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Oracle® XML DB Developer's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

E23094-04
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33 Using Native Oracle XML DB Web Services

This chapter contains these topics:

Overview of Native Oracle XML DB Web Services

Web services provide a standard way for applications to exchange information over the Internet and access services that implement business logic. Your applications can access Oracle Database using native Oracle XML DB Web services. One available service lets you issue SQL and XQuery queries and receive results as XML data. Another service provides access to all PL/SQL stored functions and procedures.

You can customize the input and output document formats when you use the latter service. If you do that then the WSDL is automatically generated by the native database Web services engine.

SOAP 1.1 is the version supported by Oracle XML DB. Applications use HTTP method POST to submit SOAP requests to native Oracle XML DB Web services. You can configure the locations of all native Oracle XML DB Web services and WSDL documents using the Oracle XML DB configuration file, xdbconfig.xml. You can also configure security settings for the Web services using the same configuration file.

You can use the Accept-Charsets field of the input HTTP header to specify the character set of Web-service responses. If this header field is omitted, then responses are in the database character set. The language of the input document and any error responses is the locale language of the database.

Error handling for native Oracle XML DB Web services uses the SOAP framework for faults.

See Also:

Configuring and Enabling Web Services for Oracle XML DB

For security reasons, Oracle XML DB is not preconfigured with the native Web services enabled. To make native Oracle XML DB Web services available, you must have the Oracle XML DB HTTP server up and running, and you must explicitly add Web service configuration. Then, to allow specific users to use Web services, you must grant them appropriate roles.

  1. Configure Web services – see "Configuring Web Services for Oracle XML DB".

  2. Enable Web services for specific users, by granting them appropriate roles – "Enabling Web Services for Specific Users".

See Also:

"Using HTTP(S) and Oracle XML DB Protocol Server" for information about Oracle XML DB HTTP server

Configuring Web Services for Oracle XML DB

To make Web services available for Oracle XML DB, log on as user SYS and add the servlet configuration that is shown as the query output of Example 33-2 to your Oracle XML DB configuration file, xdbconfig.xml.

Example 33-1 shows how to use procedures in PL/SQL package DBMS_XDB to add the servlet. Example 33-2 shows how to verify that the servlet was added correctly.

Example 33-1 Adding a Web Services Configuration Servlet

DECLARE
  SERVLET_NAME VARCHAR2(32) := 'orawsv';
BEGIN
  DBMS_XDB.deleteServletMapping(SERVLET_NAME);
  DBMS_XDB.deleteServlet(SERVLET_NAME);
  DBMS_XDB.addServlet(NAME     => SERVLET_NAME,
                      LANGUAGE => 'C',
                      DISPNAME => 'Oracle Query Web Service',
                      DESCRIPT => 'Servlet for issuing queries as a Web Service',
                      SCHEMA   => 'XDB');
  DBMS_XDB.addServletSecRole(SERVNAME => SERVLET_NAME,
                             ROLENAME => 'XDB_WEBSERVICES',
                             ROLELINK => 'XDB_WEBSERVICES');
  DBMS_XDB.addServletMapping(PATTERN => '/orawsv/*',
                             NAME    => SERVLET_NAME);
END;
/

Example 33-2 Verifying Addition of Web Services Configuration Servlet

XQUERY declare default element namespace "http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb/xdbconfig.xsd"; (: :)
       (: This path is split over two lines for documentation purposes only.
          The path should actually be a single long line. :)
       for $doc in fn:doc("/xdbconfig.xml")/xdbconfig/sysconfig/protocolconfig/httpconfig/
        webappconfig/servletconfig/servlet-list/servlet[servlet-name='orawsv']
       return $doc
/
 
Result Sequence
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
<servlet xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb/xdbconfig.xsd">
  <servlet-name>orawsv</servlet-name>
  <servlet-language>C</servlet-language>
  <display-name>Oracle Query Web Service</display-name>
  <description>Servlet for issuing queries as a Web Service</description>
  <servlet-schema>XDB</servlet-schema>
  <security-role-ref>
    <description/>
    <role-name>XDB_WEBSERVICES</role-name>
    <role-link>XDB_WEBSERVICES</role-link>
  </security-role-ref>
</servlet>
 
1 item(s) selected.

See Also:

"Configuring Oracle XML DB using xdbconfig.xml" for more information about configuring Oracle XML DB with xdbconfig.xml

Enabling Web Services for Specific Users

To enable Web services for a specific user, log on as user SYS and grant the role XDB_WEBSERVICES to the user. This role enables Web services over HTTPS. This role is required to be able to use Web services.

User SYS can, in addition, grant one or both of the following roles to the user:

  • XDB_WEBSERVICES_OVER_HTTP – Enable use of Web services over HTTP (not just HTTPS).

