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Oracle® Streams Replication Administrator's Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1)

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12 Comparing and Converging Data

This chapter contains instructions for comparing and converging data in database objects at two different databases using the DBMS_COMPARISON package. It also contains instructions for managing comparisons after they are created and for querying data dictionary views to obtain information about comparisons and comparison results.

This chapter contains these topics:

See Also:

Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information about the DBMS_COMPARISON package

About Comparing and Converging Data

The DBMS_COMPARISON package enables you to compare database objects at different databases and identify differences in them. This package also enables you converge the database objects so that they are consistent at different databases. Typically, this package is used in environments that share a database object at multiple databases. When copies of the same database object exist at multiple databases, the database object is a shared database object.

Shared database objects might be maintained by data replication. For example, materialized views or Oracle Streams components might replicate the database objects and maintain them at multiple databases. A custom application might also maintain shared database objects. When a database object is shared, it can diverge at the databases that share it. You can use the DBMS_COMPARISON package to identify differences in the shared database objects. After identifying the differences, you can optionally use this package to synchronize the shared database objects.

The DBMS_COMPARISON package can compare the following types of database objects:

Database objects of different types can be compared and converged at different databases. For example, a table at one database and a materialized view at another database can be compared and converged with this package.

You create a comparison between two database objects using the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure in the DBMS_COMPARISON package. After you create a comparison, you can run the comparison at any time using the COMPARE function. When you run the COMPARE function, it records comparison results in the appropriate data dictionary views. Separate comparison results are generated for each execution of the COMPARE function.

Scans

Each time the COMPARE function is run, one or more new scans are performed for the specified comparison. A scan checks for differences in some or all of the rows in a shared database object at a single point in time. The comparison results for a single execution of the COMPARE function can include one or more scans. You can compare database objects multiple times, and a unique scan ID identifies each scan in the comparison results.

Buckets

A bucket is a range of rows in a database object that is being compared. Buckets improve performance by splitting the database object into ranges and comparing the ranges independently. Every comparison divides the rows being compared into an appropriate number of buckets. The number of buckets used depends on the size of the database object and is always less than the maximum number of buckets specified for the comparison by the max_num_buckets parameter in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure.

When a bucket is compared using the COMPARE function, the following results are possible:

  • No differences are found. In this case, the comparison proceeds to the next bucket.

  • Differences are found. In this case, the comparison can split the bucket into smaller buckets and compare each smaller bucket. When differences are found in a smaller bucket, the bucket is split into still smaller buckets. This process continues until the minimum number of rows allowed in a bucket is reached. The minimum number of rows in a bucket for a comparison is specified by the min_rows_in_bucket parameter in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure.

    When the minimum number of rows in a bucket is reached, the COMPARE function reports whether there are differences in the bucket. The COMPARE function includes the perform_row_dif parameter. This parameter controls whether the COMPARE function identifies each row difference in a bucket that has differences. When this parameter is set to TRUE, the COMPARE function identifies each row difference. When this parameter is set to FALSE, the COMPARE function does not identify specific row differences. Instead, it only reports that there are differences in the bucket.

You can adjust the max_num_buckets and min_rows_in_bucket parameters in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure to achieve the best performance when comparing a particular database object. After a comparison is created, you can view the bucket specifications for the comparison by querying the MAX_NUM_BUCKETS and MIN_ROWS_IN_BUCKET columns in the DBA_COMPARISON data dictionary view.

The DBMS_COMPARISON package uses the ORA_HASH function on the specified columns in all the rows in a bucket to compute a hash value for the bucket. If the hash values for two corresponding buckets match, then the contents of the buckets are assumed to match. The ORA_HASH function is an efficient way to compare buckets because row values are not transferred between databases. Instead, only the hash value is transferred.

Note:

If an index column for a comparison is a VARCHAR2 or CHAR column, then the number of buckets might exceed the value specified for the max_num_buckets parameter.

See Also:

Parent Scans and Root Scans

Each time the COMPARE function splits a bucket into smaller buckets, it performs new scans of the smaller buckets. The scan that analyzes a larger bucket is the parent scan of each scan that analyzes the smaller buckets into which the larger bucket was split. The root scan in the comparison results is the highest level parent scan. The root scan does not have a parent. You can identify parent and root scan IDs by querying the DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN_SUMMARY data dictionary view.

You can recheck a scan using the RECHECK function, and you can converge a scan using the CONVERGE procedure. When you want to recheck or converge all of the rows in the comparison results, specify the root scan ID for the comparison results in the appropriate subprogram. When you want to recheck or converge a portion of the rows in comparison results, specify the scan ID of the scan that contains the differences.

For example, a scan with differences in 20 buckets is the parent scan for 20 additional scans, assuming that each bucket with differences has more rows than the specified minimum number of rows in a bucket for the comparison. To view the minimum number of rows in a bucket for the comparison, query the MIN_ROWS_IN_BUCKET column in the DBA_COMPARISON data dictionary view.

See Also:

Oracle Database Reference for information about the views related to the DBMS_COMPARISON package

How Scans and Buckets Identify Differences

This section describes two different comparison scenarios to show how scans and buckets identify differences in shared database objects. In each scenario, the max_num_buckets parameter is set to 3 in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure. Therefore, when the COMPARE or RECHECK function is run for the comparison, the comparison uses a maximum of three buckets in each scan.

Figure 12-1 shows the first scenario.

Figure 12-1 Comparison with max_num_buckets=3 and Differences Found in Each Bucket of Each Scan

Description of Figure 12-1 follows
Description of "Figure 12-1 Comparison with max_num_buckets=3 and Differences Found in Each Bucket of Each Scan"

Figure 12-1 shows a line that represents the rows being compared in the shared database object. This figure illustrates how scans and buckets are used to identify differences when each bucket used by each scan has differences.

With the max_num_buckets parameter set to 3, the comparison is executed in the following steps:

  1. The root scan compares all of the rows in the current comparison. The root scan uses three buckets, and differences are found in each bucket.

  2. A separate scan is performed on the rows in each bucket that was used by the root scan in the previous step. The current step uses three scans, and each scan uses three buckets. Therefore, this step uses a total of nine buckets. Differences are found in each bucket. In Figure 12-1, arrows show how each bucket from the root scan is split into three buckets for each of the scans in the current step.

  3. A separate scan is performed on the rows in each bucket used by the scans in Step 2. This step uses nine scans, and each scan uses three buckets. Therefore, this step uses a total of 27 buckets. In Figure 12-1, arrows show how each bucket from Step 2 is split into three buckets for each of the scans in the current step.

After Step 3, the comparison results are recorded in the appropriate data dictionary views.

Figure 12-2 shows the second scenario.

Figure 12-2 Comparison with max_num_buckets=3 and Differences Found in One Bucket of Each Scan

Description of Figure 12-2 follows
Description of "Figure 12-2 Comparison with max_num_buckets=3 and Differences Found in One Bucket of Each Scan"

Figure 12-2 shows a line that represents the rows being compared in the shared database object. This figure illustrates how scans and buckets are used to identify differences when only one bucket used by each scan has differences.

With the max_num_buckets parameter set to 3, the comparison is executed in the following steps:

  1. The root scan compares all of the rows in the current comparison. The root scan uses three buckets, but differences are found in only one bucket.

  2. A separate scan is performed on the rows in the one bucket that had differences. This step uses one scan, and the scan uses three buckets. Differences are found in only one bucket. In Figure 12-2, arrows show how the bucket with differences from the root scan is split into three buckets for the scan in the current step.

  3. A separate scan is performed on the rows in the one bucket that had differences in Step 2. This step uses one scan, and the scan uses three buckets. In Figure 12-2, arrows show how the bucket with differences in Step 2 is split into three buckets for the scan in the current step.

After Step 3, the comparison results are recorded in the appropriate data dictionary views.

