The following operating system group and user are required for all installation types:
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle software on the system. The default name chosen for this group is
oinstall. This group owns the Oracle inventory that is a catalog of all Oracle software installed on the system.
Note:If Oracle software is already installed on the system, then the existing Oracle Inventory group must be the primary group of the operating system user that you use to install other Oracle software.
You must create this user the first time you install Oracle software on the system. This user owns all of the software installed during the installation. This user must have the Oracle Inventory group as its primary group.
Note:In Oracle documentation, this user is referred to as the
A single Oracle Inventory group is required for all installations of Oracle software on the system. After the first installation of Oracle software, you must use the same Oracle Inventory group for all subsequent Oracle software installations on that system. However, you can choose to create different Oracle software owner users, OSDBA groups, and OSOPER groups (other than
oper) for separate installations. By using different groups for different installations, members of these different groups have DBA privileges only on the associated databases rather than on all databases on the system.
The following sections describe how to create the required operating system users and groups:
Note:As an alternative to creating local users and groups, you can create the appropriate users and groups in a directory service, for example, Network Information Services (NIS). For information about using directory services, contact your system administrator or refer to your operating system documentation.
You must create the Oracle Inventory group if it does not already exist. The following subsections describe how to determine the Oracle Inventory group name, if it exists, and how to create it if necessary.
When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, the
oraInst.loc file is created. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group and the path to the Oracle Inventory directory.
# more /etc/oraInst.loc
If the output of this command shows the
oinstall group name, then the group already exists.
oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command looks like:
inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group,
You must create an OSDBA group in the following cases:
An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if you do not have Oracle Database already installed on the system.
An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database administrative privileges in a new Oracle installation.
# /usr/sbin/groupadd dba
Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. If you want to use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:
If an OSOPER group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system
If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
# /usr/sbin/groupadd oper
You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:
If an Oracle software owner user does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle software on the system
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation
To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named
oracle exists, run the following command:
# id oracle
oracle user exists, then the output from this command looks like this:
uid=440(oracle) gid=200(oinstall) groups=201(dba),202(oper)
If the user exists, then determine whether you want to use the existing user or create another
To use the existing user, ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups.
To modify an existing user, refer to the Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User.
To create a user, refer to Creating an Oracle Software Owner User.
Note:If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.
If the Oracle software owner user does not exist or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then follow these steps to create one. In the following procedure, use the user name
oracle unless a user with that name already exists.
# /usr/sbin/useradd -g oinstall -G dba[,oper] oracle
In this command:
-g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group, for example
-G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA group and if required, the OSOPER group. For example,
# passwd oracle
Note:Oracle recommends you to use the same uid across all the OMSes, especially when you use shared file system loader and Oracle Software Library. If the uids are different, then the files created by one OMS cannot be modified by another OMS.
oracle user exists, but its primary group is not
oinstall or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSOPER groups, then enter a command similar to the following to modify it. Specify the primary group using the
-g option and any required secondary group using the
# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba[,oper] oracle
Before installing the software, follow these steps to verify that the
nobody user exists on the system: