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11g Release 11.1.0.1

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9 Middleware Management

This chapter describes how you can use Enterprise Manager to manage middleware software including Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g, Oracle WebLogic Server, Oracle Application Server 10g, and non-Oracle middleware software such as IBM WebSphere, JBoss, and Microsoft.NET.

This chapter covers the following:

Introduction to Middleware Management

Middleware is the software that connects software components or enterprise applications. Middleware is the software layer that lies between the operating system and the applications on each side of a distributed computer network. Typically, it supports complex, distributed business software applications.Middleware is the infrastructure which facilitates creation of business applications, and provides core services like concurrency, transactions, threading, messaging, and the SCA framework for service-oriented architecture (SOA) applications. It also provides security and enables high availability functionality to your enterprise.

Middleware includes Web servers, application servers, content management systems, and similar tools that support application development and delivery. It is especially integral to information technology based on Extensible Markup Language (XML), Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Web services, SOA, Web 2.0 infrastructure, and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), etc.

Managing these applications and the underlying middleware technology can be difficult and IT organizations often have to rely on a variety of specialized tools. This can lead to inefficiency and may introduce complexities and risks. Enterprise Manager Grid Control is a definitive tool for middleware management and allows you to manage both Oracle applications and custom Java EE applications that run on a combination of Oracle Middleware and non Oracle Middleware software.

This section introduces you to Enterprise Manager Grid Control which offers a unique management solution for Oracle and non Oracle middleware technologies.

Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control to Manage the Oracle Fusion Middleware Environment

After you install and configure Oracle Fusion Middleware, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Fusion Middleware Control to manage the Oracle Fusion Middleware environment. Fusion Middleware Control is a Web browser-based, graphical user interface that you can use to monitor and administer a farm with a single Oracle WebLogic Server domain.A farm is a collection of components managed by Fusion Middleware Control. It can contain one Oracle WebLogic Server domain, one Administration Server, one or more Managed Servers, clusters, and the Oracle Fusion Middleware components that are installed, configured, and running in the domain.Fusion Middleware Control organizes a wide variety of performance data and administrative functions into distinct, Web-based home pages for the farm, domain, servers, components, and applications. The Fusion Middleware Control home pages make it easy to locate the most important monitoring data and the most commonly used administrative functions-all from your Web browser.However, you can manage only one Fusion Middleware farm with Fusion Middleware Control. Typically, an enterprise would have multiple farms. Managing several farms from different, distinct Fusion Middleware Control consoles becomes very difficult.For centralized management and additional management functionality (such as historical data collections for performance trending, email and page notifications for potential availability and/or performance problems, and service level management), you can use Enterprise Manager Grid Control.

Oracle Fusion Middleware Control versus Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control

You can manage your Oracle Fusion Middleware environment using Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Middleware Control (Fusion Middleware Control) or Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control.

Managing Oracle Fusion Middleware with Fusion Middleware Control

Fusion Middleware Control organizes a wide variety of performance data and administrative functions into distinct, Web-based home pages for the farm, cluster, domain, servers, components, and applications. The Fusion Middleware Control home pages make it easy to locate the most important monitoring data and the most commonly used administrative functions all from your Web browser.

Fusion Middleware Control is a part of the Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g installation. With Fusion Middleware Control, you can:

  • Manage a single Oracle Fusion Middleware Farm and a single WebLogic Domain.

  • Monitor the availability and performance of Fusion Middleware software in real time mode.

  • Perform routine administration tasks such as deploying applications, configuring parameters etc.

For more details, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g Administrator's Guide.

Managing Oracle Fusion Middleware with Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Grid Control

Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Grid Control is a Web browser-based, graphical user interface that you can use to monitor multiple Oracle Fusion Middleware Farms and Oracle WebLogic Server Domains. In fact, Grid Control provides deep management solutions for Oracle technologies including Oracle packaged applications, Oracle Database and Oracle VM. Grid Control also offers extensive support for non-Oracle technologies through more than two dozen heterogeneous management plug-ins and connectors including Microsoft MOM, IBM WebSphere, JBoss, EMC storage, F5 BIG IP, Check Point Firewall, and Remedy.

Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Grid Control needs to be installed separately as it is not a part of the Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g installation. With Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Grid Control, you can:

  • Centrally manage multiple Oracle Fusion Middleware Farms and WebLogic Domains.

  • Manage third party tools such as WebSphere, JBoss, Tomcat, and Microsoft.NET Framework.

  • Manage non-middleware software such as underlying operating systems and hardware on which the middleware software is installed. This allows administrators to correlate middleware performance with its underlying host performance.

