This chapter contains these topics:
The OO4O operational hierarchy of the objects expresses has-a and belongs-to relationships.
Figure 8-1 shows the operational hierarchy.
The Automation objects diagram illustrates this hierarchy.
OraSession object is returned when an instance of the OO4O Automation Server is created. It mainly serves as an interface for establishing connections to Oracle databases. It also contains methods for starting, committing, and canceling transactions on the connections contained in the
OraDatabase objects created. The following Visual Basic example creates an instance of the OO4O Automation Server.
'OracleInProcServer.XOraSession is the symbolic name for a 'globally unique component identifier. Set OO4OSession = CreateObject("OracleInProcServer.XOraSession")
OraServer object represents a physical connection to an Oracle database instance. It provides a method,
OpenDatabase, for creating user sessions, which represents
OraDatabase objects. It makes it possible to do "connection multiplexing."
OraDatabase object represents a user connection to an Oracle database instance, and provides methods to execute SQL statements and PL/SQL code. The
OraDatabase object is returned by the
OpenDatabase method of the
OraSession or the
The following example illustrates the use of the
OpenDatabase method of the
OraDatabase objects created by this method contain a distinct physical connection to an Oracle database.
'Establish a connection to the ExampleDb database Set hrDBSession = OO4OSession.OpenDatabase("ExampleDb", "scott/tiger", 0&)
The following example demonstrates how a physical network connection to an Oracle database can be shared by multiple user sessions. Using a single connection that is shared by multiple user sessions results in reduced resource usage in an Oracle Database and can increase scalability.
'Create a server connection Set hrDBServer = CreateObject("OracleInProcServer.XOraServer") Set hrDBServer = oo4o.Open("ExampleDb") Set userSession1 = hrDBServer.OpenDatabase("scott/tiger", 0) 'execute queries ... Set userSession2= hrDBServer.OpenDatabase("scott/tiger", 0) 'execute queries ...
See Also:OraDatabase Object
OraDynaset object represents the result set of a SQL
SELECT query or a PL/SQL cursor variable returned from a stored procedure or function. It is essentially a client-side scrollable and updatable cursor that allows for browsing the set of rows generated by the query it executes. It is created by the
CreateCustomDynaset method of an
The following Visual Basic example executes a query, loops through the result set, and displays values of columns returned.
Set employees = OraDatabase.CreateDynaset("select empno, ename from emp", 0&) 'While there are more rows while not employees.EOF 'Display the values of empno and ename column of the current row msgbox employees("empno") & employees("ename") 'Move to the next row employees.MoveNext wend
OraField object is an abstraction of a column in an
OraDynaset object. It contains the value as well as the metadata that describes a column of the current row in the dynaset. In the previous example for the
OraDynaset object, the
Field interface for
empno can be obtained using this additional code:
set empno = employees.Fields("empno") msgbox "Employee Number: " & empno.Value
OraFields is a collection object representing all columns in the current row.
OraField objects can represent instances of any data type supported by Oracle Database. This includes all primitive types, such as
FLOAT, as well all the object-relational types introduced in Oracle8i.
OraParameters object is a collection container for
OraParameter objects. An
OraParameter object is used to supply data values for placeholders used in the SQL statements or PL/SQL blocks at run time. It can be used to provide input values as well as contain values that are returned from the database. The following sample creates two parameter objects and uses them in an update query.
OraDatabase.Parameters.Add "SALARY", 4000, ORAPARM_INPUT OraDatabase.Parameters.Add "ENAME", "JONES", ORAPARM_INPUT Set updateStmt = OraDatabase.CreateSQL("update emp set sal = :SALARY" & _ "where ename = :ENAME ")
See Also:OraParameters Collection
OraParameter objects can contain values for all the data types supported by Oracle9i including object-relational data types. They can be passed as input or output arguments to PL/SQL stored procedures and functions. The values of the
OraParameter objects can also represent PL/SQL cursors in the form of
chris, 9i and later
OraParamArray object provides the mechanism for binding and fetching an array of values. It is typically used for performing bulk inserts and updates.
'Create a table OraDatabase.ExecuteSQL ("create table part_nos(partno number," & _ "description char(50), primary key(partno))") 'Create two parameter arrays of size 10 to hold values for 'part numbers (size 22 bytes), and their description (50 bytes long). OraDatabase.Parameters.AddTable "PARTNO", ORAPARM_INPUT, ORATYPE_NUMBER, 10, 22 OraDatabase.Parameters.AddTable "DESCRIPTION", ORAPARM_INPUT, _ ORATYPE_CHAR, 10, 50 'Initialize the arrays For I = 0 To 10 OraDatabase.Parameters("PARTNO").put_Value = I, I OraDatabase.Parameters("DESCRIPTION ") = "some description", I Next I 'Execute the query Set OraSqlStmt = OraDatabase.CreateSql("insert into " & _ "part_nos(partno, description) values(:PARTNO,:DESCRIPTION)", 0&)
See Also:OraParamArray Object
OraSQLStmt object is typically used for executing non-select SQL queries and PL/SQL blocks. The following line of code executes an update query and displays the number of rows affected.
Set updateStmt = OraDatabase.CreateSQL("update emp set sal = 3000" & _ "where ename = 'JONES' ") MsgBox updateStmt.RecordCount
OraSQLStmt object (
updateStmt) can be used later to execute the same query with a different value for the
:SALARY placeholder. For example:
OraDatabase.Parameters("SALARY").value = 200000 updateStmt.Parameters("ENAME").value = "KING" updateStmt.Refresh
See Also:OraSQLStmt Object