Note:

This section describes scenarios in which the max_num_buckets parameter is set to 3 in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure. This setting was chosen to illustrate how scans and buckets identify differences. Typically, the max_num_buckets parameter is set to a higher value. The default for this parameter is 1000. You can adjust the parameter setting to achieve the best performance.

Other Documentation About the DBMS_COMPARISON Package

Please refer to the following documentation before completing the tasks described in this chapter:

Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object

Meet the following prerequisites before comparing and converging a shared database object at two databases:

Diverging a Database Object at Two Databases to Complete Examples

The following sections contain examples that compare and converge a shared database object at two databases:

These examples compare and converge data in the oe.orders table. This table is part of the oe sample schema that is installed by default with Oracle Database. In these examples, the global names of the databases are comp1.example.com and comp2.example.com, but you can substitute any two databases in your environment that meet the prerequisites described in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object".

For the purposes of the examples, make the oe.orders table diverge at two databases by completing the following steps:

  1. In SQL*Plus, connect to the comp2.example.com database as oe user.

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for instructions about connecting to a database in SQL*Plus.

  2. Delete the orders in the oe.orders table with a customer_id equal to 147:

    DELETE FROM oe.orders WHERE customer_id=147;
    
  3. Modify the data in a row in the oe.orders table:

    UPDATE oe.orders SET sales_rep_id=163 WHERE order_id=2440;
    
  4. Insert a row into the oe.orders table:

    INSERT INTO oe.orders VALUES(3000, TIMESTAMP '2006-01-01 2:00:00', 'direct', 107, 3, 16285.21, 156, NULL);
    
  5. Commit your changes and exit SQL*Plus:

    COMMIT;
    EXIT
    

Note:

Usually, these steps are not required. They are included to ensure that the oe.orders table diverges at the two databases.

Comparing a Shared Database Object at Two Databases

The examples in this section use the DBMS_COMPARISON package to compare the oe.orders table at the comp1.example.com and comp2.example.com databases. The examples use the package to create different types of comparisons and compare the tables with the comparisons.

This section contains the following examples:

Comparing a Subset of Columns in a Shared Database Object

The column_list parameter in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure enables you to compare a subset of the columns in a database object. The following are reasons to compare a subset of columns:

  • A database object contains extra columns that do not exist in the database object to which it is being compared. In this case, the column_list parameter must only contain the columns that exist in both database objects.

  • You want to focus a comparison on a specific set of columns. For example, if a table contains hundreds of columns, then you might want to list specific columns in the column_list parameter to make the comparison more efficient.

  • Differences are expected in some columns. In this case, exclude the columns in which differences are expected from the column_list parameter.

The columns in the column list must meet the following requirements:

  • The column list must meet the index column requirements for the DBMS_COMPARISON package. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for information about index column requirements.

  • If you plan to use the CONVERGE procedure to make changes to a database object based on comparison results, then you must include in the column list any column in this database object that has a NOT NULL constraint but no default value.

This example compares the order_id, order_date, and customer_id columns in the oe.orders table at the comp1.example.com and comp2.example.com databases:

  1. Complete the tasks described in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object" and "Diverging a Database Object at Two Databases to Complete Examples".

  2. In SQL*Plus, connect to the comp1.example.com database as the administrative user who owns the database link created in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object".

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for instructions about connecting to a database in SQL*Plus.

  3. Run the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure to create the comparison:

    BEGIN
      DBMS_COMPARISON.CREATE_COMPARISON(
        comparison_name => 'compare_subset_columns',
        schema_name     => 'oe',
        object_name     => 'orders',
        dblink_name     => 'comp2.example.com',
        column_list     => 'order_id,order_date,customer_id');
    END;
    /
    

    Note that the name of the new comparison is compare_subset_columns. This comparison is owned by the user who runs the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure.

  4. Run the COMPARE function to compare the oe.orders table at the two databases:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    DECLARE
      consistent   BOOLEAN;
      scan_info    DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARISON_TYPE;
    BEGIN
      consistent := DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARE(
                      comparison_name => 'compare_subset_columns',
                      scan_info       => scan_info,
                      perform_row_dif => TRUE);
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Scan ID: '||scan_info.scan_id);
      IF consistent=TRUE THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('No differences were found.');
      ELSE
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Differences were found.');
      END IF;
    END;
    /
    

    Notice that the perform_row_dif parameter is set to TRUE in the COMPARE function. This setting instructs the COMPARE function to identify each individual row difference in the tables. When the perform_row_dif parameter is set to FALSE, the COMPARE function records whether or not there are differences in the tables, but does not record each individual row difference.

    Your output is similar to the following:

    Scan ID: 1
    Differences were found.
    
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

See Also:

Comparing a Shared Database Object Without Identifying Row Differences

When you run the COMPARE procedure for an existing comparison, the perform_row_dif parameter controls whether the COMPARE procedure identifies each individual row difference in the database objects:

  • When the perform_row_dif parameter is set to TRUE, the COMPARE procedure records whether or not there are differences in the database objects, and it records each individual row difference. Set this parameter to TRUE when you must identify each difference in the database objects.

  • When the perform_row_dif parameter is set to FALSE, the COMPARE procedure records whether or not there are differences in the database objects, but does not record each individual row difference. Set this parameter to FALSE when you want to know if there are differences in the database objects, but you do not need to identify each individual difference. Setting this parameter to FALSE is the most efficient way to perform a comparison.

See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for information about the perform_row_dif parameter in the COMPARE function.

This example compares the entire oe.orders table at the comp1.example.com and comp2.example.com databases without identifying individual row differences:

  1. Complete the tasks described in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object" and "Diverging a Database Object at Two Databases to Complete Examples".

  2. In SQL*Plus, connect to the comp1.example.com database as the administrative user who owns the database link created in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object".

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for instructions about connecting to a database in SQL*Plus.

  3. Run the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure to create the comparison:

    BEGIN
      DBMS_COMPARISON.CREATE_COMPARISON(
        comparison_name => 'compare_orders',
        schema_name     => 'oe',
        object_name     => 'orders',
        dblink_name     => 'comp2.example.com');
    END;
    /
    
  4. Run the COMPARE function to compare the oe.orders table at the two databases:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    DECLARE
      consistent   BOOLEAN;
      scan_info    DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARISON_TYPE;
    BEGIN
      consistent := DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARE(
                      comparison_name => 'compare_orders',
                      scan_info       => scan_info,
                      perform_row_dif => FALSE);
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Scan ID: '||scan_info.scan_id);
      IF consistent=TRUE THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('No differences were found.');
      ELSE
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Differences were found.');
      END IF;
    END;
    /
    

    Notice that the perform_row_dif parameter is set to FALSE in the COMPARE function.

    Your output is similar to the following:

    Scan ID: 4
    Differences were found.
    
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

See Also:

Comparing a Random Portion of a Shared Database Object

The scan_percent and scan_mode parameters in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure enable you to compare a random portion of a shared database object instead of the entire database object. Typically, you use this option under the following conditions:

  • You are comparing a relatively large shared database object, and you want to determine whether there might be differences without devoting the resources and time to comparing the entire database object.

  • You do not intend to use subsequent comparisons to compare different portions of the database object. If you want to compare different portions of the database object in subsequent comparisons, see "Comparing a Shared Database Object Cyclically" for instructions.

This example compares a random portion of the oe.orders table at the comp1.example.com and comp2.example.com databases:

  1. Complete the tasks described in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object" and "Diverging a Database Object at Two Databases to Complete Examples".

  2. In SQL*Plus, connect to the comp1.example.com database as the administrative user who owns the database link created in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object".

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for instructions about connecting to a database in SQL*Plus.