  • Manage database software and diagnose application performance problems and identify the true root cause of the problem and the tier (middleware, database) on which it occurs.

  • Monitor the availability and performance of Oracle Fusion Middleware software in real time and from a historical perspective for trend analysis.

  • Diagnose availability and performance problems.

  • Monitor and trace important end-user requests from the client to the service endpoint across all the servers and applications associated with each transaction.

  • Use Application Dependency and Performance (ADP) to analyze J2EE and SOA applications.

  • Monitor Java applications and diagnose performance problems in production using JVM Diagnostics.

  • Define Service Level Objectives (SLOs) in terms of out-of-box system-level metrics as well as end user experience metrics to accurately monitor and report on Service Level Agreement (SLA) compliance.

  • Perform several critical tasks like:

    • Setting thresholds on performance metrics. When these thresholds are violated, email and page notifications are sent.

    • Tracking configuration changes and compare configurations between example test environment and production environment.

Adding Middleware Targets to Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control

To add middleware related targets (e.g. Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g, Oracle WebLogic Domain, Oracle Application Server 10g, JBoss Application Server) to Enterprise Manager Grid Control, follow these steps:

  1. After you have logged in, click Targets > Middleware. The following page is displayed:

  2. Figure 9-1 Middleware Page

    Middleware Page
  3. Select a middleware target from the Add drop-down list. The Add wizard is displayed which guides through the process of adding the target.

  4. Click OK when you have finished. The selected target will be added and displayed on the Middleware page.

After you have added the target, you can view general information about the targets including their status and availability on the Middleware page. You can drill down into each target to get further details like how the target is performing, where it is deployed, the version, location of its home directory, and so on.

You can also view the number of critical, warning, and error alerts generated for the past 24 hours. These alerts indicate that a particular metric condition has been encountered. For example, an alert is triggered when a metric threshold is reached. Using these details, you can drill down to investigate the target and the problem that triggered the alert.

You can monitor the following components using Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control:

Oracle Fusion Middleware Components

You can monitor the following Oracle Fusion Middleware components using Enterprise Manager Grid Control:

  • Oracle WebLogic Server Domains, Clusters, and Managed Servers: A WebLogic Server domain is a logically related group of WebLogic Server resources that you manage as a unit. A domain includes one or more WebLogic Servers and may also include WebLogic Server clusters. Clusters are groups of WebLogic Servers instances that work together to provide scalability and high-availability for applications. With Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, you can monitor and manage the farm, domains, clusters, servers, and deployed applications.

  • Oracle SOA Suite: The Oracle SOA Suite enables services to be created, managed, and orchestrated into SOA composite applications. Composite applications enable you to easily assemble multiple technology components into one SOA composite application. Oracle SOA Suite plugs into heterogeneous infrastructures and enables enterprises to incrementally adopt SOA. You can:

    • Automatically discover and model SOA components such as BPEL Process Manager, Oracle Service Bus, Service Engines etc.

    • Monitor the health and performance of the SOA components.

    • Trace the flow of an instance across all SOA Infrastructure applications.

    • Create systems, services, and aggregate services.

  • Oracle WebCenter: The Oracle WebCenter is an integrated set of components with which you can create social applications, enterprise portals, collaborative communities, and composite applications, built on a standards-based, service-oriented architecture. It combines dynamic user interface technologies with which to develop rich internet applications, the flexibility and power of an integrated, multichannel portal framework, and a set of horizontal Enterprise 2.0 capabilities delivered as services that provide content, collaboration, presence, and social networking capabilities. Based on these components, Oracle WebCenter also provides an out-of-the-box, enterprise-ready customizable application, WebCenter Spaces, with a configurable work environment that enables individuals and groups to work and collaborate more effectively.

  • Oracle WebTier: This consists of:

    • Oracle HTTP Server: Oracle HTTP Server (OHS) is the underlying deployment platform for all programming languages and technologies that Oracle Fusion Middleware supports. It provides a Web listener and the framework for hosting static and dynamic pages and applications over the Web. Based on the proven technology of the Apache 2.2.10 infrastructure, OHS includes significant enhancements that facilitate load balancing, administration, and configuration. It also includes a number of enhanced modules, or mods, which are extensions to the HTTP server that extend its functionality for other enterprise applications and services. You can:

      • Automatically discover and monitor Oracle HTTP Servers running within the application servers.

      • View a list of metrics to gauge the server performance and virtual host performance.

      • View the top URLs being accessed.

      • Perform the enterprise configuration management tasks like viewing, comparing, and searching configuration information.

