAME

A parameter comparable to RESUMABLE_NAME is not needed. This functionality is automatically provided for users who have been granted the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role.

RESUMABLE_TIMEOUT

A parameter comparable to RESUMABLE_TIMEOUT is not needed. This functionality is automatically provided for users who have been granted the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role.

ROWS=N

CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY

ROWS=Y

CONTENT=ALL

SHOW

SQLFILE

SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES

SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES

STATISTICS

The STATISTICS parameter in Original Import took four possible values: ALWAYS, SAFE, RECALCULATE, and NONE.

The Data Pump parameter that is equivalent to Original Import's STATISTICS=NONE is EXCLUDE=STATISTICS.

A Data Pump Import parameter comparable to STATISTICS=ALWAYS|SAFE|RECALCULATE is not needed, because if the source table has statistics, they are imported by default.

STREAMS_CONFIGURATION

STREAMS_CONFIGURATION

STREAMS_INSTANTIATION

A parameter comparable to STREAMS_INSTANTIATION is not needed.

TABLES

TABLES

TABLESPACES

TABLESPACES

TOID_NOVALIDATE

A command comparable to TOID_NOVALIDATE is not needed. OIDs are no longer used for type validation.

TOUSER

REMAP_SCHEMA

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE

A parameter comparable to TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE is not needed because metadata is stored in the dump file set.

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE
 
TTS_OWNERS 

A parameter comparable to TTS_OWNERS is not needed because the information is stored in the dump file set.

USERID

A parameter comparable to USERID is not needed. This information is supplied as the username and password when you invoke Import.

VOLSIZE

A parameter comparable to VOLSIZE is not needed because tapes are not supported.


Commands Available in Import's Interactive-Command Mode

In interactive-command mode, the current job continues running, but logging to the terminal is suspended and the Import prompt (Import>) is displayed.

Note:

Data Pump Import interactive-command mode is different from the interactive mode for original Import, in which Import prompted you for input. See Interactive Mode for information about interactive mode in original Import.

To start interactive-command mode, do one of the following:

Table 3-3 lists the activities you can perform for the current job from the Data Pump Import prompt in interactive-command mode.

Table 3-3 Supported Activities in Data Pump Import's Interactive-Command Mode

Activity Command Used

Exit interactive-command mode

CONTINUE_CLIENT

Stop the import client session, but leave the current job running

EXIT_CLIENT

Display a summary of available commands

HELP

Detach all currently attached client sessions and kill the current job

KILL_JOB

Increase or decrease the number of active worker processes for the current job. This command is valid only in the Enterprise Edition.

PARALLEL

Restart a stopped job to which you are attached

START_JOB

Display detailed status for the current job

STATUS

Stop the current job

STOP_JOB


The following are descriptions of the commands available in the interactive-command mode of Data Pump Import.

CONTINUE_CLIENT

Purpose

Changes the mode from interactive-command mode to logging mode.

Syntax and Description

CONTINUE_CLIENT

In logging mode, the job status is continually output to the terminal. If the job is currently stopped, then CONTINUE_CLIENT will also cause the client to attempt to start the job.

Example

Import> CONTINUE_CLIENT

EXIT_CLIENT

Purpose

Stops the import client session, exits Import, and discontinues logging to the terminal, but leaves the current job running.

Syntax and Description

EXIT_CLIENT

Because EXIT_CLIENT leaves the job running, you can attach to the job at a later time if it is still executing or in a stopped state. To see the status of the job, you can monitor the log file for the job or you can query the USER_DATAPUMP_JOBS view or the V$SESSION_LONGOPS view.

Example

Import> EXIT_CLIENT

HELP

Purpose

Provides information about Data Pump Import commands available in interactive-command mode.

Syntax and Description

HELP

Displays information about the commands available in interactive-command mode.

Example

Import> HELP

KILL_JOB

Purpose

Detaches all currently attached client sessions and then kills the current job. It exits Import and returns to the terminal prompt.

Syntax and Description

KILL_JOB

A job that is killed using KILL_JOB cannot be restarted. All attached clients, including the one issuing the KILL_JOB command, receive a warning that the job is being killed by the current user and are then detached. After all clients are detached, the job's process structure is immediately run down and the master table and dump files are deleted. Log files are not deleted.

Example

Import> KILL_JOB

PARALLEL

Purpose

Enables you to increase or decrease the number of active worker processes and/or PQ slaves for the current job.

Syntax and Description

PARALLEL=integer

PARALLEL is available as both a command-line parameter and an interactive-mode parameter. You set it to the desired number of parallel processes. An increase takes effect immediately if there are enough resources and if there is a sufficient amount of work requiring parallelization. A decrease does not take effect until an existing process finishes its current task. If the integer value is decreased, workers are idled but not deleted until the job exits.