  3. Run the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure to create the comparison:

    BEGIN
      DBMS_COMPARISON.CREATE_COMPARISON(
        comparison_name => 'compare_random',
        schema_name     => 'oe',
        object_name     => 'orders',
        dblink_name     => 'comp2.example.com',
        scan_mode       =>  DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_SCAN_MODE_RANDOM,
        scan_percent    =>  50);
    END;
    /
    

    Notice that the scan_percent parameter is set to 50 to specify that the comparison scans half of the table. The scan_mode parameter is set to DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_SCAN_MODE_RANDOM to specify that the comparison compares random rows in the table.

  4. Run the COMPARE function to compare the oe.orders table at the two databases:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    DECLARE
      consistent   BOOLEAN;
      scan_info    DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARISON_TYPE;
    BEGIN
      consistent := DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARE(
                      comparison_name => 'compare_random',
                      scan_info       => scan_info,
                      perform_row_dif => TRUE);
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Scan ID: '||scan_info.scan_id);
      IF consistent=TRUE THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('No differences were found.');
      ELSE
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Differences were found.');
      END IF;
    END;
    /
    

    Notice that the perform_row_dif parameter is set to TRUE in the COMPARE function. This setting instructs the COMPARE function to identify each individual row difference in the tables. When the perform_row_dif parameter is set to FALSE, the COMPARE function records whether or not there are differences in the tables, but does not record each individual row difference.

    Your output is similar to the following:

    Scan ID: 7
    Differences were found.
    
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

    This comparison scan might or might not find differences, depending on the portion of the table that is compared.

See Also:

Comparing a Shared Database Object Cyclically

The scan_percent and scan_mode parameters in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure enable you to compare a portion of a shared database object cyclically. A cyclic comparison scans a portion of the database object being compared during a single comparison. When the database object is compared again, another portion of the database object is compared, starting where the last comparison ended.

Typically, you use this option under the following conditions:

  • You are comparing a relatively large shared database object, and you want to determine whether there might be differences without devoting the resources and time to comparing the entire database object.

  • You want each comparison to compare a different portion of the shared database object, so that the entire database object is compared with the appropriate number of scans. For example, if you compare 25% of the shared database object, then the entire database object is compared after four comparisons. If you do not want to compare different portions of the database object in subsequent comparisons, see "Comparing a Random Portion of a Shared Database Object" for instructions.

This example compares oe.orders table cyclically at the comp1.example.com and comp2.example.com databases:

  1. Complete the tasks described in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object" and "Diverging a Database Object at Two Databases to Complete Examples".

  2. In SQL*Plus, connect to the comp1.example.com database as the administrative user who owns the database link created in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object".

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for instructions about connecting to a database in SQL*Plus.

  3. Run the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure to create the comparison:

    BEGIN
      DBMS_COMPARISON.CREATE_COMPARISON(
        comparison_name => 'compare_cyclic',
        schema_name     => 'oe',
        object_name     => 'orders',
        dblink_name     => 'comp2.example.com',
        scan_mode       =>  DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_SCAN_MODE_CYCLIC,
        scan_percent    =>  50);
    END;
    /
    

    Notice that the scan_percent parameter is set to 50 to specify that the comparison scans half of the table. The scan_mode parameter is set to DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_SCAN_MODE_CYCLIC to specify that the comparison compares rows in the table cyclically.

  4. Run the COMPARE function to compare the oe.orders table at the two databases:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    DECLARE
      consistent   BOOLEAN;
      scan_info    DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARISON_TYPE;
    BEGIN
      consistent := DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARE(
                      comparison_name => 'compare_cyclic',
                      scan_info       => scan_info,
                      perform_row_dif => TRUE);
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Scan ID: '||scan_info.scan_id);
      IF consistent=TRUE THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('No differences were found.');
      ELSE
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Differences were found.');
      END IF;
    END;
    /
    

    Notice that the perform_row_dif parameter is set to TRUE in the COMPARE function. This setting instructs the COMPARE function to identify each individual row difference in the tables. When the perform_row_dif parameter is set to FALSE, the COMPARE function records whether or not there are differences in the tables, but does not record each individual row difference.

    Your output is similar to the following:

    Scan ID: 8
    Differences were found.
    
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

    This comparison scan might or might not find differences, depending on the portion of the table that is compared.

  5. To compare the next portion of the database object, starting where the last comparison ended, rerun the COMPARE function that was run in Step 4. In this example, running the COMPARE function twice compares the entire database object because the scan_percent parameter was set to 50 in Step 3.

See Also:

Comparing a Custom Portion of a Shared Database Object

The scan_mode parameter in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure enables you to compare a custom portion of a shared database object. After a comparison is created with the scan_mode parameter set to CMP_SCAN_MODE_CUSTOM in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure, you can specify the exact portion of the database object to compare when you run the COMPARE function.

Typically, you use this option under the following conditions:

  • You have a specific portion of a shared database object that you want to compare.

  • You are comparing a relatively large shared database object, and you want to determine whether there might be difference in a specific portion of it without devoting the resources and time to comparing the entire database object.

See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for information about the scan_mode parameter in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure.

This example compares a custom portion of the oe.orders table at the comp1.example.com and comp2.example.com databases:

  1. Complete the tasks described in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object" and "Diverging a Database Object at Two Databases to Complete Examples".

  2. In SQL*Plus, connect to the comp1.example.com database as the administrative user who owns the database link created in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object".

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for instructions about connecting to a database in SQL*Plus.

  3. Run the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure to create the comparison:

    BEGIN
      DBMS_COMPARISON.CREATE_COMPARISON(
        comparison_name   => 'compare_custom',
        schema_name       => 'oe',
        object_name       => 'orders',
        dblink_name       => 'comp2.example.com',
        index_schema_name => 'oe',
        index_name        => 'order_pk',
        scan_mode         =>  DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_SCAN_MODE_CUSTOM);
    END;
    /
    

    Notice that the scan_mode parameter is set to DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_SCAN_MODE_CUSTOM. When you specify this scan mode, you should specify the index that you want to use for the comparison. This example specifies the or.order_pk index.

  4. Identify the index column or columns for the comparison created in Step 3 by running the following query:

    SELECT COLUMN_NAME, COLUMN_POSITION FROM DBA_COMPARISON_COLUMNS 
      WHERE COMPARISON_NAME = 'COMPARE_CUSTOM' AND
            INDEX_COLUMN    = 'Y';
    

    For a custom comparison, you use the index column to specify the portion of the table to compare when you run the COMPARE function in the next step. In this example, the query should return the following output:

    COLUMN_NAME                    COLUMN_POSITION
    ------------------------------ ---------------
    ORDER_ID                                     1
    

    This output shows that the order_id column in the oe.orders table is the index column for the comparison.

    For other database objects, the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure might identify multiple index columns. If there is more than one index column, then specify values for the lead index column in the next step. The lead index column shows 1 for its COLUMN_POSITION value.

  5. Run the COMPARE function to compare the oe.orders table at the two databases:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    DECLARE
      consistent   BOOLEAN;
      scan_info    DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARISON_TYPE;
    BEGIN
      consistent := DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARE(
                      comparison_name => 'compare_custom',
                      scan_info       => scan_info,
                      min_value       => '2430',
                      max_value       => '2460',
                      perform_row_dif => TRUE);
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Scan ID: '||scan_info.scan_id);
      IF consistent=TRUE THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('No differences were found.');
      ELSE
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Differences were found.');
      END IF;
    END;
    /
    

    Notice the following parameter settings in the COMPARE function:

    • The min_value and max_value parameters are set to 2430 and 2460, respectively. Therefore, the COMPARE function only compares the range of rows that begins with 2430 and ends with 2460 in the order_id column.

    • The min_value and max_value parameters are specified as VARCHAR2 data type values, even though the column data type for the order_id column is NUMBER.

    • The perform_row_dif parameter is set to TRUE in the COMPARE function. This setting instructs the COMPARE function to identify each individual row difference in the tables. When the perform_row_dif parameter is set to FALSE, the COMPARE function records whether or not there are differences in the tables, but does not record each individual row difference.