    • Oracle Web Cache: Oracle Web Cache is a content-aware server accelerator, or reverse proxy, for the Web tier that improves the performance, scalability, and availability of Web sites that run on any Web server or application server, such as Oracle HTTP Server and Oracle WebLogic Server. Oracle Web Cache is the primary caching mechanism provided with Oracle Fusion Middleware. Caching improves the performance, scalability, and availability of Web sites that run on Oracle Fusion Middleware by storing frequently accessed URLs in memory. You can:

      • Automatically discover and monitor OracleAS Web Cache instances running within application servers.

      • View the metrics associated with this target to analyze their performance.

      • Perform enterprise configuration tasks like viewing, comparing, and searching configuration information.

  • Oracle Identity Management: This is an enterprise identity management system that automatically manages users' access privileges within the resources of an enterprise. It provides a shared infrastructure for all Oracle applications. It also provides services and interfaces that facilitate third-party enterprise application development. These interfaces are useful for application developers who need to incorporate identity management into their applications.

  • Oracle Portal: This is a Web-based tool for building and deploying e-business portals. It provides a secure, manageable environment for accessing and interacting with enterprise software services and information resources. A portal page makes data from multiple sources accessible from a single location.

  • Oracle Forms Services is a middle-tier application framework for deploying complex, transactional forms applications to a network such as an intranet or the Internet. With Oracle Forms Services, business application developers can quickly build comprehensive Java client applications that are optimized for the Internet without writing any Java code, and that meet (and exceed) the requirements of professional user communities. These Java client applications are Web-deployed applications available on demand for rapid processing of large amounts of data and rapid completion of complex calculations, analysis, and transactions.

  • Oracle Coherence is a component of Oracle Fusion Middleware that enables organizations to predictably scale mission-critical applications by providing fast and reliable access to frequently used data. By automatically and dynamically partitioning data in memory across multiple servers, Oracle Coherence enables continuous data availability and transactional integrity, even in the event of a server failure. As a shared infrastructure, Oracle Coherence combines data locality with local processing power to perform real-time data analysis, in-memory grid computations, and parallel transaction and event processing. Oracle Coherence comes in three editions. You can:

    • Discover and manage a Coherence cluster and its various entities.

    • Monitor and configure various components such as nodes, caches, services, connections, and connection manager instances of a Coherence cluster.

    • Deploy and install a Coherence node based on the Provisioning Advisory framework.

  • Oracle Business Intelligence is a complete, integrated solution that addresses business intelligence requirements. Oracle Business Intelligence includes Oracle Business Intelligence Reporting and Publishing, Oracle Business Intelligence Discoverer, and Oracle Business Intelligence Publisher. You can:

    • Manually discover Oracle BI Suite EE targets, and monitor their overall health.

    • Diagnose, notify, and correct performance and availability problems in Oracle BI Suite EE targets.

    • Access current and historical performance information using graphs and reports.

    • Perform enterprise configuration management tasks like viewing, comparing, and searching configuration information.

Oracle Application Server Components

You can monitor Oracle Application Server 10g components like Oracle Application Server Farms, Oracle Application Server Clusters, Oracle Application Servers, OC4J, Oracle HTTP Servers, Oracle Web Cache, Oracle Portal, Oracle Wireless, Oracle Forms Services, Oracle Reports Services, Oracle Business Intelligence, and Oracle Identity Management.

Non-Oracle Middleware Components

In addition to monitoring Oracle middleware components, Enterprise Manager Grid Control can also be used to monitor non-Oracle middleware software. The third-party middleware software that can be monitored includes the following:

  • WebSphere Application Server

  • WebSphere MQ

  • JBoss Application Server

  • Apache Tomcat

  • Apache HTTP Server

  • Microsoft Exchange Server

  • Microsoft Internet Information Services

  • Microsoft Active Directory

  • Microsoft Commerce Server

  • Microsoft BizTalk Server

  • Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration

  • Microsoft .NET Framework

Out-of-Box Monitoring of Middleware Targets

Enterprise Manager Grid Control organizes a wide variety of performance data and administrative functions into distinct, Web-based home pages for the farm, domain, servers, components, and applications.

Target Home Page

Enterprise Manager Grid Control provides centralized monitoring across domains, configuration management, provisioning, real time and historical performance analysis. You need to drill down to Oracle Fusion Middleware Control to perform administrative tasks and manage components in your farm.

The Home pages make it easy to locate the most important monitoring data and the most commonly used administrative functions—all from your Web browser.

When you login into Enterprise Manager Grid Control and select a Middleware target, the Home page for the target is displayed. For example, when you click on a WebLogic Server target in the Middleware page, the following screen is displayed.