  • XDB_WEBSERVICES_WITH_PUBLIC – Enable access, using Web services, to database objects that are accessible to PUBLIC.

If a user is not granted XDB_WEBSERVICES_WITH_PUBLIC, then the user has access, using Web services, to all database objects (regardless of owner) that would normally be available to the user, except for PUBLIC objects. To make PUBLIC objects accessible to a user through Web services, SYS must grant role XDB_WEBSERVICES_WITH_PUBLIC to the user. With this role, a user can access any PUBLIC objects that would normally be available to the user if logged on to the database.

Querying Oracle XML DB using a Web Service

The Oracle XML DB Web service for database queries is located at URL http://host:port/orawsv, where host and port are the host and HTTP(S) port properties of your database. This Web service has a WSDL document associated with it that specifies the formats of the incoming and outgoing documents using XML Schema. This WSDL document is located at URL http://host:port/orawsv?wsdl.

Your application sends database queries to the Web service as XML documents that conform to the XML schema listed in Example 33-3.

Example 33-3 XML Schema for Database Queries To Be Processed by Web Service

<schema xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
        xmlns:xdb="http://xmlns.oracle.com/xdb"
        targetNamespace="http://xmlns.oracle.com/orawsv">
  <element name="query">
    <complexType>
      <sequence>
        <element name="query_text">
          <complexType>
            <simpleContent>
              <extension base="string">
                <attribute name="type">
                  <simpleType>
                    <restriction base="NMTOKEN">
                      <enumeration value="SQL"/>
                      <enumeration value="XQUERY"/>
                    </restriction>
                  </simpleType>
                </attribute>
              </extension>
            </simpleContent>
          </complexType>
        </element>
        <choice maxOccurs="unbounded">
          <element name="bind">
            <complexType>
              <simpleContent>
                <extension base="string">
                  <attribute name="name" type="string"/>
                </extension>
              </simpleContent>
            </complexType>
          </element>
          <element name="bindXML" type="any"/>
        </choice>
        <element name="null_handling" minOccurs="0">
          <simpleType>
            <restriction base="NMTOKEN">
              <enumeration value="DROP_NULLS"/>
              <enumeration value="NULL_ATTR"/>
              <enumeration value="EMPTY_TAG"/>
            </restriction>
          </simpleType>
        </element>
        <element name="max_rows" type="positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="skip_rows" type="positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="pretty_print" type="boolean" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="indentation_width" type="positiveInteger" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="rowset_tag" type="string" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="row_tag" type="string" minOccurs="0"/>
        <element name="item_tags_for_coll" type="boolean" minOccurs="0"/>
      </sequence>
    </complexType>
  </element>
</schema>

This XML schema is contained in the WSDL document. The important parts of incoming query documents are as follows:

  • query_text – The text of your query. Attribute type specifies the type of your query: either SQL or XQUERY.

  • bind – A scalar bind-variable value. Attribute name names the variable.

  • bindXML – An XMLType bind-variable value.

  • null_handling – How NULL values returned by the query are to be treated:

    • DROP_NULLS – Put nothing in the output (no element). This is the default behavior.

    • NULL_ATTR – Use an empty element for NULL-value output. Use attribute xsi:nil = "true" in the element.

    • EMPTY_TAG – Use an empty element for NULL-value output, without a nil attribute.

  • max_rows – The maximum number of rows to output for the query. By default, all rows are returned.

  • skip_rows – The number of query output rows to skip, before including rows in the data returned in the SOAP message. You can use this in connection with max_rows to provide paginated output. The default value is zero (0).

  • pretty_printWhether the output document should be formatted for pretty-printing. The default value is true, meaning that the document is pretty-printed. When the value is false, no pretty-printing is done, and output rows are not broken with newline characters.

  • indentation_width – The number of characters to indent nested elements that start a new line. The default value is one (1).

  • rowset_tag – Name of the root element of the output document.

  • row_tag – Name of the element whose value is a single row of query output.

  • item_tags_for_coll – Whether to generate collection elements with name collection_name_item, where collection_name is the name of the collection.

These elements have the same meanings as corresponding parameters of procedures in PL/SQL package DBMS_XMLGEN.

Example 33-4 and Example 33-5 show the input and output of a simple SQL query.

Example 33-4 Input XML Document for SQL Query using Query Web Service

<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<env:Envelope xmlns:env="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/soap-envelope ">
  <env:Body>
    <query xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/orawsv">
      <query_text type="SQL">
        <![CDATA[SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary = :e]]>
      </query_text>
      <bind name="e">8300</bind>
      <pretty_print>false</pretty_print>
    </query>
  </env:Body>
</env:Envelope>

In Example 33-4, the query text is enclosed in <![CDATA[...]]>. Although not strictly necessary in this example, it is appropriate to do this generally, because queries often contain characters such as < and >. Element bind is used to bind a value (8300) to the bind variable named e. Element pretty_print turns off pretty-printing of the output.