    Your output is similar to the following:

    Scan ID: 10
    Differences were found.
     
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

See Also:

Viewing Information About Comparisons and Comparison Results

The following data dictionary views contain information about comparisons created with the DBMS_COMPARISON package:

The following sections contain sample queries that you can use to monitor comparisons and comparison results:

See Also:

Oracle Database Reference for detailed information about the data dictionary views related to comparisons

Viewing General Information About the Comparisons in a Database

The DBA_COMPARISON data dictionary view contains information about the comparisons in the local database. The query in this section displays the following information about each comparison:

  • The owner of the comparison

  • The name of the comparison

  • The schema that contains the database object compared by the comparison

  • The name of the database object compared by the comparison

  • The data type of the database object compared by the comparison

  • The scan mode used by the comparison. The following scan modes are possible:

    • FULL indicates that the entire database object is compared.

    • RANDOM indicates that a random portion of the database object is compared.

    • CYCLIC indicates that a portion of the database object is compared during a single comparison. When the database object is compared again, another portion of the database object is compared, starting where the last compare ended.

    • CUSTOM indicates that the COMPARE function specifies the range to compare in the database object.

  • The name of the database link used to connect with the remote database

To view this information, run the following query:

COLUMN OWNER HEADING 'Comparison|Owner' FORMAT A10
COLUMN COMPARISON_NAME HEADING 'Comparison|Name' FORMAT A22
COLUMN SCHEMA_NAME HEADING 'Schema|Name' FORMAT A8
COLUMN OBJECT_NAME HEADING 'Object|Name' FORMAT A8
COLUMN OBJECT_TYPE HEADING 'Object|Type' FORMAT A8
COLUMN SCAN_MODE HEADING 'Scan|Mode' FORMAT A6
COLUMN DBLINK_NAME HEADING 'Database|Link' FORMAT A15
 
SELECT OWNER,
       COMPARISON_NAME,
       SCHEMA_NAME,
       OBJECT_NAME,
       OBJECT_TYPE,
       SCAN_MODE,
       DBLINK_NAME
  FROM DBA_COMPARISON;

Your output is similar to the following:

Comparison Comparison             Schema   Object   Object   Scan   Database
Owner      Name                   Name     Name     Type     Mode   Link
---------- ---------------------- -------- -------- -------- ------ ----------
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_COLUMNS OE       ORDERS   TABLE    FULL   COMP2.EXAM
                                                                    PLE
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS         OE       ORDERS   TABLE    FULL   COMP2.EXAM
                                                                    PLE
ADMIN      COMPARE_RANDOM         OE       ORDERS   TABLE    RANDOM COMP2.EXAM
                                                                    PLE
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC         OE       ORDERS   TABLE    CYCLIC COMP2.EXAM
                                                                    PLE
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM         OE       ORDERS   TABLE    CUSTOM COMP2.EXAM
                                                                    PLE

A comparison compares the local database object with a database object at a remote database. The comparison uses the database link shown by the query to connect to the remote database and perform the comparison.

By default, a comparison assumes that the owner, name, and data type of the database objects being compared are the same at both databases. However, they can be different at the local and remote databases. The query in this section does not display information about the remote database object, but you can query the REMOTE_SCHEMA_NAME, REMOTE_OBJECT_NAME, and REMOTE_OBJECT_TYPE columns to view this information.

See Also:

Comparing a Shared Database Object at Two Databases for information about creating the comparisons shown in the output of this query

Viewing Information Specific to Random and Cyclic Comparisons

When you create comparisons that use the scan modes RANDOM or CYCLIC, you specify the percentage of the shared database object to compare. The query in this section shows the following information about random and cyclic comparisons:

  • The owner of the comparison

  • The name of the comparison

  • The schema that contains the database object compared by the comparison

  • The name of the database object compared by the comparison

  • The data type of the database object compared by the comparison

  • The scan percentage for the comparison. Each time the COMPARE function is run to perform a comparison scan, the specified percentage of the database object is compared.

  • The last lead index column value used by the comparison. The next time the COMPARE function is run, it will start with row that has a lead index column value that directly follows the value shown by the query. This value only applies to cyclic comparisons.

To view this information, run the following query:

COLUMN OWNER HEADING 'Comparison|Owner' FORMAT A10
COLUMN COMPARISON_NAME HEADING 'Comparison|Name' FORMAT A22
COLUMN SCHEMA_NAME HEADING 'Schema|Name' FORMAT A8
COLUMN OBJECT_NAME HEADING 'Object|Name' FORMAT A8
COLUMN OBJECT_TYPE HEADING 'Object|Type' FORMAT A8
COLUMN SCAN_PERCENT HEADING 'Scan|Percent' FORMAT 999
COLUMN CYCLIC_INDEX_VALUE HEADING 'Cyclic|Index|Value' FORMAT A10
 
SELECT OWNER,
       COMPARISON_NAME,
       SCHEMA_NAME,
       OBJECT_NAME,
       OBJECT_TYPE,
       SCAN_PERCENT,
       CYCLIC_INDEX_VALUE
  FROM DBA_COMPARISON
  WHERE SCAN_PERCENT IS NOT NULL;

Your output is similar to the following:

                                                                     Cyclic
Comparison Comparison             Schema   Object   Object      Scan Index
Owner      Name                   Name     Name     Type     Percent Value
---------- ---------------------- -------- -------- -------- ------- ----------
ADMIN      COMPARE_RANDOM         OE       ORDERS   TABLE         50
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC         OE       ORDERS   TABLE         50 2677

Viewing the Columns Compared by Each Comparison in a Database

When you create a comparison, you can specify that the comparison compares all of the columns in the shared database object or a subset of the columns. Also, you can specify an index for the comparison to use or let the system identify an index automatically.

The query in this section displays the following information:

  • The owner of the comparison

  • The name of the comparison

  • The schema that contains the database object compared by the comparison

  • The name of the database object compared by the comparison

  • The column name of each column being compared in each database object

  • The column position of each column

  • Whether or not a column is an index column

To display this information, run the following query:

COLUMN OWNER HEADING 'Comparison|Owner' FORMAT A10
COLUMN COMPARISON_NAME HEADING 'Comparison|Name' FORMAT A15
COLUMN SCHEMA_NAME HEADING 'Schema|Name' FORMAT A10
COLUMN OBJECT_NAME HEADING 'Object|Name' FORMAT A10
COLUMN COLUMN_NAME HEADING 'Column|Name' FORMAT A12
COLUMN COLUMN_POSITION HEADING 'Column|Position' FORMAT 9999
COLUMN INDEX_COLUMN HEADING 'Index|Column?' FORMAT A7
 
SELECT c.OWNER,
       c.COMPARISON_NAME,
       c.SCHEMA_NAME,
       c.OBJECT_NAME,
       o.COLUMN_NAME,
       o.COLUMN_POSITION,
       o.INDEX_COLUMN
  FROM DBA_COMPARISON c, DBA_COMPARISON_COLUMNS o
  WHERE c.OWNER           = o.OWNER AND
        c.COMPARISON_NAME = o.COMPARISON_NAME
  ORDER BY COMPARISON_NAME, COLUMN_POSITION;

Your output is similar to the following:

Comparison Comparison      Schema     Object     Column         Column Index
Owner      Name            Name       Name       Name         Position Column?
---------- --------------- ---------- ---------- ------------ -------- -------
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_ID            1 Y
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_DATE          2 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_MODE          3 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS     CUSTOMER_ID         4 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_STATUS        5 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_TOTAL         6 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS     SALES_REP_ID        7 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS     PROMOTION_ID        8 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_ID            1 Y
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_DATE          2 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_MODE          3 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS     CUSTOMER_ID         4 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_STATUS        5 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS     ORDER_TOTAL         6 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS     SALES_REP_ID        7 N
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS     PROMOTION_ID        8 N
.
.
.