Figure 9-2 WebLogic Server Home Page

WebLogic Server Home Page

This figure shows the target navigation pane on the left and the content page on the right. From the target navigation pane, you can expand the tree and select a component or an application. When you select a target, the target's home page is displayed in the content pane and that target's menu is displayed at the top of the page, in the context pane. You can also view the menu for a target by right-clicking the target in the navigation pane.

In the preceding figure, the following items are called out:

  • Target Navigation Pane lists all of the targets in a navigation tree

  • Content Pane shows the current page for the target. When you first select a target, that target's home page is displayed.

  • Dynamic Target Menu provides a list of operations that you can perform on the currently selected target. The menu that is displayed depends on the target you select. The menu for a specific target contains the same operations as those in the Right-Click Target Menu.

  • Right-Click Target Menu provides a list of operations that you can perform on the currently selected target. The menu is displayed when you right-click the target name in the target navigation pane. In the figure, even though the WebLogic Server is selected and its home page is displayed, the right-click target menu displays the operations for the MedRecServer because the user has right-clicked the MedRecServer.

  • Target Name is the name of the currently selected target.

  • Context Pane provides the host name, the time of the last page refresh, and the Refresh icon.

  • Expand All / Collapse All lets you expand or collapse the navigation tree.

  • Refresh icon indicates when the page is being refreshed. Click it to refresh a page with new data. (Refreshing the browser window refreshes the page but does not retrieve new data.)

From the Home page, you can also access the Fusion Middleware Control and WebLogic Server Administration Console by clicking on the appropriate link or selecting the appropriate menu item on the page.

Out-of-box Metrics

Enterprise Manager Grid Control provides a set of pre-defined performance metrics for each middleware target. These metrics are available for domains, cluster, server, applications, web services, resources etc. The metric data is collected and stored in the Management Repository. For more details on the pre-defined metrics, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Metric Reference Guide.

For example, Enterprise Manager Grid Control can automatically monitor:

  • The CPU or memory consumption of the application server, including detailed monitoring of individual Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) being run by Oracle WebLogic servers.

  • Java EE application responsiveness from the application down through individual servlets and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs)

  • Oracle HTTP Server session volumes, connection duration, and error rates

  • Oracle Web Cache hit rates and volumes

  • Top servlets based on number of requests, maximum processing time, and highest average processing time

The performance metrics provide details about the metric as a current real time value (30 seconds, 1 minute, or 5 minutes) or a previous value (past 24 hours, 7 days, or 31 days). The historical information is displayed as graphs and a table. By using graphs, you can easily watch for trends, and by using tables, you can examine details of past metric severity history. The out-of-metrics can be viewed from the performance summary pages as shown below:

Figure 9-3 Performance Summary Page

Performance Summary Page

You can customize the charts by rearranging the order of the charts, removing a chart from the page, modify the scale of a chart, display the metrics in a hierarchical tree format, etc.

Analyzing Historical Performance

Enterprise Manager Grid Control allows you to analyze historic metric data and perform trend analysis. You cannot view or analyze historical performance in Fusion Middleware Control. The metrics are collected and stored in the Management Repository, so you can analyze the data well after the situation has changed. For example, you can use historical data and diagnostic reports to research an application performance problem that occurred days or even weeks ago.

You can even provide a customized time period for which the data should be retrieved from the Management Repository. You can customize the time period for:

  • Pre-defined range of the last 24 hours, last 7 days, or last 31 days

  • Customized range of any number of days, weeks, months, or years

  • Any start date and end date (such that the duration is not greater than 99 years)

Note:

You can analyze historical metric data with Enterprise Manager Grid Control only. You cannot use Fusion Middleware Control to analyze historic performance.

Setting Metric Thresholds for Alert Notifications

Metric snapshots are named snapshots of a target's past performance. You can use metric snapshots to calculate thresholds based on deviations from this past performance. Thresholds are boundary values against which monitored metric values are compared. You can specify a threshold such that, when a monitored metric value crosses that threshold, an alert is generated. You can get critical alerts when a monitored metric has crossed its critical threshold or warning alerts when a monitored metric has crossed its warning threshold.

Enterprise Manager Grid Control provides a comprehensive set of features that facilitates automated monitoring and generation of alerts. You can gather and evaluate diagnostic information for targets distributed across the enterprise, and an extensive array of middleware performance metrics are automatically monitored against predefined thresholds. By selecting a metric, you can determine whether the thresholds have been defined for a particular metric. These thresholds are used as a mechanism to generate alerts. These alerts in turn are used to notify you whether a target is up or down, the response time is slow, and so on. Thus, you can monitor their overall performance.

You can set up corrective actions to automatically resolve an alert condition. These corrective actions ensure that routine responses to alerts are automatically executed, thereby saving you time and ensuring that problems are dealt with before they noticeably impact the users.