Example 33-5 Output XML Document for SQL Query using Query Web Service

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/soap-envelope">
<soap:Body>
<ROWSET><ROW><EMPLOYEE_ID>206</EMPLOYEE_ID><FIRST_NAME>William</FIRST_NAME><LAST_NAME>G
ietz</LAST_NAME><EMAIL>WGIETZ</EMAIL><PHONE_NUMBER>515.123.8181</PHONE_NUMBER><HIRE_DATE>07-JUN-
94</HIRE_DATE><JOB_ID>AC_ACCOUNT</JOB_ID><SALARY>8300</SALARY><MANAGER_ID>205</MANAGER_ID
><DEPARTMENT_ID>110</DEPARTMENT_ID></ROW></ROWSET>
</soap:Body>
</soap:Envelope>

Accessing PL/SQL Stored Procedures using a Web Service

The Oracle XML DB Web service for accessing PL/SQL stored functions and procedures is located at URL http://host:port/orawsv/dbschema/package/fn_or_proc or, for a function or procedure that is not in a package (standalone), http://host:port/orawsv/dbschema/fn_or_proc. Here, host and port are the host and HTTP(S) port properties of your database, fn_or_proc is the stored function or procedure name, package is the package it is in, and dbschema is the database schema owning that package.

The input XML document must contain the inputs needed by the function or procedure. The output XML document contains the return value and the values of all OUT variables.

The names of the XML elements in the input and output documents correspond to the variable names of the function or procedure. The generated WSDL document shows you the exact XML element names. This is the naming convention used:

  • The XML element introducing the input to a PL/SQL function is named function-nameInput, where function-name is the name of the function (uppercase).

  • The XML elements introducing input parameters for the function are named param-name-param-type-io-mode, where param-name is the name of the parameter (uppercase), param-type is its SQL data type, and io-mode is its input-output mode, as follows:

    • ININ mode

    • OUTOUT mode

    • INOUTIN OUT mode

  • The XML element introducing the output from a PL/SQL function is named Sreturn-type-function-nameOutput, where return-type is the SQL data type of the return value (uppercase), and function-name is the name of the function (uppercase).

  • The XML elements introducing output parameters for the function are named the same as the output parameters themselves (uppercase). The element introducing the return value is named RETURN.

The return value of a function is in the RETURN element of the output document, which is always the first element in the document. This return-value position disambiguates it from any OUT parameter that might be named "RETURN".

Each stored function or procedure is associated with a separate, dynamic Web service that has its own, generated WSDL document. This WSDL document is located at URL http://host:port/orawsv/dbschema/package/fn_or_proc?wsdl or http://host:port/orawsv/dbschema/fn_or_proc?wsdl. In addition, you can optionally generate a single WSDL document to be used for all stored functions and procedures in a given package. The URL for that WSDL document is http://host:port/orawsv/dbschema/package?wsdl.

Data types in the incoming and outgoing XML documents are mapped to SQL data types for use by the stored function or procedure, according to Table 33-1.

Table 33-1 Web Service Mapping Between XML and SQL Data Types

SQL Data Type XML Schema Data Type

CHAR, VARCHAR2, VARCHAR

xsd:string

DATE – Dates must be in the database format.

xsd:date

TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE, TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIMEZONE

xsd:dateTime

INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH, INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND

xsd:duration

NUMBER, BINARY_DOUBLE, BINARY_FLOAT

xsd:double

PL/SQL BOOLEAN

xsd:boolean

Object types

complexType


An object type is represented in XML as a complex-type element named the same as the object type. The object attributes are represented as children of this element.

Example of Using a PL/SQL Function with a Web Service

This section presents a simple PL/SQL function and its access using a Web service. The function takes as input a department ID and name, and it returns the salary total of all employees in the department. It also returns, as in-out and output parameters, respectively, the department name and the number of employees in the department. The default value of the department ID is 20. In this simple example, the input value of the in-out parameter dept_name is not actually used. It is ignored, and the correct name is returned.

Example 33-6 shows the function definition. Example 33-7 shows the WSDL document that is created automatically from this function definition. Example 33-8 shows an input document that invokes the stored function. Example 33-9 shows the resulting output document.