Viewing General Information About Each Scan in a Database

Each scan compares a bucket at the local database with a bucket at the remote database. The buckets being compared contain the same range of rows in the shared database object. The comparison results generated by a single execution of the COMPARE function can include multiple buckets and multiple scans. Each scan has a unique scan ID.

The query in this section shows the following information about each scan:

  • The owner of the comparison that ran the scan

  • The name of the comparison that ran the scan

  • The schema that contains the database object compared by the scan

  • The name of the database object compared by the scan

  • The scan ID of the scan

  • The status of the scan. The following status values are possible:

    • SUC indicates that the two buckets in the two tables matched the last time this data dictionary row was updated.

    • BUCKET DIF indicates that the two buckets in the two tables did not match. Each bucket consists of smaller buckets.

    • FINAL BUCKET DIF indicates that the two buckets in the two tables did not match. Neither bucket is composed of smaller buckets. Because the perform_row_dif parameter in the COMPARE function or the RECHECK function was set to FALSE, individual row differences were not identified for the bucket.

    • ROW DIF indicates that the two buckets in the two tables did not match. Neither bucket is composed of smaller buckets. Because the perform_row_dif parameter in the COMPARE function or the RECHECK function was set to TRUE, individual row differences were identified for the bucket.

  • The number of rows compared in the scan

  • The last time the scan was updated

To view this information, run the following query:

COLUMN OWNER HEADING 'Comparison|Owner' FORMAT A10
COLUMN COMPARISON_NAME HEADING 'Comparison|Name' FORMAT A15
COLUMN SCHEMA_NAME HEADING 'Schema|Name' FORMAT A6
COLUMN OBJECT_NAME HEADING 'Object|Name' FORMAT A6
COLUMN SCAN_ID HEADING 'Scan|ID' FORMAT 9999
COLUMN STATUS HEADING 'Scan|Status' FORMAT A10
COLUMN COUNT_ROWS HEADING 'Number|of|Rows' FORMAT 9999999
COLUMN SCAN_NULLS HEADING 'Scan|NULLs?' FORMAT A6
COLUMN LAST_UPDATE_TIME HEADING 'Last|Update' FORMAT A11

SELECT c.OWNER,
       c.COMPARISON_NAME,
       c.SCHEMA_NAME,
       c.OBJECT_NAME,
       s.SCAN_ID,
       s.STATUS,
       s.COUNT_ROWS,
       TO_CHAR(s.LAST_UPDATE_TIME, 'DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS') LAST_UPDATE_TIME 
  FROM DBA_COMPARISON c, DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN s
  WHERE c.OWNER           = s.OWNER AND
        c.COMPARISON_NAME = s.COMPARISON_NAME
  ORDER BY SCAN_ID;

Your output is similar to the following:

                                                            Number
Comparison Comparison      Schema Object  Scan Scan             of Last
Owner      Name            Name   Name      ID Status         Rows Update
---------- --------------- ------ ------ ----- ---------- -------- -----------
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_ OE     ORDERS     1 BUCKET DIF          20-DEC-2006
           COLUMNS                                                  09:46:34
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_ OE     ORDERS     2 ROW DIF         105 20-DEC-2006
           COLUMNS                                                  09:46:34
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_ OE     ORDERS     3 ROW DIF           1 20-DEC-2006
           COLUMNS                                                  09:46:35
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS  OE     ORDERS     4 BUCKET DIF          20-DEC-2006
                                                                    09:47:02
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS  OE     ORDERS     5 FINAL BUCK      105 20-DEC-2006
                                               ET DIF               09:47:02
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS  OE     ORDERS     6 FINAL BUCK        1 20-DEC-2006
                                               ET DIF               09:47:02
ADMIN      COMPARE_RANDOM  OE     ORDERS     7 SUC                 20-DEC-2006
                                                                    09:47:37
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE     ORDERS     8 BUCKET DIF          20-DEC-2006
                                                                    09:48:22
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE     ORDERS     9 ROW DIF         105 20-DEC-2006
                                                                    09:48:22
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE     ORDERS    10 BUCKET DIF          20-DEC-2006
                                                                    09:49:15
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE     ORDERS    11 ROW DIF          16 20-DEC-2006
                                                                    09:49:15
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE     ORDERS    12 ROW DIF          13 20-DEC-2006
                                                                    09:49:15

When a scan has a status of BUCKET DIF, FINAL BUCKET DIF, or ROW DIF, you can converge the differences found in the scan by running the CONVERGE procedure and specifying the scan ID. However, if you want to converge the all of the rows in the comparison results instead of the portion checked in a specific scan, then specify the root scan ID for the comparison results when you run the CONVERGE procedure.

Also, when a scan shows that differences were found, you can recheck the scan using the RECHECK function. To recheck all of the rows in the comparison results, run the RECHECK function and specify the root scan ID for the comparison results.

Viewing the Parent Scan ID and Root Scan ID for Each Scan in a Database

The query in this section shows the parent scan ID and root scan ID of each scan in the database. Specifically, the query shows the following information:

  • The owner of the comparison that ran the scan

  • The name of the comparison that ran the scan

  • The schema that contains the database object compared by the scan

  • The name of the database object compared by the scan

  • The scan ID of the scan

  • The scan ID of the scan's parent scan

  • The scan ID of the scan's root scan

To view this information, run the following query:

COLUMN OWNER HEADING 'Comparison|Owner' FORMAT A10
COLUMN COMPARISON_NAME HEADING 'Comparison|Name' FORMAT A15
COLUMN SCHEMA_NAME HEADING 'Schema|Name' FORMAT A10
COLUMN OBJECT_NAME HEADING 'Object|Name' FORMAT A10
COLUMN SCAN_ID HEADING 'Scan|ID' FORMAT 9999
COLUMN PARENT_SCAN_ID HEADING 'Parent|Scan ID' FORMAT 9999
COLUMN ROOT_SCAN_ID HEADING 'Root|Scan ID' FORMAT 9999
 
SELECT c.OWNER,
       c.COMPARISON_NAME,
       c.SCHEMA_NAME,
       c.OBJECT_NAME,
       s.SCAN_ID,
       s.PARENT_SCAN_ID,
       s.ROOT_SCAN_ID
  FROM DBA_COMPARISON c, DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN_SUMMARY s
  WHERE c.OWNER           = s.OWNER AND
        c.COMPARISON_NAME = s.COMPARISON_NAME
  ORDER BY s.SCAN_ID;

Your output is similar to the following:

Comparison Comparison      Schema     Object      Scan  Parent    Root
Owner      Name            Name       Name          ID Scan ID Scan ID
---------- --------------- ---------- ---------- ----- ------- -------
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_ OE         ORDERS         1               1
           COLUMNS
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_ OE         ORDERS         2       1       1
           COLUMNS
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_ OE         ORDERS         3       1       1
           COLUMNS
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS  OE         ORDERS         4               4
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS  OE         ORDERS         5       4       4
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS  OE         ORDERS         6       4       4
ADMIN      COMPARE_RANDOM  OE         ORDERS         7               7
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS         8               8
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC  OE         ORDERS         9       8       8
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS        10              10
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS        11      10      10
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM  OE         ORDERS        12      10      10

This output shows, for example, that the scan with scan ID 1 is the root scan in the comparison results for the COMPARE_SUBSET_COLUMNS comparison. Differences were found in this root scan, and it was split into two smaller buckets. The scan with scan ID 2 and the scan with scan ID 3 are the scans for these smaller buckets.

To see if there were differences found in a specific scan, run the query in "Viewing General Information About Each Scan in a Database". When you RECHECK for differences or CONVERGE differences in a shared database object, you specify the scan ID of the scan you want to recheck or converge. If you want to recheck or converge all of the rows in the comparison results, then specify the root scan ID for the comparison results.