Monitoring Templates

You can also use monitoring templates to simplify the task of standardizing monitoring settings across your enterprise. You can specify the monitoring settings once and apply them to all Oracle Fusion Middleware targets. A Monitoring template defines all the parameters you would normally set to monitor Middleware target, such as:

  • Target type to which the template applies

  • Metrics (including user-defined metrics), thresholds, metric collection schedules, and corrective actions

When a change is made to a template, you can reapply the template across the affected targets in order to propagate the new changes. You can reapply monitoring templates as often as needed.

Managing and Creating Blackouts

Enterprise Manager Grid Control comes with a bundle of performance and health metrics that enable automated monitoring of application targets in your environment. When a metric reaches the predefined warning or critical threshold, an alert is generated and the administrator is notified.

However, there are occasions when you want to perform maintenance work on your middleware targets, and not want any alerts to be generated while you are bringing them down. In this case, you can schedule a blackout and suspend monitoring of the middleware targets.

Blackouts allow you to suspend any data collection activity on one or more monitored targets, thus allowing you to perform scheduled maintenance on targets. If you continue monitoring during these periods, the collected data will show trends and other monitoring information that are not the result of normal day-to-day operations. To get a more accurate, long-term picture of a target's performance, you can use blackouts to exclude these special-case situations from data analysis. Enterprise Manager Grid Control allows you to define new blackouts; view the status of existing blackouts; and edit, stop, and delete blackouts that are not required.

Extend Monitoring for Applications Deployed to WebLogic Server

Many administrators often require custom logic to be written to check for conditions specific to their application environments. Enterprise Manager Grid Control allows integration of application instrumentation in Enterprise Manager Grid Control's event monitoring infrastructure. If application developers expose application instrumentation using standards like JMX or Web Services operations, then you can build management plug-ins for the instrumentation using easy-to-use command line tools, and leverage Enterprise Manager Grid Control's event monitoring system to monitor it. You do not have to edit any XML files or write any integration code to integrate such instrumentation. Follow these procedures to integrate application-defined instrumentation:

  • Use Command Line Interfaces that analyze MBean interfaces for JMX and WSDL for Web Services and create management plug-ins

  • Import Management Plug-in Archive in Enterprise Manager Grid Control

  • Deploy Management Plug-in to Management Agents

  • Create Target-type instances for the target types defined in Management Plug-in Archive

  • Leverage Enterprise Manager Grid Control's event monitoring system including monitoring templates, corrective actions, historical and real time metric views, alerts, customization of notification rules, and methods on events generated from application instrumentation metrics.

Beginning with Enterprise Manager Grid Control release 11.1, administrators are able to add performance metrics beyond those available out-of-box for JMX-instrumented applications deployed on Oracle WebLogic Server. Administrators can additionally monitor JMX-enabled applications by defining new target type that can be monitored via management plug-ins, and then use a command line tool emjmxcli to automate the generation of the target metadata and collection files.All JMX-enabled applications deployed to the WebLogic Server can be consolidated and monitored by a single management tool, Enterprise Manager Grid Control.

Request Monitoring

Request Monitoring provides end-to-end visibility into requests and helps localize end-user performance problems based on the deployment model. You can monitor, understand, and visualize how servers interact with each other to deliver business end-user services requests. You can trace important end-user requests from the client to the service endpoint across all the servers and applications associated with each transaction. The trace data is used to model the call-path for these requests where call-paths represent the inter-server relationship and performance metrics for these requests. You can only monitor synchronous transactions running on WebLogic servers. With Request Monitoring, you can:

  • Trace end-user transactions and capture the complete call-path of important requests.

  • Reduce problem localization by diagnosing poorly performing requests and identifying the servers whose behavior (service time) deviates most from the norm.

  • Reduce fault discovery time and set performance level objectives on request response times.

  • Reduce fault-reason identification time by allowing the user to launch into Oracle Enterprise Manager JVM Diagnostics feature. This allows performance diagnostics to be done within the context of the problem experienced as well as historical statistics of the system when it was behaving normally.

Defining and Managing Transactions Being Monitored

A request is a server entry-point that can be invoked by a Web Browser or an application. A group of request instances related to each other by some common attributes is known as a request. A collection of requests is known as a transaction group. A transaction can belong to one or more transaction groups. Violations occur when the critical and warning thresholds are exceeded. The administrator can mark one or more important requests as key requests. Alerts are generated for key requests only.