Example 33-6 Definition of PL/SQL Function Used for Web-Service Access

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE salary_calculator AUTHID CURRENT_USER AS
  FUNCTION TotalDepartmentSalary (dept_id    IN     NUMBER DEFAULT 20,
                                  dept_name  IN OUT VARCHAR2,
                                  nummembers OUT    NUMBER)
    RETURN NUMBER;
END salary_calculator;
/
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY salary_calculator AS
  FUNCTION TotalDepartmentSalary (dept_id    IN     NUMBER DEFAULT 20,
                                  dept_name  IN OUT VARCHAR2,
                                  nummembers OUT    NUMBER)
    RETURN NUMBER IS
      sum_sal NUMBER;
      BEGIN
        SELECT SUM(salary) INTO sum_sal FROM employees
          WHERE department_id = dept_id;
        SELECT department_name INTO dept_name FROM departments
          WHERE department_name = dept_name;
        SELECT count(*) INTO nummembers FROM employees
          WHERE department_id = dept_id;
    RETURN sum_sal;
  END;
END;         
/

Example 33-7 WSDL Document Corresponding to a Stored PL/SQL Function

<definitions name="SALARY_CALCULATOR"
             targetNamespace="http://xmlns.oracle.com/orawsv/HR/SALARY_CALCULATOR"
             xmlns="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/"
             xmlns:tns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/orawsv/HR/SALARY_CALCULATOR"
             xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
             xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/">
  <types>
    <xsd:schema targetNamespace="http://xmlns.oracle.com/orawsv/HR/SALARY_CALCULATOR"
                elementFormDefault="qualified">
      <xsd:element name="SNUMBER-TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYInput">
        <xsd:complexType>
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element name="NUMMEMBERS-NUMBER-OUT">
              <xsd:complexType/>
            </xsd:element>
            <xsd:element name="DEPT_NAME-VARCHAR2-INOUT" type="xsd:string"/>
            <xsd:element name="DEPT_ID-NUMBER-IN" type="xsd:double"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
        </xsd:complexType>
      </xsd:element>
      <xsd:element name="TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYOutput">
        <xsd:complexType>
          <xsd:sequence>
            <xsd:element name="RETURN" type="xsd:double"/>
            <xsd:element name="NUMMEMBERS" type="xsd:double"/>
            <xsd:element name="DEPT_NAME" type="xsd:string"/>
          </xsd:sequence>
        </xsd:complexType>
      </xsd:element>
    </xsd:schema>
  </types>
  <message name="TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYInputMessage">
    <part name="parameters" element="tns:SNUMBER-TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYInput"/>
  </message>
  <message name="TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYOutputMessage">
    <part name="parameters" element="tns:TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYOutput"/>
  </message>
  <portType name="SALARY_CALCULATORPortType">
    <operation name="TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARY">
      <input message="tns:TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYInputMessage"/>
      <output message="tns:TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYOutputMessage"/>
    </operation>
  </portType>
 <binding name="SALARY_CALCULATORBinding" type="tns:SALARY_CALCULATORPortType">
    <soap:binding style="document" transport="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http"/>
    <operation name="TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARY">
      <soap:operation soapAction="TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARY"/>
      <input>
        <soap:body parts="parameters" use="literal"/>
      </input>
      <output>
        <soap:body parts="parameters" use="literal"/>
      </output>
    </operation>
  </binding>
  <service name="SALARY_CALCULATORService">
    <documentation>Oracle Web Service</documentation>
    <port name="SALARY_CALCULATORPort" binding="tns:SALARY_CALCULATORBinding">
      <soap:address location="httpS://example:8088/orawsv/HR/SALARY_CALCULATOR"/>
     </port>
  </service>
</definitions>

Example 33-8 Input XML Document for PL/SQL Query using Web Service

<?xml version="1.0" ?><soap:Envelope 
xmlns:soap="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/soap-envelope"><soap:Body><SNUMBER-
TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYinput 
xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/orawsv/HR/SALARY_CALCULATOR/TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARY">
<DEPT_ID-NUMBER-IN>30</DEPT_ID-NUMBER-IN><DEPT_NAME-VARCHAR2-INOUT>Purchasing
</DEPT_NAME-VARCHAR2-INOUT><NUMMEMBERS-NUMBER-OUT/></SNUMBER-
TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYinput></soap:Body></soap:Envelope>

Example 33-9 Output XML Document for PL/SQL Query using Web Service

<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/soap-envelope">
  <soap:Body>
    <TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYOutput 
       xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/orawsv/HR/SALARY_CALCULATOR/TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARY">
      <RETURN>24900</RETURN>
      <NUMMEMBERS>6</NUMMEMBERS>
      <DEPT_NAME>Purchasing</DEPT_NAME>
    </TOTALDEPARTMENTSALARYOutput>
  </soap:Body>
</soap:Envelope>