Viewing Detailed Information About the Row Differences Found in a Scan

The queries in this section display detailed information about the row differences found in comparison results. To view the information in the queries in this section, the perform_row_dif parameter in the COMPARE function or the RECHECK function that performed the comparison must have been set to TRUE.

If this parameter was set to FALSE, then you can query the STATUS column in the DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN view to determine whether the scan found any differences, without showing detailed information about the differences. See "Viewing General Information About Each Scan in a Database" for more information and a sample query.

The following query shows the total number of differences found for a scan with the scan ID of 8:

COLUMN OWNER HEADING 'Comparison Owner' FORMAT A16
COLUMN COMPARISON_NAME HEADING 'Comparison Name' FORMAT A25
COLUMN SCHEMA_NAME HEADING 'Schema Name' FORMAT A11
COLUMN OBJECT_NAME HEADING 'Object Name' FORMAT A11
COLUMN CURRENT_DIF_COUNT HEADING 'Differences' FORMAT 9999999

SELECT c.OWNER, 
       c.COMPARISON_NAME, 
       c.SCHEMA_NAME, 
       c.OBJECT_NAME, 
       s.CURRENT_DIF_COUNT 
  FROM DBA_COMPARISON c, DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN_SUMMARY s
  WHERE c.COMPARISON_NAME = s.COMPARISON_NAME AND
        c.OWNER           = s.OWNER AND
        s.SCAN_ID         = 8;

Your output is similar to the following:

Comparison Owner Comparison Name           Schema Name Object Name Differences
---------------- ------------------------- ----------- ----------- -----------
ADMIN            COMPARE_CYCLIC            OE          ORDERS                6

To view detailed information about each row difference found in the scan with scan ID 8 of the comparison results for the COMPARE_CYCLIC comparison, run the following query:

COLUMN COLUMN_NAME HEADING 'Index Column' FORMAT A15
COLUMN INDEX_VALUE HEADING 'Index Value' FORMAT A15
COLUMN LOCAL_ROWID HEADING 'Local Row Exists?' FORMAT A20
COLUMN REMOTE_ROWID HEADING 'Remote Row Exists?' FORMAT A20

SELECT c.COLUMN_NAME,
       r.INDEX_VALUE, 
       DECODE(r.LOCAL_ROWID,
                NULL, 'No',
                      'Yes') LOCAL_ROWID,
       DECODE(r.REMOTE_ROWID,
                NULL, 'No',
                      'Yes') REMOTE_ROWID
  FROM DBA_COMPARISON_COLUMNS c,
       DBA_COMPARISON_ROW_DIF r,
       DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN s
  WHERE c.COMPARISON_NAME = 'COMPARE_CYCLIC' AND
        r.SCAN_ID         = s.SCAN_ID AND
        s.PARENT_SCAN_ID  = 8 AND
        r.STATUS          = 'DIF' AND
        c.INDEX_COLUMN    = 'Y' AND
        c.COMPARISON_NAME = r.COMPARISON_NAME AND
        c.OWNER           = r.OWNER
  ORDER BY r.INDEX_VALUE;

Your output is similar to the following:

Index Column    Index Value     Local Row Exists?    Remote Row Exists?
--------------- --------------- -------------------- --------------------
ORDER_ID        2366            Yes                  No
ORDER_ID        2385            Yes                  No
ORDER_ID        2396            Yes                  No
ORDER_ID        2425            Yes                  No
ORDER_ID        2440            Yes                  Yes
ORDER_ID        2450            Yes                  No

This output shows the index column for the table being compared and the index value for each row that is different in the shared database object. In this example, the index column is the primary key column for the oe.orders table (order_id). The output also shows the type of difference for each row:

  • If Local Row Exists? and Remote Row Exists? are both Yes for a row, then the row exists in both instances of the database object, but the data in the row is different.

  • If Local Row Exists? is Yes and Remote Row Exists? is No for a row, then the row exists in the local database object but not in the remote database object.

  • If Local Row Exists? is No and Remote Row Exists? is Yes for a row, then the row exists in the remote database object but not in the local database object.

Viewing Information About the Rows Compared in Specific Scans

Each scan compares a range of rows in a shared database object. The query in this section provides the following information about the rows compared in each scan in the database:

  • The owner of the comparison that ran the scan

  • The name of the comparison that ran the scan

  • The column position of the row values displayed by the query

  • The minimum value for the range of rows compared by the scan

  • The maximum value for the range of rows compared by the scan

A scan compares the row with the minimum value, the row with the maximum value, and all of the rows in between the minimum and maximum values in the database object. For each row returned by the query, the value displayed for the minimum value and the maximum value are the values for the column in the displayed the column position. The column position is an index column for the comparison.

To view this information, run the following query:

COLUMN OWNER HEADING 'Comparison|Owner' FORMAT A10
COLUMN COMPARISON_NAME HEADING 'Comparison|Name' FORMAT A22
COLUMN SCAN_ID HEADING 'Scan|ID' FORMAT 9999
COLUMN COLUMN_POSITION HEADING 'Column|Position' FORMAT 999
COLUMN MIN_VALUE HEADING 'Minimum|Value' FORMAT A15
COLUMN MAX_VALUE HEADING 'Maximum|Value' FORMAT A15
 
SELECT OWNER,
       COMPARISON_NAME,
       SCAN_ID,
       COLUMN_POSITION,
       MIN_VALUE,
       MAX_VALUE
  FROM DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN_VALUES
  ORDER BY SCAN_ID;

Your output is similar to the following:

Comparison Comparison              Scan   Column Minimum         Maximum
Owner      Name                      ID Position Value           Value
---------- ---------------------- ----- -------- --------------- ---------------
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_COLUMNS     1        1 2354            3000
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_COLUMNS     2        1 2354            2458
ADMIN      COMPARE_SUBSET_COLUMNS     3        1 3000            3000
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS             4        1 2354            3000
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS             5        1 2354            2458
ADMIN      COMPARE_ORDERS             6        1 3000            3000
ADMIN      COMPARE_RANDOM             7        1 2617.3400241505 2940.3400241505
                                                 667163579712423 667163579712423
                                                 44590999096     44590999096
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC             8        1 2354            2677
ADMIN      COMPARE_CYCLIC             9        1 2354            2458
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM            10        1 2430            2460
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM            11        1 2430            2445
ADMIN      COMPARE_CUSTOM            12        1 2446            2458

This output shows the rows that were compared in each scan. For some comparisons, the scan was split into smaller buckets, and the query shows the rows compared in each smaller bucket.

For example, consider the output for the comparison results of the COMPARE_CUSTOM comparison:

  • Each scan in the comparison results displays column position 1. To determine which column is in column position 1 for the scan, run the query in "Viewing the Columns Compared by Each Comparison in a Database". In this example, the column in column position 1 for the COMPARE_CUSTOM comparison is the order_id column in the oe.orders table.

  • Scan ID 10 is a root scan. This scan found differences, and the rows were split into two buckets that are represented by scan ID 11 and scan ID 12.

  • Scan ID 11 compared the rows from the row with 2430 for order_id to the row with 2445 for order_id.

  • Scan ID 12 compared the rows from the row with 2446 for order_id to the row with 2458 for order_id.

If you want to recheck or converge the differences found in a scan, you can run the RECHECK function or CONVERGE procedure, respectively. Specify the scan ID of the scan you want to recheck or converge. If you want to recheck or converge all of the rows in comparison results, then specify the root scan ID for the comparison results.

Converging a Shared Database Object

The CONVERGE procedure in the DBMS_COMPARISON package synchronizes the portion of the database object compared by the specified comparison scan and returns information about the changes it made. The CONVERGE procedure only converges the differences identified in the specified scan. A scan might only identify differences in a subset of the rows or columns in a table, and differences might arise after the specified scan completed. In these cases, the CONVERGE procedure might not make the shared database object completely consistent.