You can define requests that need to be monitored and tracked and group them for reporting purposes. A set of pre-defined requests and request groups are provided by default. You can create a new request, edit or delete an existing transaction. To define a request:

  1. Log into Oracle Enterprise Manager and click the Middleware tab.

  2. All the Middleware targets are displayed. Under the Related Links, click Request Monitoring.

  3. Click Request Performance to view the performance of the request during a specific time period.

    Figure 9-4 Request Performance Page

    Request Performance Page
  4. Click on a request to drill down to the Performance tab. The performance charts show the volume of requests over a time period and the average response time of all requests during this period. Two performance charts are displayed for the current and the comparison period. The charts provide a historic response time analysis of the request over the selected period of time.

  5. Click on the Topology tab. The following screen is displayed.

    Figure 9-5 Topology Page

    Topology Page

    The topology chart shows the aggregate server level call paths of the request. The chart shows the calls made between the clients and the clusters or servers. Click on the icon on a cluster to view all the servers that are part of the cluster. Place the cursor on a cluster or server to view the following details:

    • Response Time: The average response time taken by the server to process all the calls for the selected period.

    • Count: The total number of calls that have been made to the server.

    • Current Alerts: These alerts show the status of the server or cluster and indicate whether it is up or down, blacked out, or unreachable.

  6. Click on the Server Usage tab. The following screen is displayed.

    Figure 9-6 Server Usage Page

    Server Usage Page

    These charts show the workload distribution for the selected request in each server. The charts display the average of the percentage contribution of each server or cluster in the selected time period. You can see the workload distribution for good requests, requests that have violated the warning thresholds, and requests that have violated the critical thresholds.

Diagnosing Performance Problems

This section describes the methods and tools used to diagnose performance problems. You can:

Using Home Pages to Diagnose Performance Issues

When you are troubleshooting performance problems, it can be helpful to know which servlets or JSPs are the most active. By viewing the Most Requested section on the WebLogic Server Home page, you can identify the most active Java servlets, JSPs, Web Services, or Java EE Services running on the WebLogic Server instance.

When you receive an alert notification, Enterprise Manager Grid Control makes it easy for you to investigate the problem and take corrective actions wherever required. For example, notification of excessive CPU consumption by WebLogic Server may lead to investigation of the applications running on that instance. By using the Servlets and JSPs tab in the Most Requested section of the WebLogic Server Home page, you can quickly identify the highest volume or least responsive application. You can then drill down and diagnose application's servlets, Java Server Pages (JSPs), or EJBs to identify the bottleneck.

Figure 9-7 WebLogic Server Home Page (Most Requested)

WLS Home Page (Most Requested)

Using Application Dependency and Performance to Monitor Middleware Targets

Application Dependency and Performance (ADP) analyzes Java EE and SOA applications and captures relationships among various application building blocks in its AppSchema model. ADP is able to deliver an ASM solution that self-customizes out-of-the-box, evolves with change, minimizes expert involvement, and delivers a holistic, service-oriented view across heterogeneous environments. This enables the enterprise to more efficiently manage distributed applications, attain management agility, and lower total cost of ownership.For example, when ADP is pointed to a Oracle WebLogic domain, IBM WebSphere cell, or an Oracle SOA Suite cluster, it automatically discovers information about this particular domain including all deployed applications, configuration, resources, and others. ADP displays this information in the Monitoring tab under Oracle Enterprise Manager.

Using Application Dependency and Performance

To use the Application Dependency and Performance feature available in Grid Control, follow these steps:

  1. Log into Enterprise Manager.

  2. From the Grid Control home page, click the Targets tab, then click the Middleware tab.

  3. In the Related Links section located at the bottom of the page, select Application Dependency and Performance.

  4. The Monitoring, Configuration, and Registration tabs display.

For additional information, refer to the Getting Started with SOA Management Pack Plus manual.

Using Java Diagnostics to Identify and Troubleshoot Performance Issues

JVM Diagnostics enables administrators to monitor Java applications and diagnose performance problems in production. By eliminating the need to reproduce problems, it reduces the time required to resolve these problems. This improves application availability and performance. Administrators will be able identify the root cause of performance problems in the production environment without having to reproduce them in the test or development environment.

JVM Diagnostics provides real-time JVM visibility and historical diagnosis. JVM Pooling and Tracing are other features that allow to analyze heaps and diagnose performance problems. The key features are:

  • Low overhead monitoring with deep diagnostics

  • Easy Installation and Deployment

  • Real-time JVM Visibility

  • Cross-Tier Transaction Tracing

  • Heap Analysis

  • JVM Pooling

  • Real-time and Historical Diagnosis

  • JVM Tracing

Using Java Diagnostics in Oracle Enterprise Manager

To use the Java Diagnostics feature, follow these steps:

  1. Log into Oracle Enterprise Manager and click the Middleware tab.

  2. All the Middleware targets are displayed. Click on a WebLogic Server target from the list.

  3. The WebLogic Server Home Page is displayed. Select JVM Diagnostics from the drop-down list and select Summary. The JVM Diagnostics Summary page is displayed. You can view the java diagnostics details for the selected period.