See Also:

PARALLEL for more information about parallelism

Restrictions

  • PARALLEL is available only in Enterprise Edition.

Example

Import> PARALLEL=10

START_JOB

Purpose

Starts the current job to which you are attached.

Syntax and Description

START_JOB[=skip_current=y]

The START_JOB command restarts the job to which you are currently attached (the job cannot be currently executing). The job is restarted with no data loss or corruption after an unexpected failure or after you issue a STOP_JOB command, provided the dump file set and master table remain undisturbed.

The SKIP_CURRENT option allows you to restart a job that previously failed to restart because execution of some DDL statement failed. The failing statement is skipped and the job is restarted from the next work item.

Neither SQLFILE jobs nor transportable-tablespace-mode imports are restartable.

Example

Import> START_JOB

STATUS

Purpose

Displays the cumulative status of the job, along with a description of the current operation. A completion percentage for the job is also returned.

Syntax and Description

STATUS[=integer]

You have the option of specifying how frequently, in seconds, this status should be displayed in logging mode. If no value is entered or if the default value of 0 is used, the periodic status display is turned off and status is displayed only once.

This status information is written only to your standard output device, not to the log file (even if one is in effect).

Example

The following example will display the current job status and change the logging mode display interval to two minutes (120 seconds).

Import> STATUS=120

STOP_JOB

Purpose

Stops the current job either immediately or after an orderly shutdown, and exits Import.

Syntax and Description

STOP_JOB[=IMMEDIATE]

If the master table and dump file set are not disturbed when or after the STOP_JOB command is issued, the job can be attached to and restarted at a later time with the START_JOB command.

To perform an orderly shutdown, use STOP_JOB (without any associated value). A warning requiring confirmation will be issued. An orderly shutdown stops the job after worker processes have finished their current tasks.

To perform an immediate shutdown, specify STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE. A warning requiring confirmation will be issued. All attached clients, including the one issuing the STOP_JOB command, receive a warning that the job is being stopped by the current user and they will be detached. After all clients are detached, the process structure of the job is immediately run down. That is, the master process will not wait for the worker processes to finish their current tasks. There is no risk of corruption or data loss when you specify STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE. However, some tasks that were incomplete at the time of shutdown may have to be redone at restart time.

Example

Import> STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE

Examples of Using Data Pump Import

This section provides examples of the following ways in which you might use Data Pump Import:

For information that will help you to successfully use these examples, see Using the Import Parameter Examples.

Performing a Data-Only Table-Mode Import

Example 3-1 shows how to perform a data-only table-mode import of the table named employees. It uses the dump file created in Example 2-1.

Example 3-1 Performing a Data-Only Table-Mode Import

> impdp hr TABLES=employees CONTENT=DATA_ONLY DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:table.dmp
NOLOGFILE=y

The CONTENT=DATA_ONLY parameter filters out any database object definitions (metadata). Only table row data is loaded.

Performing a Schema-Mode Import

Example 3-2 shows a schema-mode import of the dump file set created in Example 2-4.

Example 3-2 Performing a Schema-Mode Import

> impdp hr SCHEMAS=hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expschema.dmp
 EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT,REF_CONSTRAINT,INDEX TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION=REPLACE

The EXCLUDE parameter filters the metadata that is imported. For the given mode of import, all the objects contained within the source, and all their dependent objects, are included except those specified in an EXCLUDE statement. If an object is excluded, all of its dependent objects are also excluded.The TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION=REPLACE parameter tells Import to drop the table if it already exists and to then re-create and load it using the dump file contents.

Performing a Network-Mode Import

Example 3-3 performs a network-mode import where the source is the database specified by the NETWORK_LINK parameter.

Example 3-3 Network-Mode Import of Schemas

> impdp hr TABLES=employees REMAP_SCHEMA=hr:scott DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1
NETWORK_LINK=dblink

This example imports the employees table from the hr schema into the scott schema. The dblink references a source database that is different than the target database.

To remap the schema, user hr must have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role on the local database and the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role on the source database.

REMAP_SCHEMA loads all the objects from the source schema into the target schema.

See Also:

NETWORK_LINK for more information about database links

Syntax Diagrams for Data Pump Import

This section provides syntax diagrams for Data Pump Import. These diagrams use standard SQL syntax notation. For more information about SQL syntax notation, see Oracle Database SQL Language Reference.

ImpInit

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ImpStart

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ImpModes

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ImpOpts

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ImpFilter

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ImpRemap

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ImpFileOpts

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ImpNetworkOpts

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ImpDynOpts

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