To ensure that a scan has the most current differences, it is usually best to run the CONVERGE procedure as soon as possible after running the comparison scan that is being converged. Also, you should only converge rows that are not being updated on either database. For example, if the shared database object is updated by replication components, then only converge rows for which replication changes have already been applied and ensure that no new changes are in the process of being replicated for these rows.

Caution:

If a scan identifies that a row is different in the shared database object at two databases, and the row is modified after the scan, then it can result in unexpected data in the row after the CONVERGE procedure is run.

This section contains the following examples:

These examples converge the comparison results generated in "Comparing a Shared Database Object Without Identifying Row Differences". In that example, the comparison name is compare_orders and the returned scan ID is 4. If you completed this example, then the scan ID returned on your system might have been different. Run the following query to determine the scan ID:

SELECT DISTINCT ROOT_SCAN_ID FROM DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN_SUMMARY 
  WHERE COMPARISON_NAME = 'COMPARE_ORDERS';

If more than one value is returned, then the comparison was run more than once. In this case, use the largest scan ID returned.

When you want to converge all of the rows in comparison results, specify the root scan ID for the comparison results. If, however, you want to converge a portion of the rows in comparison results, then you can specify the scan ID of the scan that contains differences you want to converge.

See Also:

Converging a Shared Database Object for Consistency With the Local Object

The converge_options parameter in the CONVERGE procedure determines which database "wins" during a conversion. To specify that the local database wins, set the converge_options parameter to DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_CONVERGE_LOCAL_WINS. When you specify that the local database wins, the data in the database object at the local database replaces the data in the database object at the remote database for each difference found in the specified comparison scan.

To converge a scan of the compare_orders comparison so that both database objects are consistent with the local database, complete the following steps:

  1. In SQL*Plus, connect to the comp1.example.com database as the administrative user who owns the comparison. The user must also have access to the database link created in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object".

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for instructions about connecting to a database in SQL*Plus.

  2. Run the CONVERGE procedure:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    DECLARE
      scan_info    DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARISON_TYPE;
    BEGIN
      DBMS_COMPARISON.CONVERGE(
        comparison_name  => 'compare_orders',
        scan_id          => 4, -- Substitute the scan ID from your scan.
        scan_info        => scan_info,
        converge_options => DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_CONVERGE_LOCAL_WINS);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Local Rows Merged: '||scan_info.loc_rows_merged);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Remote Rows Merged: '||scan_info.rmt_rows_merged);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Local Rows Deleted: '||scan_info.loc_rows_deleted);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Remote Rows Deleted: '||scan_info.rmt_rows_deleted);
    END;
    /
    

    Your output is similar to the following:

    Local Rows Merged: 0
    Remote Rows Merged: 6
    Local Rows Deleted: 0
    Remote Rows Deleted: 1
     
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

Converging a Shared Database Object for Consistency With the Remote Object

The converge_options parameter in the CONVERGE procedure determines which database "wins" during a conversion. To specify that the remote database wins, set the converge_options parameter to DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_CONVERGE_REMOTE_WINS. When you specify that the remote database wins, the data in the database object at the remote database replaces the data in the database object at the local database for each difference found in the specified comparison scan.

To converge a scan of the compare_orders comparison so that both database objects are consistent with the remote database, complete the following steps:

  1. In SQL*Plus, connect to the comp1.example.com database as the administrative user who owns the comparison. The user must also have access to the database link created in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object".

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for instructions about connecting to a database in SQL*Plus.

  2. Run the CONVERGE procedure:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    DECLARE
      scan_info    DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARISON_TYPE;
    BEGIN
      DBMS_COMPARISON.CONVERGE(
        comparison_name  => 'compare_orders',
        scan_id          => 4, -- Substitute the scan ID from your scan.
        scan_info        => scan_info,
        converge_options => DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_CONVERGE_REMOTE_WINS);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Local Rows Merged: '||scan_info.loc_rows_merged);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Remote Rows Merged: '||scan_info.rmt_rows_merged);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Local Rows Deleted: '||scan_info.loc_rows_deleted);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Remote Rows Deleted: '||scan_info.rmt_rows_deleted);
    END;
    /
    

    Your output is similar to the following:

    Local Rows Merged: 2
    Remote Rows Merged: 0
    Local Rows Deleted: 5
    Remote Rows Deleted: 0
    
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

Converging a Shared Database Object With a Session Tag Set

If the shared database object being converged is part of an Oracle Streams replication environment, then you can set a session tag so that changes made by the CONVERGE procedure are not replicated. Typically, changes made by the CONVERGE procedure should not be replicated to avoid change cycling, which means sending a change back to the database where it originated. In an Oracle Streams replication environment, session tags can be used to ensure that changes made by the CONVERGE procedure are not captured by Oracle Streams capture processes or synchronous captures and therefore not replicated.

To set a session tag in the session running the CONVERGE procedure, use the following procedure parameters:

  • The local_converge_tag parameter sets a session tag at the local database. Set this parameter to a value that prevents replication when the remote database wins and the CONVERGE procedure makes changes to the local database.

  • The remote_converge_tag parameter sets a session tag at the remote database. Set this parameter to a value that prevents replication when the local database wins and the CONVERGE procedure makes changes to the remote database.

The appropriate value for a session tag depends on the Oracle Streams replication environment. Set the tag to a value that prevents capture processes and synchronous captures from capturing changes made by the session.

The example in this section specifies that the local database wins the converge operation by setting the converge_options parameter to DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_CONVERGE_LOCAL_WINS. Therefore, the example sets the remote_converge_tag parameter to the hexadecimal equivalent of '11'. The session tag can be set to any non-NULL value that prevents the changes made by the CONVERGE procedure to the remote database from being replicated.

To converge a scan of the compare_orders comparison so that the database objects are consistent with the local database and a session tag is set at the remote database, complete the following steps:

  1. In SQL*Plus, connect to the comp1.example.com database as the administrative user who owns the comparison. The user must also have access to the database link created in "Preparing To Compare and Converge a Shared Database Object".

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for instructions about connecting to a database in SQL*Plus.

  2. Run the CONVERGE procedure:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    DECLARE
      scan_info    DBMS_COMPARISON.COMPARISON_TYPE;
    BEGIN
      DBMS_COMPARISON.CONVERGE(
        comparison_name     => 'compare_orders',
        scan_id             => 4, -- Substitute the scan ID from your scan.
        scan_info           => scan_info,
        converge_options    => DBMS_COMPARISON.CMP_CONVERGE_LOCAL_WINS,
        remote_converge_tag => HEXTORAW('11'));
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Local Rows Merged: '||scan_info.loc_rows_merged);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Remote Rows Merged: '||scan_info.rmt_rows_merged);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Local Rows Deleted: '||scan_info.loc_rows_deleted);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Remote Rows Deleted: '||scan_info.rmt_rows_deleted);
    END;
    /
    

    Your output is similar to the following:

    Local Rows Merged: 0
    Remote Rows Merged: 6
    Local Rows Deleted: 0
    Remote Rows Deleted: 1
    
    PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
    

Note:

The CREATE_COMPARISON procedure also enables you to set local and remote convergence tag values. If a tag parameter in the CONVERGE procedure is non-NULL, then it takes precedence over the corresponding tag parameter in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure. If a tag parameter in the CONVERGE procedure is NULL, then it is ignored, and the corresponding tag value in the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure is used.

Rechecking the Comparison Results for a Comparison

You can recheck a previous comparison scan by using the RECHECK function in the DBMS_COMPARISON package. The RECHECK function checks the current data in the database objects for differences that were recorded in the specified comparison scan.