    Figure 9-8 JVM Diagnostics Summary Page

    JVM Diagnostics Summary Page

Administering Middleware Targets

Enterprise Manager Grid Control allows you to monitor multiple domains and provides configuration management, diagnostics, automation, and historical performance analysis. From Enterprise Manager Grid Control, you can drill down to Oracle Fusion Middleware Control or Oracle WebLogic Administration Console to monitor and administer yo ur Oracle Fusion Middleware environment

Process Control

Enterprise Manager Grid Control allows you to perform process control tasks such as starting, stopping, or restarting middleware targets. You can perform these tasks by selecting the Control option in the menu from the Home page of a target. You can also schedule a job to perform these operations. For example, for a WebLogic Server Domain, you can create a job to automatically start, stop, or restart the servers in the domain. You can also view details about the jobs that are scheduled, running, suspended, or the ones that have a problem.

Creating WebLogic Domain Groups

The WebLogic Domain Group is a custom group that can have WebLogic Domains as members. You can navigate to the page where you can create a WebLogic Domain Group from the All Targets page or the Groups page. A WebLogic Server Domain includes a special WebLogic Server instance called the Administration Server, which is the central point from which you configure and manage all resources in the domain. It also typically includes one or more WebLogic Server instances, called managed servers, on which Java EE applications and components run.

You can perform the following tasks on a WebLogic Domain Group:

  • View response and load information of the top 5 servers by average response times.

  • View details about the domain such as status, alerts and policy violations, and configuration changes.

  • View the resource usage of the top 5 servers by CPU usage percentage.

  • See useful performance data related to JMS/JDBC/EJBs/JSPS and servlets of all servers across all domains

Managing Configurations

Enterprise Manager Grid Control provides a suite of configuration management functions that can be performed on middleware targets.

Oracle Management Agent collects configuration information about Oracle Fusion Middleware targets from their respective configuration files, and communicates this information over HTTP/HTTPS to Oracle Management Service, which stores it in the Management Repository. This information is periodically collected and updated while maintaining the audit of changes. Enterprise Manager's configuration management capabilities efficiently guide the users to desired configuration data in a particular component.

See Also:

"Hardware and Software Configurations" in Chapter 4, "Enterprise Configuration Management"

You can compare these configuration details and view the differences and similarities between the two instances of a middleware target. You have the flexibility to compare two last collected configurations or two saved configuration files. You can also compare one configuration with multiple configurations or one configuration in the Management Repository with a saved configuration file.

Using Enterprise Manager Grid Control, you can search configurations across middleware targets and find configuration anomalies - whether they are a mismatch of an install/patch version of Oracle Fusion Middleware software, or they are a mismatch of the software configuration data. You can perform more intelligent searches to identify all the components hosting a particular application or other resources.

In addition, for BPEL Process Manager targets, you can view the BPEL Processes, its different versions, and the suitcase files associated with each version. You can also compare the BPEL Process suitcase files of different versions and track the changes that were made to a version. shows you how the versions can be selected and compared. This allows you to identify the cause for improved or deteriorated performance due to a change in the BPEL Process suitcase file.

Policy Violations

Enterprise Manager Grid Control also shows the number of informational, warning, and critical policy rules violated for the application server target. You can see the roll up of individual policy compliance scores for that target. Compliance scores provide a quick way to determine the health of the your middleware target. You can also see the policy trend overview for the last 24 hours, for the last week, for the last month, or for a user-define time period, and determine your course of action in solving the policy violations.

Enterprise Manager Grid Control also shows the time when security policy rules were last evaluated, and shows the roll up of individual policy compliance scores for that target.

Managing Service Levels

Enterprise Manager Grid Control allows you to create infrastructure services for middleware targets such as Oracle BPEL Process Manager targets, Oracle Service Bus targets and Oracle SOA Composite and SOA Infrastructure instances.

An infrastructure service is a dependency service that is created to identify the infrastructure components on which the middleware target depends. Here, the infrastructure components refer to hosts, databases, application servers, and so on that work together to host the middleware target.

You can either create an infrastructure service with a new system or an existing system, or simply refresh an existing infrastructure service, if there is already one existing. By creating infrastructure services and systems, you can better manage your middleware targets and also the components on which the middleware targets depend.

Figure 9-9 Creating Infrastructure Service for SOA Infrastructure

Creating Infrastructure Service for SOA Infra

For example, once you create an infrastructure service for an Oracle SOA Infrastructure target, Grid Control allows you to create an aggregate service for every process within that SOA Infrastructure target. An aggregate service is a logical grouping of services, in this case, infrastructure services and availability services. Aggregate Services give you a bird's-eye view of the services that have been created for the SOA Infrastructure target and helps you monitor their availability, performance, and usage. Service availability can be composed of both metrics on the underlying target and service test results from period synthetic transaction execution.

You can define service level (measure of service quality) for a service. A service level is defined as the percentage of time during business hours a service meets specified availability, performance and business criteria.

A Service Level specifies the percentage of time a service meets the performance and availability criteria as defined in the Service Level Rule. By default, a service is expected to meet the specified criteria 85% of the time during defined business hours. You may raise or lower this percentage level according to service expectations. A service level measures service quality using two parameters: Expected and Actual Service Levels.

Automating Operations

The following topics are described in this section:

Job System

You can use Enterprise Manager Grid Control job system to schedule tasks you want to automate. You can schedule a job for a target by selecting the Control menu option on the Home page. For example, for an Oracle WebLogic Server Domain, you can create a job to automatically start, stop, or restart the servers in the domain.

You can view details about the jobs that are scheduled, running, suspended, or the ones that have a problem. You can also use jobs to automate the execution of the WLST (WebLogic Scripting Tool) scripts.

Log File Rotation

Oracle Application Server components generate log files containing messages that record all types of events, including startup and shutdown information, errors, warning messages, access information on HTTP requests, and additional information.

However, the information recorded in log files is voluminous, thus making it difficult to track what update was made at what time. Also because of the huge quantity of information updated periodically, the log files grow in size and occupy more space on the system over a period of time. The only way to manage these log files is to manually archive the contents to another file and store them in a different location.

Considering these impediments, Enterprise Manager Grid Control has been enhanced with a log rotation feature that helps you manage the logs of Oracle Application Server components more effectively. In particular, you can use Enterprise Manager Grid Control to:

  • Schedule a job that automatically rotates a log at the scheduled date and time

  • Manage space on your system by storing the rotated log files in a different directory

Enterprise Manager Grid Control allows you to view the logs of a particular Oracle Application Server component type and select the ones that need to be rotated. Note that a log rotation job can also be part of a multi-task job.

When a log rotation job is executed, Enterprise Manager Grid Control automatically stops the component whose logs have to be rotated. After it is stopped, the content from its existing log file is moved to another file that is distinguished with the timestamp when it was actually rotated. The original log file is kept empty for new log details to be populated. Once this is done, Enterprise Manager Grid Control restarts the component.

Note:

The log rotation feature cannot be used with the WebLogic Server.

Operations Automation

Rather than spend resources on manually installing and configuring Oracle Fusion Middleware software, administrators would rather spend time and money on more strategic initiatives. To help achieve this, Enterprise Manager Grid Control has automated common provisioning operations such as cloning Oracle SOA Suite 11g and scaling out an Oracle WebLogic Domain. Making such critical datacenter operations easy, efficient and scalable results in lower operational risk and lower cost of ownership. To access these provisioning operations, navigate to the Deployments page in Enteprise Manager Grid Control and click Deployment Procedure and select either of the following:8

  • Fusion Middleware Provisioning

  • Fusion Middleware Domain Scale Up

For more details on using these procedures, see Enterprise Manager Online Help.

Cloning from Test to Production Environments

Typically, creating a new environment to support SOA applications entails several manual, error prone installation and configuration steps. With Oracle Enterprise Manager this can be accomplished with very little effort and time via a predefined, customizable deployment procedure. This deployment procedure clones an existing SOA Suite environment to a new set of hardware per a hierarchical series of steps. These predefined steps can be edited or disabled and new steps or custom scripts can be added to the deployment procedure to satisfy unique business needs. The deployment procedure also supports secure host authentication using super user do (sudo) or pluggable authentication modules (PAM). While running the deployment procedure, administrators can specify configuration settings such as the domain name, credentials for the administration console, port values, and JDBC data resources. After the procedure completes, the newly created SOA environment is discovered and automatically added to the console for centralized management and monitoring.

Scaling Out Domains

To address growing business demands, modern data centers must augment and relocate resources quickly. Using Oracle Enterprise Manager, administrators can rapidly scale out a WebLogic Domain and Cluster with additional managed servers to accommodate an increase in application load.

See Also:

"Cloning" and "Patching" in Chapter 12, "Lifecycle Management"