For example, to recheck the results for scan ID 4 of a comparison named compare_orders, log in to SQL*Plus as the owner of the comparison, and run the following procedure:

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
DECLARE
  consistent   BOOLEAN;
BEGIN
  consistent := DBMS_COMPARISON.RECHECK(
                  comparison_name => 'compare_orders',
                  scan_id         => 4);
  IF consistent=TRUE THEN
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('No differences were found.');
  ELSE
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Differences were found.');
  END IF;
END;
/

Your output is similar to the following:

Differences were found.

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

The function returns TRUE if no differences were found or FALSE if differences were found. The compare_orders comparison is created in "Comparing a Shared Database Object Without Identifying Row Differences".

Note:

  • The RECHECK function does not compare the shared database object for differences that were not recorded in the specified comparison scan. To check for those differences, run the COMPARE function.

  • If the specified comparison scan did not complete successfully, then the RECHECK function starts where the comparison scan previously ended.

See Also:

"Comparing a Shared Database Object at Two Databases" for information about the compare function

Purging Comparison Results

You can purge the comparison results of one or more comparisons when they are no longer needed by using the PURGE_COMPARISON procedure in the DBMS_COMPARISON package. You can either purge all of the comparison results for a comparison or a subset of the comparison results. When comparison results are purged, they can no longer be used to recheck the comparison or converge divergent data. Also, information about the comparison results is removed from data dictionary views.

This section contains these topics:

Purging All of the Comparison Results for a Comparison

To purge all of the comparison results for a comparison, specify the comparison name in the comparison_name parameter, and specify the default value of NULL for the scan_id and purge_time parameters.

For example, to purge all of the comparison results for a comparison named compare_orders, log in to SQL*Plus as the owner of the comparison, and run the following procedure:

BEGIN
  DBMS_COMPARISON.PURGE_COMPARISON(
    comparison_name => 'compare_orders',
    scan_id         => NULL,
    purge_time      => NULL);
END;
/

Purging the Comparison Results for a Specific Scan ID of a Comparison

To purge the comparison results for a specific scan of a comparison, specify the comparison name in the comparison_name parameter, and specify the scan ID in the scan_id parameter. The specified scan ID must identify a root scan. The root scan in comparison results is the highest level parent scan. The root scan does not have a parent. You can identify root scan IDs by querying the ROOT_SCAN_ID column of the DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN_SUMMARY data dictionary view.

When you run the PURGE_COMPARISON procedure and specify a root scan, the root scan is purged. In addition, all direct and indirect child scans of the specified root scan are purged. Results for other scans are not purged.

For example, to purge the comparison results for scan ID 4 of a comparison named compare_orders, log in to SQL*Plus as the owner of the comparison, and run the following procedure:

BEGIN
  DBMS_COMPARISON.PURGE_COMPARISON(
    comparison_name => 'compare_orders',
    scan_id         => 4); -- Substitute the scan ID from your scan.
END;
/

Purging the Comparison Results of a Comparison Before a Specified Time

To purge the comparison results that were recorded on or before a specific date and time for a comparison, specify the comparison name in the comparison_name parameter, and specify the date and time in the purge_time parameter. Results are purged regardless of scan ID. Comparison results that were recorded after the specified date and time are retained.

For example, assume that the NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT initialization parameter setting in the current session is YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS. To purge the results for any scans that were recorded before 1PM on August 16, 2006 for the compare_orders comparison, log in to SQL*Plus as the owner of the comparison, and run the following procedure:

BEGIN
  DBMS_COMPARISON.PURGE_COMPARISON(
    comparison_name => 'compare_orders',
    purge_time      => '2006-08-16 13:00:00');
END;
/

Dropping a Comparison

To drop a comparison and all of its comparison results, use the DROP_COMPARISON procedure in the DBMS_COMPARISON package. For example, to drop a comparison named compare_subset_columns, log in to SQL*Plus as the owner of the comparison, and run the following procedure:

exec DBMS_COMPARISON.DROP_COMPARISON('compare_subset_columns');

Using DBMS_COMPARISON in an Oracle Streams Replication Environment

This section describes the typical uses for the DBMS_COMPARISON package in an Oracle Streams replication environment. These uses are:

Checking for Consistency After Instantiation

After an instantiation, you can use the DBMS_COMPARISON package to verify the consistency of the database objects that were instantiated. Typically, you should verify consistency before the Oracle Streams replication environment is replicating changes. Ensure that you check for consistency before you allow changes to the source database object and the instantiated database object. Changes to these database objects are identified as differences by the DBMS_COMPARISON package.

To verify the consistency of instantiated database objects, complete the following steps:

  1. Create a comparison for each database object that was instantiated using the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure. Each comparison should specify the database object that was instantiated and its corresponding database object at the source database.

    When you run the CREATE_COMPARISON procedure, ensure that the comparison_mode, scan_mode, and scan_percent parameters are set to their default values of CMP_COMPARE_MODE_OBJECT, CMP_SCAN_MODE_FULL, and NULL, respectively.

  2. Run the COMPARE function to compare each database object that was instantiated. The database objects are consistent if no differences are found.

    When you run the COMPARE function, ensure that the min_value, max_value, and perform_row_dif parameters are set to their default values of NULL, NULL, and FALSE, respectively.

  3. If differences are found by the COMPARE function, then you can either re-instantiate the database objects or use the CONVERGE procedure to converge them. If you use the CONVERGE procedure, then typically the source database object should "win" during convergence.

  4. When the comparison results show that the database objects are consistent, you can purge the comparison results using the PURGE_COMPARISON procedure.

See Also:

Checking for Consistency in a Running Oracle Streams Replication Environment

Oracle Streams replication environments continually replicate changes to database objects. Therefore, the following applies to the replicated database objects:

  • Replicated database objects should be nearly synchronized most of the time because Oracle Streams components replicate and apply changes to keep them synchronized.

  • If there are differences in replicated database objects, then Oracle Streams components will typically send and apply changes to synchronize the database objects in the near future. That is, a COMPARE function might show differences that are in the process of being replicated.

Because differences are expected in database objects while changes are being replicated, using the DBMS_COMPARISON package to compare replicated database objects can be challenging. For example, assume that there is an existing comparison that compares an entire table at two databases, and consider the following scenario:

  1. A change is made to a row in the table at one of the databases.

  2. The change is captured by an Oracle Streams capture process, but it has not yet been propagated to the other database.

  3. The COMPARE function is run to compare the table tables at the two databases.

  4. The COMPARE function identifies a difference in the row that was changed in Step 1.

  5. The change is propagated and applied at the destination database. Therefore, the difference identified in Step 4 no longer exists.

When differences are found, and you suspect that the differences are transient, you can run the RECHECK function after some time has passed. If Oracle Streams has synchronized the database objects, then the differences will disappear.

If some rows in a replicated database object are constantly updated, then these rows might always show differences in comparison results. In this case, as you monitor the environment, ensure the following:

  • No apply errors are accumulating at the destination database for these rows.

  • The rows are being updated correctly by the Oracle Streams apply process at the destination database. You can query the table that contains the rows at the destination database to ensure that the replicated changes are being applied.

When both of these statements are true for the rows, then you can ignore differences in the comparison results for them.

Because the COMPARE function might show differences that are in the process of being replicated, it is best to run this function during times when there is the least amount of replication activity in your environment. During times of relatively little replication activity, comparison results show the following types of differences in an Oracle Streams replication environment:

  • Differences resulting when rows are manually manipulated at only one database by an administrator or procedure. For example, an administrator or procedure might set a session tag before making changes, and the session tag might prevent a capture process from capturing the changes.

  • Differences resulting from recovery situations in which data is lost at one database and must be identified and recovered from another database.

  • Differences resulting from apply errors. In this case, the error transactions are not applied at one database because of apply errors.

In any of these situations, you can run the CONVERGE procedure to synchronize the database objects if it is appropriate. For example, if there are apply errors, and it is not easy to reexecute the error transactions, then you can use the CONVERGE procedure to synchronize the database objects.

See Also: